Water Quality Impacts Ionizer Performance

How Water Quality Impacts water Ionizer Performance

 

Water quality will play a significant role in how your water ionizer – in fact any water ionizer – performs and its longevity. A water ionizer requires mineral content to create those valued ionizations/ alterations in pH, ORP and to also produce molecular hydrogen H2 in water. Minerals are not only required, they are good. Calcium, potassium and magnesium all naturally occur in water and are called the “essential alkalizing minerals” because they are essential to our health.

The minerals in water are conductive. Conductivity allows for the electrical charge that produces the alterations we are seeking in alkaline, ionized water. Minerals provide a certain “vitality” to water.

Water that lacks mineral content, such as water from reverse osmosis or distillation, as no conductivity and is considered by many to be “dead” or denatured water. It is important to note that all water found in nature has some level of dissolved mineral content, so these types of “pure” waters are literally a man-made phenomenon. Our bodies are designed to drink water with minerals, to use calcium for bones and magnesium for the heart etc. and mankind has been doing so since the dawn of time. It is only in the last few decades, that we have been exposed to pure and mineral free water – often in bottles.

The more mineral content your water has, the more easily your water ionizer will alter/ionize the water and the better water ionization performance(pH,OR, H2) it will achieve and conversely. Water with a high level of mineral content is called hard water, while water with a low mineral content is called soft water.

That stated, all AlkaViva water ionizers will produce an ideal range of healthy drinking water, in both hard and soft water areas, unless used in extreme water quality situations. Please contact AlkaViva Technical Support if your water is unusually hard or soft as you will probably need pretreatment (more details below).

Hard Water Explained

 

What is Hard Water?

If you live in a hard water area, perhaps you have noticed mineral deposits on your dishes and hot water kettle, or rings of insoluble soap scum in your bathtub. These are signs of hard water. Hard water is water that contains high levels of scaling calcium, iron or magnesium mineral ions. These minerals do not pose any health threat, unless in very high amounts, but they can engage in reactions that leave deposits or scale that may damage surfaces or appliances.

Hard water mineral deposits or “scaling”, is the precipitation of minerals which form lime scale. Scale can clog pipes and can decrease the life of virtually all appliances in the home, especially those that use hot water. Scale can do the same thing to your water ionizer, decreasing water flow, water ionization performance and longevity of the water ionizer .

Signs of Hard Water

* Difficult to form lather with soap
* White mineral deposits on your glassware
* Soap scum in your bath tub
* White mineral deposits on your shower head
* White mineral deposits in your tea pot, iron, or other electrical appliance that uses water

 

Water Hardness and Water Ionizer Performance

A water ionizer requires mineral content to operate because minerals conduct electrical charge that produces the alterations found in ionized water. Water that has little or no minerals has no pathway for the electrolysis or “ionization” to occur. water Ionizers are designed to perform optimally within a specific range of mineral content in the source water; too many minerals may damage any water ionizer, too few you may experience decreased water ionization performance. With the right range of conductive minerals your water ionizer will easily alter the water and produce expected water ionization performance measurements in H2, pH and ORP.

Hard Water Treatment Solutions

To protect your investment properly, you must first determine the level of hardness in your water. You can use the Hard Water Test Kit that is supplied with every AlkaViva water ionizer, have your water tested, or get test data from your supplier. The following are AlkaViva’s recommended treatment solutions:

Extreme Water Quality Tolerances

AlkaViva does not recommend using a water ionizer without pretreatment of water that has one or more of the following measurements :

  • Hardness (or Calcium Carbonate) over 150 ppm (8.5 grains).
  • Iron over .3ppm.
  • TDS below 40ppm or over 600ppm.
  • Calcium above 50ppm.

Note: some reports will show “ppm” some will show “mg/l” – they are the same. Knowingly operating your water ionizer above these levels may void your warranty and/or decrease your water ionizer’s performance.
In no event shall AlkaViva or its dealers be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental or special consequential damages to property whatsoever, arising from use of its products with improperly treated or untreated hard water.

AlkaViva’s AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program

 

Many water  ionizer companies will sell you an expensive water ionizer and never mention hard water. If you live in an area that has hard water, that is like throwing money down the drain! To properly protect the investment you’ve made in your ionizer, and ensure you get the right pre-treatment at a great price, we are proud to offer our AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program.

AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program offers you two important water quality “insurance” benefits:

  • Hard Water Test Kit. Each AlkaViva water ionizer / H2 Generator includes a highly effective Hard Water Test Kit. The kit includes a simple-to-use hard water test strip which in less than a minute will determine how hard your water is (if at all). The test results fall in ranges of hardness. We include our recommended pre-treatment solution for each range.
  • The Most Complete Range Of Hard Water Solutions. The AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program allows you to purchase the appropriate pre-treatment solution within 30 days of purchasing your water ionizer ]

Other Considerations

 

water Softeners

AlkaViva does not recommend using a water ionizer downstream (or after) a sodium or potassium based ion-exchange water softener. If you have a sodium or potassium ion-exchange water softener, you will need to do one of the following:

  • Bypass the system (if the source water meets the above Water Quality criteria).
  • Change the plumbing connectors and install the water softener on the hot water only.
  • Install a Reverse Osmosis water prefiltration unit and water ionizer Remineralization Cartridge. The Reverse Osmosis will take out the sodium or potassium while the remineralizing cartridge will add healthy minerals back into the water.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) and water Distillers

water ionizers will not work well downstream (or after) a ReverseOsmosys or water distiller. Many homes with an ion-exchange water softening system will have an RO system. These systems remove virtually all the mineral content and leave the water with no conductivity. If you have an RO or distiller, you will need to do one of the following:

  • Bypass the reverse osmosys prefiltration system (if the source water meets the below Water Quality Tolerances).
  • Install an AlkaViva Remineralization Cartridge after the ReverseOsmosys system (an easy solution).

Soft Water Treatment Solution

Soft water is very low in mineral and dissolved solid content which gives water its conductivity. Such water would have a TDS below 40 ppm.

In areas with extremely soft water (or if using a rainwater catchment system), it may not be possible to achieve optimal water ionization performance of your AlkaViva water ionizer. In this situation, an AlkaViva Remineralization Cartridge is recommended. AlkaViva has incorporated a proprietary blend of 70+ organic and inorganic minerals into its Remineralizing Cartridge.

Well Water

The quality of well water can vary greatly and pose some health risks if not tested and mitigated. Well water needs to be tested before using with a water ionizer. Most wells are perfectly suitable for water ionizer operation; you just don’t want to be on the wrong side of that equation unwittingly.

The use of well water poses a number of questions when considering use of a water ionizer. In addition to measurements of water quality for water ionization performance and durability /longevity, health safety related issues are also important considerations when using well water.

Recommendation: Many states require a well water test report in the closing documents of a home sale. Many local governmental Health Agencies offer free testing of well water. We recommend contacting them first. AlkaViva offers at a discounted price a Professional Water Test done in a certified laboratory. More details here.

Important Notes:

  • Please contact AlkaViva if your water falls into any one of the above categories. If your situation requires additional technical assistance, AlkaViva Technical Support will work with you to find a happy solution. If your water is within 10% of two or more of the Extreme Hardness categories, you could possibly experience performance issues with your water ionizer. You may require pretreatment. Please contact Technical Support for guidance.
  • If you are uncertain of the water quality in your area, please contact your local water supplier and request the specific Water Quality information above. The appropriate phone number will be on your water bill. If using well water, contact your county or state health department to inquire about water testing services.

more reasons to chose AlkaViva

AlkaViva world leaders water ionizers
AlkaViva world leaders water ionizers 5
 

We don’t just say we are the #1 water ionizer company. We prove it!

 

We have sold many top brands water ionizers(Kangen Enagic, Toyo, AlkaBlue, Nexus, KYK, Tyent, Life Ionizer EmcoTEch, BionTech) and think all the top water ionizer models(no matter the brand) make good alteration to water. The similarity ends there. The differences are in water filtration power, technology , sophistication & design(i.e.:SMART electrodes & DARC II electrode cleaning systems,AutoAdjust optimal performance with low power ), manufacturing quality and durability. Our unique focus is on the importance of clean water. AlkaViva’s UltraWater filter performance (and testing ) is unique .

We are the only company who represents two top manufacturers offering water ionizer models that fill different niches. We offer you the best of the best – in water filtration, water ionizer performance, electrodeselectrode cleaning system & durability and customer experience. That is choice. That is smart.

EMCOTECH -1st AlkaViva manufacturer

https://royalwater.en.ec21.com/company_info.html

  • – established in  1970
  • – Total employees  501 – 1000
  • – annual income of over  100 million USD

http://www.royalwater.com/ 

EmcoTech is sold in over 60 countries, the most popular and best-selling brand water ionizers in the world.

 

BionTech – 2nd  AlkaViva manufacturer 

https://biontech.en.ec21.com/company_info.html

icon FOUNDED   1986
icon EMPLOYEES   101-500
icon ANNUAL INCOME   USD 10.000.000-50.000.000

EXPORTS in over 25 countries, shares 50% of Korean market

please search and compare AlkaViva’s manufacturers with other manufacturers, for example Tyent

https://tyent.en.ec21.com/

  • – established in  1995
  • – Total employees  51-100
  • – Annual revenue  USD 5.000.000-10.000.000

OR CHANSON (TAIWAN) https://cswater.en.ec21.com/company_info.html…

Try searching data about KANGEN or others … I think the numbers speak for themselves

 

A water  ionizer is a serious investment, so who you buy from is important. AlkaViva is the oldest direct importer in the USA. Between our two founding partners you get over 30 years of USA-specific water ionizer industry expertise. Virtually all our USA competitors started with us as dealers including Life IonizersTM, Tyent, Echo and Chanson.We have helped develop and launch major new water ionization technology that have been emulated by many others, such as MESH electrodes/plates and MARC/DARC improved electrode cleaning systems. We have been instrumental in launching and supplying water ionization components for commercial applications. Most notably, we supply Tennant Company, water cells for their Ec-H2O floor cleaning product line. Ec-H2O was the first commercially successful application of water ionization technology and has won numerous international awards.

Together, our OEM partners offer 69 years of water ionizer manufacturing. They both hold ISO 9001 and 14001 certifications, own patents too numerous to list, and have won many awards for their business practices and products. Both are firmly rooted in ongoing research and development and in quality management practices.

You can trust that our history, experience, knowledge and partnerships allow us to source top performing products from the best manufacturers in the world. Manufacturers that carry the best certifications and the latest cutting edge technology in water ionizers- ensuring you will make the best purchase.

Here is a sampling of industry-first innovations AlkaViva has brought to market:

Electrode Technology Advancements:

  • AlkaViva was the first company to launch MESH electrodes.
  • Robotically sprayed platinum coating technique that results in precise and highly uniform electrode surface.
  • Introduced the new Smart Electrodes which deliver the highest efficiency and performance in producing ORP and H2 alteration.
  • The only company to offer proprietary membrane technology.
  • introduced next Gen SMPS & AutoAdjust to optimally power the electrodes according to (changes in ) your input water

Electrode Cleaning System Advancements:

 

Water Filtration Advancements:

Independent Testing:

Other reasons to choose AlkaViva:

 

water ionizer performance

Water Ionizer Performance

What you need to know about water ionizers performance…

water ionizer performance is NOT absolute. It depends on three important variables: water quality, the power applied at each setting and water flow rate. In addition to these three variables, performance year-in and year-out is important and depends on how well a water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system works to keep the electrodes and membranes clean. Beware of any company or sales person who tells you “our water ionizer will do “X”. It is simply not true. What is true is that when you understand the variables, and water ionizer cleaning systems, you can make an informed choice. Learn how our AutoAdjust technology helps overcome the three variables and why DARC II cleaning keeps water ionization performance optimal over time. Be smart.

Truth: over the years, the alkaline water ionizer industry has run rife with undocumented water ionization performance claims around pH and ORP and now molecular hydrogen (H2).

Truth: many people who sell alkaline water ionizers state performance absolutes, as in our water ionizer will do “X”.

Truth: you can cut through all this. Below are four things you need to know about water ionizer’s performance metrics in ANY electric water ionizer.

Your Source Water Matters.

This first point cannot be emphasized enough. water ionization performance levels are significantly impacted by source water – whether you are talking about H2, pH and/or ORP. Any water ionizer running on hard water, or water with elevated levels of minerals or high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), will always perform better. The harder or more mineralized the water, the better the top-end water ionization performance. Conversely, the exact same water ionizer on soft water with low mineral content will always perform lower than it can in hard water.

Comparisons are only legitimate if done using the exact same source water. Beware of importers in hard water areas who over-state performance. For example, Life Ionizers™ is located in Carlsbad, California. They have extreme TDS – over 600ppm1. To contrast, our TDS in Reno is 10% of that at between 60 – 70 ppm. Any credible water ionizer company will state a range of water ionization performance. Not absolutes.

Your water Ionizer’s Flow Rate Matters.

The second important point is that a water ionizer’s flow rate will affect water ionization performance. All things being equal, slower water flow rate will produce more water ionization performance as water will stay longer in contact with the electrodes. Some manufacturers intentionally produce water ionizers with slower flow rates to compensate for less efficient electrodes. Slowing the flow will also typically raise pH, and high pH water doesn’t taste good to most people. The vast majority of alkaline ionized water drinkers settle on lower pH ranges for regular drinking.

Electrode Power Matters.

water Ionizers offer selectable alkaline levels – typically four – that you choose with a push of a button. Each time you choose a higher level, more power is sent to the electrodes and incrementally more water ionization performance is achieved. water Ionizers that advertise high power (some go as high as 800 watts!) are ironically only advertising that they have inefficient electrodes and membrane systems. An incredibly important and often overlooked point is that water ionizers that utilize higher power will experience higher electrode heat. When electrodes get hot, the platinum plating deteriorates. Compromised plating delivers less water ionization performance over time. Many water ionizers tout higher power as the solution to water ionization performance. In the long run, it isn’t.

AutoAdjust in AlkaViva water ionizers detects the hardness of filtered water and dynamically adjusts/sets power applied on electrodes to what is required.

Electrode Cleaning is King.

The effectiveness of a water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system affects water ionization performance over time. This is also an overlooked point. You can have the perfectly mineralized water, the greatest electrodes, proper water flow rate and power, but if your water ionizer can’t eliminate scale, its water ionization performance will drop. Quickly, if you have very hard water. We have tested scaled up water ionizers that do not produce any alteration in the water. To achieve optimal water ionization performance the electrodes must be kept clean – over time. How effectively an water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system works is critical. Don’t be misled by gimmicky marketing names for electrode cleaning systems – it all boils down to the acid to alkaline cleaning ratio. When shopping, ask what the cleaning ratio is and how the system achieves that. If you do not get a lucid answer, run. Fast.

The Ultimate Solution.

While we can’t control source water, we do offer you the most advanced and effective solutions to all the other variables.

Convenience. You want a water flow rate that is fast enough, but not too fast. Super-fast flow rates will not only lower water ionization performance but they will significantly compromise water filtration. Water filters work on contact time. The faster water flow, the less contact time, especially in GAC and vitamin C water filters. The AlkaViva  H2 water ionizer Series runs at 3 lpm which is the ideal balance between great water ionization performance and great water  filtration.

Superior water Filtration. USA made UltraWater filters are the only water ionizer filters that have been independently tested against 172 contaminants and shown to reduce virtually all of them to 99.9%. Even the toughest. There is no better water filter available – because AlkaViva believes that healthy water should start by being clean.

molecular hydrogen H2 Infusion Technology. We employ the highly advanced Smart Electrode design and manufacturing. Next, we match the Smart Electrodes with our own proprietary membrane technology that is optimized to produce optimal molecular hydrogen H2 and ORP -water ionization performance.

Superior electrode cleaning means lasting water ionization & durable performance. AlkaViva H2 Series water ionizers employ our newly improved DARC II Cleaning System which previously (as DARC) was for 9 years the best cleaning system in the industry. DARC II offers the most effective 1:1 cleaning ratio using a constantly reversing polarity system controlled by a non-scaling ceramic valve.

Efficiency. AlkaViva H2 water ionizers employs the most sophisticated and advanced power delivery system. The correct current density ensures the longest electrode life and is only possible using more advanced (smaller sized) plates. You get power  efficiency and water ionization performance. While other less advanced water ionizers are required to use maxed out power of up to 800 watts to achieve water ionization performance, AlkaViva H2 water ionizers run 150 watts of peak power ensuring fantastic power density, unmatched water ionization performance and long durable  plate/electrode life. Our power supply also includes Auto Adjust which automatically adjust the background power using pulse width modification technology – optimizing water ionization performance. You get great water ionization/alteration – even at the better tasting and lower pH levels that most people drink.

Independent testing. AlkaViva is the only water ionizer company to have commissioned an EPA-certified, third party, independent laboratory to document the water performance results of different brands and prove our point about efficiency and performance. Bigger just isn’t better. When it comes to technology – including water ionizers – smaller is.

Note on molecular hydrogen H2 Performance: while we understand the basic science of how molecular H2 is produced during electrolysis, it is a new focus in our industry. No one fully understands all the unique nuances of this delicate electro-chemical process. We don’t fully know how certain properties, in addition to hardness and TDS, affect molecular  H2 performance. Apart from TDS and hardness, it is entirely possible that certain water chemistries lend to better performance, and others to less.

That is a lot of information. However, we feel these are all important points for properly informed customers to consider before simply reading – and believing – a company’s declaration that “our water ionizer does X”.

To get optimal benefits, we offer AlkaViva’s DARC II electrode cleaning and our Smart Electrodes that are perfectly powered for maximum efficiency and water ionization performance that lasts. Exactly what you want.

1) http://www.carlsbadca.gov/civicax/filebank/blobdload.aspx?BlobID=25132

 water ionizer electrodes in the water cell

water ionizer electrodes in the water cell

We drink alkaline ionized water for the healthy properties. The electrodes create the water electrolysis /ionization which deliver those benefits. When it comes to water ionizers, understanding electrodes in the water cell is like understanding the importance of your cardiac system to your overall health.

The water cell is the heart of a water ionizer. It consists of a series of electrodes (plates), each separated by a membrane. This page will explain how water ionizers electrode technologies differ and what that means to water ionizer performance and ultimately your health.

There is so much hype and misinformation about water ionizer electrodes or plates. Some say bigger plates are better. Others make you think that more plates are better. Some advertise more power applied on electrodes– like 800 watts – as if we were powering 20-inch sub-woofers. We are ionizing water. The reality is that bigger or more plates or more power means inefficient engineering and lower quality materials and manufacturing. More or bigger DOES NOT mean better water ionization performance. An often overlooked yet incredibly important point is that more power also means more heat, which means the platinum plating breaks down faster on the surface of the water ionizer electrode. This equals poor water ionization performance over time.

There is hype too around water ionizers electrode/plate type. water ionization performance is not about the electrode/ plate type, but rather the sophistication of the engineering and the quality of the materials and manufacturing.
Educate yourself on some basics and you will easily see why our Smart Electrodes offer you the most advanced engineering, along with the best materials and manufacturing. This means more efficient water ionization performance and lasting durability for electrodes/water cell/water ionizer. That is powerful. That is smart.

All things that smart shoppers look for.

Smart Electrodes

Smart Electrodes start with the highest quality materials. We use certified 99.9% pure titanium from Japan and the highest quality platinum.

The electrodes are engineered employing an advanced flat design that offers more effective surface area than slotted or mesh plates of the same size.

Then the electrodes are robotically electro-plated using a proprietary technique. A computer controlled robotic arm is used to apply the platinum, under pressure, multiple times and from different angles that allows the most precise plating application. The resulting plate surface can direct a uniform electron flow and provide the most efficient power saturation.

AlkaViva’s proprietary electroplating process and the resulting Smart Electrodes feature technological advances and enhanced water ionization performance characteristics which allow superior water ionizer performance in the following ways:

  • Superior platinum adhesion
  • Superior conductivity which allows for lower power and higher water ionization efficiency
  • Increased surface area; up to 3x the number of vertices as smooth dipped plates
  • Optimized water flow dynamics over the plate surface due to vertices (increased water ionization performance proven in independent US EPA certified testing)

When you discover more about water ionizer Electrodes, you can easily understand what puts Smart Electrodes in a league of their own.
Get your PhD in electrodes by clicking on each topic below.

Material Composition

Titanium is the base material in every water ionizer electrode/plate, because it has proven safe and effective. It is corrosion resistant, has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal, is very durable, and demonstrates the ability to easily change polarity, which is critically important in the water ionization process. The best water ionizer plates are coated with platinum because it was determined in a 1992 study by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, that platinum is the only entirely safe material to use in water ionizer plating/coating.

Electrode Types

There are three basic types of plates:

  • Flat Plate/electrode: The most common, basic and simple plate design.
  • Mesh Plate/electrode: The most technically advanced configuration; also the most expensive to manufacture.
  • Slotted or “Hybrid” Plate/electrode: A less expensive and less effective version of mesh plate technology.

 

Regardless of what you read, the most critical part of an water ionizer electrode is not the type but rather how the electrodes are engineered, what materials are used and how they are applied or manufactured.

Mesh or Solid electrodes/Plates?

water ionizer electrodes
There are three, distinctly different, types of electrodes / plate designs offered in the market today and each has its own advantages or disadvantages. These are solid plates, slotted or “hybrid” electrodes / plates and mesh electrodes / plates.

These differences have a dramatic effect on power delivery inside of the cell. All three types of plates can deliver the electrical current to the water, but why are AlkaViva electrodes / plates the most efficient? Easy … our highly advanced Smart Electrode Technology!

Traditional Flat electrodes /Plates

A low quality flat plate has no way to organize or channel the current being delivered, meaning it has an inconsistent saturation of electrons. They move across the electrodes / plate finding the path of least resistance, often channeling together and are not effectively or evenly dispersed. This is like watering a garden and having the water run to the low spots and pool there. This results in an inconsistent delivery of power and less efficient / effective water ionization results.

Slotted electrodes /Plates

In contrast to a flat electrodes /plate, with slotted electrodes, there is a clear path for the electrons to travel in more predictable directions – effectively distributing the power in a consistent pattern. When we till our garden into rows and irrigate we are channeling the water to be delivered to the roots where it is needed most. The slotted electrodes /plate is more effective than the traditional flat electrode/ plate. Often has a less effective surface area, depending on the size of the slot.

Mesh electrodes /Plates

A mesh electrode /plate uses the same principle as the slotted plate, but improves upon it by providing cross-channeling to more evenly direct electron flow. The applied current more evenly saturates the plate, increasing the effective delivery of electrical current to create better alteration /ionization in your water. Can have a less effective surface area depending on the design of the mesh electrodes .

Long term research and development findings derived from a 1992 study by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare indicate platinum to be the only entirely safe material for use in water ionizer plating/coating.

Two distinct methods – Plating (dipping) and Coating; are employed to apply the platinum surface to the titanium electrode/ plate:

Plating: Also known as Cladding or Dipping, plating is the process by which a titanium plate is submerged in a platinum solution. This is the most commonly used manufacturing process due to its cost efficiency.

Coating: Also known as Electroplating, coating is a technically advanced process designed to achieve a higher degree of consistency and uniformity.

The two biggest differences between plating and coating are:

  • The amount of titanium crystals produced
  • The surface coverage characteristics

The following examples visually illustrate two distinct platinum application techniques, Plating (dipping) and Coating (Electroplating).

Plating or Dipping

 

Both dust and voids are clearly visible

Plate surface from above:

Black spot represent voids

D company
Dipping method

X 6000 (Cross section):

X 6000 (Cross section)

D/H company
Dipping method

AlkaViva Coating (Electroplating)

Note the distinct vertices (peaks and valleys) and a 3-dimensional crystalline surface, as compared to the inconsistent surface of the dipped electrodes.

Plate surface from above:

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
water ionizer cell plating
AlkaViva plate
(coated platinum)

X 6000 (Cross section):

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
water ionizer plate
AlkaViva plate
(coated platinum)

 

Prevention of Titanium Leaching

AlkaViva is able to totally prevent titanium leaching on the electrodes by two methods:

  • Complete and uniform coverage. Our coating process surpasses all other processes in the water ionization industry to more completely and evenly cover the titanium plates with pure platinum, including all edges and all surfaces.
  • More efficient use of power. This means we can apply less power more efficiently which creates far less heat and stress on the water ionizer electrode/plate during the electrical load phases.

View a certified analytical test result from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Primacy Laboratory for the State of Nevada showing that there is no plate leaching.

 

Optimal water ionization Results Without Additives

AlkaViva employs proprietary technologies which are able to achieve optimal water ionization-alkalizing and acidifying results without the use of (potentially harmful) solutions such as salt enhancers.

It isn’t ALL about Electrodes: Membranes

All water ionizers employ ion-selective membranes to separate the electrodes and enable the water to “ionically separate” the water into an alkaline and acidic stream. The membrane is absolutely critical in how a waterionizer performs. You can have a well-designed electrode/plate, powered optimally but if you have poor membranes, then you have poor water ionization performance.

AlkaViva’s Infusion Membranes are made in-house and are ultrasonically pressed, rather than chemically bonded. This provides you with a distinctly superior electrode membrane, designed to work specifically with our Smart Electrodes, giving you unmatched water ionization performance-pH, -ORP, H2.

usage of more watts and amps , spreading the same input voltage over a larger surface area results in less efficiency. This does not deliver the power evenly or efficiently and must do so with greater resistance.

More power means more heat, which means the platinum plating breaks down faster on the surface of the water ionizer electrode. This equals poor water ionization  performance over time.

So now you can see that in truth, bigger electrode is not better. This is why the electronics industry (and others) has shown that when technology advances, it typically results in smaller, more powerful and devices. Why would water ionizers be any different? The truth is they are not.

Water Ionizer Cleaning Systems: Why DARC II auto cleanse is the best electrode cleanse.

https://youtube.com/watch?v=gUZfIs6QoWY

Water Ionizer Cleaning Systems: Why DARC II auto cleanse is the best electrode cleanse.

We drink alkaline ionized water to enjoy the profound benefits created from the transformation of water through created through electrolysis – or more loosely “water ionization”.

Here is the situation: Water has minerals/electrolits. Minerals build up on the electrodes and membranes and these are the two components in your water ionizer that transform the water. Scale essentially “coats” these components, compromising their ability to transform/ionize the water. This mean a decrease in pH, ORP and H2 -water ionization performance, which in turn, reduces any benefit you receive from the water – precisely what you bought your water ionizer for in the first place.

All water ionizers have cleaning systems for electrodes, but all plate cleaning systems are not created equal. Most water ionizers employ outdated plate cleaning systems that have been around for years without any advancement or technological improvement.

 

ultrawater water ionizer filtersSmart Shopper’s Shortcut 
What you need to know about water ionizer cleaning systems…Before you buy a water ionizer, it is crucial that you understand what type of electrode/plate cleaning cycle it employs. This is one of the most important considerations because it determines how well your water ionizer will perform over the long haul. If you are shopping around, ask about the type of electrode / plate cleaning system and how it works. If all the salesperson can do is quote a gimmicky cleaning system name, but can’t tell you the specific acidic to alkaline ratio in their system, or tell you specifically how it works…run. Fast! Then call us. We’ll tell you precisely how DARC II works and why it is the best  water ionizer cleaning system available.

 

The DARC Advantage.

AlkaViva set a new industry standard in 2006 when it launched the patented Dual Automatic Reverse Cleaning system (USA Patent No. 6,951,225). DARC was, and still is – thanks to the patent protection – revolutionary because it cleans the electrodes in the water cell with every use, eliminating damaging scale buildup. It accomplishes this by reversing polarity each time you use the water ionizer.

The revolutionary DARC cleaning system eliminates mineral scaling on the electrodes – protecting your investment and ensuring years of healthy water from your water ionizer. DARC is highly effective because it works in the background to clean your electrode, each time you use your water ionizer and while you are actually using it. The result is a vastly improved acidic to alkaline cleaning ratio, which is critical to keeping the electrodes cleaner than other systems that offer a 15:1 ratio or a 30:1 ratio. The Kangen Enagic™ SD501 which retails at almost $4000, only cleans using a 30:1 ratio1. The importance of this breakthrough cannot be understated.

Additionally, with the dual solenoid system that directs water flow (actually what is patented and what DARC refers to), you never have to wait while your water ionizer cleans to get your alkaline water – an industry first! AlkaViva’s Jupiter  Athena JS 205 Classic and UltraDelphi IO  400 U water ionizers  employ DARC cleaning for electrodes.

The Best just got Better: the New and Improved DARC II electrodes autoclean system .

AlkaViva once again sets a new industry standard by launching DARC II in its new H2 water ionizer series. Over the 11 years since we released DARC we have learned a few things and consequently saw how it could be substantially improved. DARC II offers you the same highly effective cleaning as the original DARC, and convenience of never waiting, but now gives you increased DURABILITY.

Because the original patented DARC solenoid system is outside the water cell, the solenoids DO NOT benefit from the acidic cleaning. The electronic solenoids in DARC contain a metal actuator that operates on a very tight tolerance. Once it gets even a hint of scale, it becomes susceptible to failure. Over 11 years since we launched DARC this was not an uncommon issue in hard water areas.

We improved DARC II by eliminating the electronic solenoid containing the metal actuators. We eliminated the potential failure of the electronic solenoid and also now employ a mechanical ceramic valve (replacing actuator) that is 100% resistant to any scaling. We did not stop there. Reversing the polarity each time you used the water ionizer did not in reality create the best possible acidic to alkaline ratio – which would be 1:1. Imagine you fill an 8 oz glass, then one liter, then a 16 oz glass, then a gallon and on and on. You don’t come close to a 1:1 ratio – even over the life of the water  ionizer. We now reverse the polarity every 5 liters – which creates a ratio much closer to 1:1, thus improving the effectiveness.

DARC II is the new standard in on-board water ionizer cleaning systems borne of experience and research and development. Another AlkaViva first.

Reverse Polarity Cleaning.

Each electrode in your water ionizer has either a positive or negative polarity. Reverse polarity cleaning is simply when your water ionizer reverses the polarity; positive electrodes become negative and conversely. When an electrode is “bathed” in alkaline water containing scaling minerals, it becomes susceptible to scaling. When the polarity is reversed, the same electrode is now exposed to acidic water which removes the scale.

All water ionizers clean using reverse polarity. However, the cleaning systems differ radically in how they trigger it, the interval at which they perform the electrode cleaning cycle, and most importantly, how effective they are.

Understanding other Cleaning Systems.

Since it is the acidic water which eats away the scale, for optimal efficacy the cleaning cycle must feature a good “acid to alkaline cleaning ratio”. The more acidic water that is run to bath the electrodes the cleaner they remain and the greater their water ionization performance and longevity.

The way a water ionizer is “programmed” to clean the electrodes is crucial in determining the electrode cleaning ratio. The most common systems have been in use many years without improvement:

  • Manual system: you must remember to reverse the polarity and initiate the electrode cleaning cycle yourself.
  • Timer system: cleans at a set-interval, such as every 15 minutes of use. After 15 minutes of run time, the next time you turn the water  ionizer on, the unit starts the cleaning cycle. Most often you must wait while it completes the electrode cleaning cycle.
  • Volume system: Similar to the timer system, but cleans based on a set volume of water (Say for example 10 gallons) passing through the water ionizer. You must also wait.
  • Post cleaning systems: while they clean after each use, the clean cycle is extremely short resulting in a poor acidic to alkaline ratio. They also use a finite amount of water to clean – only the water that is in the water cell (since the cleaning is triggered after the water ionizer is shut down). The better post-use systems drain the cell when the cycle is complete, so you do not have contaminated water in the cell that will expel into the drinking water when the water ionizer is turned on. These draining systems are prone to failure at both the PCB and drain valve level.. Not as robust, effective or durable as DARC.

Each has its draw backs: you can forget to trigger a manual cycle, the timer and volume systems have poor acidic to alkaline electride cleaning ratios. The worst drawback is that with each of the above systems you have to wait for the cycle to complete before you can receive alkaline ionized water.

In summary, we love that you have read this far! Because now you can see – emphatically – why cleaning is so important and why and how AlkaViva’s H2 water ionizer Series with its new and improved DARC II autocleanse system for electrodes is your best choice. Consider your searching over!

alkaviva h2 water ionizers
alkaviva h2 water ionizers

*1) The Kangen Enagic  SD501 water ionizer cleans for 20 seconds for each 10 gallons of use. It would take the Kangen Enagic water ionizer approximately 10 minutes of run time at 1 gpm water flow rate to produce 10 gallons. Therefore, 10 mins X 60 seconds = 600. The water ionizer plate cleaning ratio is then 600:20 or reduced is 30:1.

AlkaViva UltraWater filtration technology

AlkaViva UltraWater filtration technology 

 

Simply put, AlkaViva UltraWater filtration is the best alkaline water ionizer filter you can buy. In fact, it is the best water filter — of any type — that is currently available. Our unmatched Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab tests prove it. We often get asked how we can achieve such stunning water filtration/contaminant removal results.
ultrawater water ionizer filtersSmart Shopper’s Shortcut 
What you need to know about UltraWater filtration…AlkaViva UltraWater Filtration TechnologyWhat good is healthy water if it isn’t also clean water? Better than 0.01 micron UltraFiltration or a series of external water filters, UltraWater incorporates  Sediment shield, BioStone Booster, BioStone Carbon Block with Impregnation Plus(zeolite and silver), Bioceramic Tourmaline with Scale Guard, UltraWater Disc Technology to offer ultraclean alkaline ionized and molecular hydrogen water and most important has been tested and certified by a governmental laboratory for efficient removal of 172 water contaminants  – UltraWater filtration technology – the most thoroughly tested and safest water filtration option available.

Here’s How We Do It

Let’s start with an analogy: turbocharged gas engines. When they first came out, they combined new and existing technologies in a novel way. The result was a powerful new combination and unprecedented performance. Similarly, UltraWater filtration technology starts with the water industry’s proven top-performing media, adds in cutting edge medias in a new application, and then creates a new twist on existing manufacturing techniques. The result isn’t just a water filter. It’s a proprietary water filtration technology. This unique combination effectively “turbocharges” the media and water filtration processes, allowing better water filtration performance and better results.

What’s Inside:

sediment shield ultrawater filter

Sediment Shield

Standard GAC water filters do not offer this component. It is an electrostatic wrap comprised of polypropylene spun fiber. It is designed to provide a mechanical barrier to sediment – meaning it traps the sediments.

biostone booster ultrawater filter

Biostone Booster

Comprised of NSF certified CaSO3 slow-eluting bio-ceramic balls. They target chlorine, chloramine certain heavy metals. CaSO3 is more effective than granulated active carbon or KDF. One hundred grams (100g) of CaSO3 will outperform carbon and KDF by a factor of x2.

biostone carbon plus media

BioStone Carbon with Impregnation Plus

Our NSF certified carbon is catalyzed with an oxidizer and has the highest oxidation and adsorption pore concentration available. The carbon is impregnated with natural zeolite(vulcanic rock) and silver(antimicrobial).

The zeolite provides increased heavy metal reduction and a slight ion-exchange effect.

The silver prevents bacteria growth between uses.

We use both carbon block and loose bed applications.

Our carbon blocks are sintered and compressed under high temperature and heat (not extruded) resulting in a superior carbon block. Either way, our proprietary process greatly increases the surface area, contact time and the resulting capability.

ultrawater disc technology in filter

UltraWater Disc Technology

This leading-edge technology is the real turbocharger in UltraWater filter. It combines a high-tech NSF certified reticulated foam which is impregnated with three different medias. All are NSF certified. All offer unmatched heavy metal and organics reduction allowing us to target contaminants that other alkaline water ionizer filters can’t – such as arsenic.

bioceramic tourmaline

Bioceramic Tourmaline with Scale Guard

The tourmaline is in a very hard, slow-eluting biocermic ball from. It releases FAR infrared energy lowering surface tension. Scale Guard is a sequestering agent that is a highly effective anti-scale media. It is in a slow-eluting crystal bead form and is there to protect the water ionizer from hard water damage.

What it Does

UltraWater is the ONLY alkaline water ionizer filter tested for 172 contaminants. Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab testing shows UltraWater is the ONLY water filter that can reduce virtually all contaminants up to 99.9% — even the toughest including arsenic, chromium VI, lead, VOCs and pharmaceuticals

UltraWater filtration technology selectively reduces the bad contaminants while allowing the good, naturally occurring minerals to pass through. This alkaline water ionizer filter design is used in AlkaViva’s UltraWater electric water ionizer range to produce electric ionization.

UltraWater filtration  can also be formulated to create natural water ionization without electricity. Some of the world’s renowned sources of healing water are passively ionized by contact with certain earth alkali minerals, silicate and crystalline complexes. We have formulated an exclusive “passive water ionization” technology inside our non-electric Elita Series which contains the same type of mineral complexes. As water passes over the passive water ionization media we create increased pH, –ORP and molecular hydrogen (H2 water). While multiple beneficial minerals are dissolved, it chiefly infuses magnesium, which is shown to be absorbed best by the body when dissolved in water.

So regardless of which AlkaViva water product you choose, ultraclean and effective UltraWater is the best answer!

Available exclusively from:

ultrawater water ionizer filters

UltraWater Water Ionizer Filters – Tested for 172 Contaminants

Better water filtration Performance. Safer Water. Better Health.

Healthy water has to be clean water. Other ionizer filters simply cannot handle well known water contaminants such as lead, arsenic, chromium VI – and a host of others. Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab testing shows UltraWater reduces virtually all contaminants up to 99.9% — even the toughest including arsenic, chromium VI, lead, VOCs and pharmaceuticals.

AlkaViva testing is:

 

  • Certified & credible: All tests performed in Independent, EPA / NELAP Certified Labs
  • Thorough: we omit nothing and we show results for everything tested.
  • Real world: we tested contaminant levels in parts per million and that were as close the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level as we could get .
  • Nothing hidden or left out: we reported everything – even the toughest to remove contaminants such as arsenic, chromium VI etc.
  • Comprehensive: We tested 21 heavy metals, 65 pharmaceuticals, 3 OTC drugs, 7 Hormones, 15 pesticides and herbicides, preservatives and wastewater indicators, 45 VOCs, and 5 other anions & disinfectants – a total of 172 contaminants!
  • 16 Supercharged Medias
    Advanced Filtration Technologies.
    >See Test Results

AlkaViva UltraWater Filter Removes

lead in waterLead
arsenic in waterArsenic
drugs in waterPrescription Drugs
chemicals in waterIndustrial Chemicals
hormones in waterHormones
chlorine in waterChloramine
chemical waterTrihalomethane
preservatives in waterPreservatives
herbicides in waterHerbicides
volatile chemicals in waterVolatile Organic Compounds
Chromium VI in waterChromium VI
chlorinated waterChlorine
polluted waterOTC Drugs
pesticides in waterPesticides
heavy metals in waterHeavy Metals

You NEED AlkaViva UltraWater Filtration

AlkaViva free local water report

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet  Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet
 Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

 

“Alkaline water produced by a water ionizer has become the most important advancement in health care since Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin.”
— Dr. William Kelly, author, Cancer Cure.

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in alkaline diets and living an alkaline lifestyle. Part of this interest may involve drinking alkaline, ionized water from a water ionizer as a way to improve wellness, enhance performance, and prolong vitality. Alkaline, ionized water is water that has been selectively altered in a water ionizer to raise pH from neutral to pH 9 or more and also to display negative change (-ORP). Water above a pH 7 is alkaline and water below pH 7 is acidic. pH can be easily measured by using pH reagent or a meter, and ORP is measured using an ORP meter.

Life on earth depends on appropriate pH levels in and around living organisms and cells. Human life requires a tightly controlled pH level in the serum of about 7.4 (a slightly alkaline range of 7.35 to 7.45) to survive. The ability of the body to maintain this level of pH can be compromised by poor diet, lack of or excessive exercise, pollutants, dehydration, and stress. From available evidence, it would be prudent to consider the effects of alkaline water on the body and an alkaline diet to reduce morbidity and mortality from the chronic diseases that are plaguing our aging population. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/)

Along with this interest in all things alkaline, there have also been some unsubstantiated health claims made. Such claims give rise to pseudo-sciences that undermine the significant body of peer-reviewed, published research into how altering alkaline (pH) levels can bring about health changes. Part of the issue in studying the beneficial effects of an alkaline diet is the lack of funding available for such research coupled with the complexity in trying to isolate what factors are creating change. Indeed, a few studies failed to find health changes from altering diet, although other studies acknowledge distinct benefits. Everyone agrees that more research is needed to further investigate alkaline health benefits.

Not only do AlkaViva water ionizers produce clean, alkaline water, but they can also create a significant amount of diatomic hydrogen (H2) in the water. The peer-reviewed benefits from drinking H2 water are NOT covered in this article.

Below are excerpts from peer-reviewed, ALKALINE diet/water studies along with references as to where the full articles can be found if you wish to study further. We welcome feedback.

Alkaline water Hydration for Athleets

 

It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.

A significant difference in whole blood viscosity was detected in this study when assessing a high-pH, water versus an acceptable standard purified water during the recovery phase following strenuous exercise-induced dehydration.
Joseph Weidman, Ralph E. HolsworthJr., Bradley Brossman, Daniel J. Cho, John St.Cyr, Gregory Fridman, ffect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

After using an alkalizing supplement trained Nordic skiers experienced significant changes in cardiorespiratory, blood lactate, and upper body power output measures. Studies also indicate that drinking alkaline water can enhance the body’s buffering capacity and temper the acidity, thus improving performance.
Daniel P Heil, Erik A Jacobson, and Stephanie M Howe, Influence of an alkalizing supplement on markers of endurance performance using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 8. Published online 2012 Mar 20. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-8.

Supplementing with alkalizing minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium) decreases cardio-respiratory stress and blood lactate responses, while improving power output in endurance athletes. Alkaline water may work similarly.
Y. Kilkian, F. Engel. P. What, J. Master, Markers of Biological Stress, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308012779.

Consumption of alkaline water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of alkaline water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults. Also, over time, the mineral content of alkalized water could help active people retain more fluid in the cardiovascular system. This might improve overall hydration status and fluid reserves.
D,. Heil, Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Montana State University.

The physiology of intense exercise that produces acidosis is far more complex than originally thought. In the transition to higher exercise intensity, proton release is even greater than lactate production which indicates acidosis is only partially related to production of “lactic acid.”
Robergs, R. Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis: where do the protons come from? Sport Science 5(2) sportsci.org/jour/0102/rar.thm, 2001.

The Evolution of Diet

Estimates of the net systemic load of acid in ancestral pre-agricultural diets as compared to contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient compositions of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements. The result is that contemporary diets generate diet-induced metabolic acidosis in contemporary Homo Sapiens.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr., Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral pre-agricultural Homo sapiens, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12450898.

Report compiled by the World Health Organization from studies in different regions of the world on the importance of minerals in drinking water.
Ong, Choon. Minerals from drinking-water: Bioavailability for various world populations and health implications. WHO | Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization, 17 Aug 2004.

Because of the increased incidence of obesity in our population, electrolyzed water at 2 liters/day for 2 months was given to four obese subjects. Statistical evaluation of the results of the present study suggests that electrolyzed water as used resulted in near significant weight loss and a significant loss of body fat in obese subjects.
Abraham, Guy, and Jorge Flebas. The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report. Highbeam Research. Original Internist, 01 Sep 2011. Web. 2 Jul 2013. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-269433201.html.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Muscles

As we age, there is a loss of muscle mass, which may predispose to falls and fractures. A three-year study looking at a diet rich in potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as a reduced acid load, resulted in preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Ceglia L. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;87(3):662–665.

Correction of acidosis may preserve muscle mass in conditions where muscle wasting is common such as diabetic ketosis, trauma, sepsis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and renal failure.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 727630.

Chronic metabolic acidosis increases net muscle protein degradation in rat muscle tissue. Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism.
Mitch WE, Medina R, Grieber S, May RC, England BK, Price SR, Bailey JL, Goldberg AL., University School of Medicine, Georgia,Metabolic acidosis stimulates muscle protein degradation, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8182144.

Bone Loss prevention with alkaline water

The bone minerals that are wasted in the urine may not have complete compensation through intestinal absorption, which is thought to result in osteoporosis. An alkaline diet typically does improve the K/Na ratio and may benefit bone health, reduce muscle wasting, as well as mitigate other chronic diseases such as hypertension and strokes. It has been found increases in the alkali content of a diet, may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, Oct 2011. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/-.

Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkaline diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake.
Wynn, E, MA Krieg, JM Aeschlimann, and P Burckhardt. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism. Bone. Elsevier, 27 Oct 2008. Web. 1 Jul 2013. http://www.thebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282(08)00781-3/abstract.

Excess dietary protein with high acid renal load may decrease bone density if not buffered by ingestion of supplements or foods (water) that are alkali rich.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/.

This work shows that bone depletion is absolutely dependent on extracellular acidification; these cells are inactive at pH levels above about 7.3 and show maximum stimulation at a pH of about 6.9. Bone resorption is most sensitive to changes in H+ concentration at a pH of about 7.1 (which may be close to the interstitial pH in bone). In vivo, severe systemic acidosis (pH change of about -0.05 to -0.20) often results from renal disease; milder chronic acidosis (pH change of about -0.02 to -0.05) can be caused by excessive protein intake, acid feeding, prolonged exercise, ageing, airway diseases or menopause. Acidosis can also occur locally as a result of inflammation, infection, wounds, tumors or diabetic ischemia. Cell function, including that of osteoblasts, is normally impaired by acid; the unusual stimulatory effect of acid on osteoclasts may represent a primitive ‘fail-safe’ that evolved with terrestrial vertebrates to correct systemic acidosis by ensuring release of alkaline bone mineral when the lungs and kidneys are unable to remove sufficient H+ equivalent. The present results suggest that even subtle chronic acidosis could be sufficient to cause appreciable bone loss over time.
Arnett T., Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506899.

Humans generally consume a diet that generates metabolic acids leading to a reduction in the systemic bicarbonate and a fall of pH. Chronic metabolic acidosis alters bone cell function; there is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation. As we age, we are less able to excrete metabolic acids due to the normal decline in renal function.
Bushinski DA., Nephrology Unit, Strong Memorial Hospital, New York, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11842949.

Chronic metabolic acidosis is a process whereby an excess acid load is placed on the body due to excess acid generation or diminished acid removal by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Excessive meat ingestion and aging are two clinical conditions often associated with chronic metabolic acidosis. The body’s homeostatic response to this pathology is very efficient. Therefore, the blood pH is frequently maintained within the “normal” range. However, these homeostatic responses engender pathologic consequences such as nephrolithiasis, bone demineralization, muscle protein breakdown and renal growth.
Alpern RJ1, Sakhaee K., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9016905.

Excessive dietary intake of protein with consequent increase in metabolic acid production result in compensatory mechanisms that lead to progression of kidney stones, bone disease, renal disease and a catabolic state.
Alpern, R. Trade-offs in the adaptation to acidosis, Kidney International 47: 1205-1215, 1995.

The acid load inherent in the Western diet results in mild chronic metabolic acidosis in association with a state of cortisol excess. An alkali balanced diet modulates bone resorption and the associated alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Maurer, M.; Riesen, W.; Muser, J.; Hulter, H. and Krapf, R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resportion independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans, American Journal of Physiology and Renal Physiology 284: F32-40, 2003.

Osteoclast activity is modulated by small pH changes and is a key determinant of bone resorption in mouse calvarial cultures.
Sajeda Meghji, Matthew S. Morrison, Brian Henderson, Timothy R. Arnett, pH Dependence of Bone Resorption American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol. 280 no. 1, E112-E119.

 

 

 

Alkaline Diet and Growth Hormones

It has long been known that severe forms of metabolic acidosis in children, such as renal tubular acidosis, are associated with low levels of growth hormone with resultant short stature. Correction of the acidosis increases growth hormone significantly and improved growth. Improving growth hormone levels may improve quality of life, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve body composition, and even improve memory and cognition.
Wass JAH, Reddy R. Growth hormone and memory. Journal of Endocrinology. 2010;207(2):125–126.

Alkaline Minerals (in water) and Back Pain

There is some evidence that chronic low back pain improves with the supplementation of alkaline minerals. With supplementation there was a slight but significant increase in blood pH and intracellular magnesium. Ensuring that there is enough intracellular magnesium allows for the proper function of enzyme systems that improves back pain and also allows for activation of vitamin D.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Chemotherapy

The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents is markedly influenced by pH. Numerous agents such as epirubicin and adriamycin require an alkaline media to be more effective. Cell death correlates with acidosis and intracellular pH shifts higher (more alkaline) after chemotherapy may reflect response to chemotherapy. It has been suggested that inducing metabolic alkalosis may be useful in enhancing some treatment regimes.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Cancer

Diet-induced acidosis is a potential upstream and indirect trigger in a multifactorial cascade of molecular events associated with carcinogenesis. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) comprehensive global report has compiled numerous studies demonstrating associations between dietary habits and cancer risk. The findings recommend increased or regular consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, while discouraging excess consumption of sugary and energy-dense foods and drinks, red and processed meats, and salty processed foods.
Ian Forrest Robey, University of Arizona, Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3571898/.

Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. It is notable that cancer cells maintain a high level of glucose metabolism even in the presence of oxygen, which was first documented by Warburg more than 80 years ago. This is a consistent finding across a variety of cancers, and has been recognized as a “hallmark” of cancer.
Maria de Lourdes C Ribeiro, Ariosto S. Silva, Kate M. Bailey, Nagi B. Kumar, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Gatenby, Arig Ibrahim-Hashim, and Robert J. Gillies, Buffer Therapy for Cancer, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872072/.

A significant consequence of increased glucose metabolism is the production of acids, such as lactic acid, which can be an independent negative prognostic factor for cancer outcome. Prior mathematical models and empirical studies have shown that solid tumors export acid into the surrounding parenchyma. This is consistent with measurements of tumor pH in mouse models, which have shown that the extracellular pH of solid tumors is acidic. Combined, these observations have led to the generation of the “Acid Mediated Tumor Invasion” hypothesis, which proposes that fast-growing tumors export acid to surrounding stroma, and that reduced pH contributes to the tissue remodeling required for tumor invasion.
Ian F. Robey, Brenda K. Baggett, Nathaniel D. Kirkpatrick, Denise J. Roe, Julie Dosescu, Bonnie F. Sloane, Arig Ibrahim Hashim, David L. Morse, Natarajan Raghunand, Robert A. Gatenby, and Robert J. Gillies, Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases, Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 69(6): 2260–2268.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Effects on Aging

alkalinity and aging

Changes in renal physiology and function with aging put the elderly patient at risk for adverse effect of drug therapies due to the incidence of common problems like metabolic acidosis.
Lonergan, E. Aging and the kidney: adjusting treatment to physiologic change, Geriatrics 43: 27-30, 32-33, 1998.

Authors examined peer-reviewed literature to determine whether systemic acid-base equilibrium changes with aging in normal adults humans. Using linear regression analysis, they found that with increasing age, there is a significant increase in the steady-state blood H+ indicating a progressively worsening low-level metabolic acidosis in what may reflect, in part, the normal decline of renal function with increasing age.
Frassetto, L. and Sebastian, A. Age and systemic acid-base equilibrium: analysis of published data, Journal of Gerontology, Advanced Biological Science and Medical Science, 51: B91-99, 1996.

Dietary changes over the last two centuries have resulted in a mismatch between genetically-determined nutritional requirements in humans. Excess sodium chloride, a deficiency of potassium and excess dietary acids that are not mediated by dietary bicarbonates lead to chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis that amplifies the age-related pathophysiological consequences in humans (such as loss of bone substance, increase in urinary calcium, disturbance in nitrogen metabolism, and low levels of growth hormone).
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R.; Sellmeyer, D.; Todd, K. and Sebastian, A. Diet, evolution and aging: the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet, European Journal of Nutrition 40:5 200-213, 2001.

Otherwise healthy adults manifest a low-grade, diet-dependent metabolic acidosis, the severity of which increases with age at constant rate described by an index of endogenous acid production, apparently due in part, to the normal age-related decline of renal function.
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R. and Sebastian, A. Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline, American Journal of Physiology, 271: 1114-22, 1996.

Age-induced decline in renal functions explains, at least in part, clinically important age-related conditions including metabolic acidosis.
Krapt, R. and Jehle, A. Renal function and renal disease in the elderly, Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 130:11 398-408 2000.

Acid-base homeostasis exerts a major influence on protein function, thereby critically affecting tissue and organ performance. Deviations in body acidity can have adverse consequences and when severe, can be life-threatening.
Adrogue, H. and Madias, N. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders, New England Journal of Medicine 338: 26-34, 1998.

Decline in the ability to adjust acid-base balance is a feature of aging. Regulation of pH ultimately depends on the kidneys and lungs, however, the ability of these organs is decreased with physiological aging. Renal insufficiency and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various drugs, such as diuretics, often affect the acid-base balance in the elderly.
Nabata, T.; Morimoto, S. and Ogihara, T. Abnormalities in acid-base balance in the elderly, Nippon Rinsho 50: 2249-53, 1992.

 

AlkaViva UltraWater is alkaline and ionized making it rich in naturally occurring beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium that help you alkalize and maintain a HEALTHY PH BALANCE.

UltraWater filter & ionizer - life enhancement
UltraWater filter & ionizer – life enhancement

 

Alkaline ionized Water and Free Radicals

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be “active hydrogen”. “Active diatomic hydrogen” can be produced in reduced (alkaline) water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced (alkaline) water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2), and extremely negative redox potential (-ORP) values. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species suggesting that reduced water can scavenge different types of free radicals.
Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y., EmoryElectrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

ionized water Benefits backed by research.

Over 600 PEER-REVIEWED STUDIES show that molecular hydrogen – or H2 -water / alkaline ionized water has a therapeutic benefit in every organ of the human body and positively affects over 150 disease models and health conditions.

Get your antioxidants – in your water!

Free radical damage causes oxidative stress and is one of the primary causes of aging. Oxidation causes iron or apples to “rust”. Antioxidants prevent or slow that damage. Unfortunately, anti-oxidants are non-selective neutralizing both beneficial and harmful radicals. The molecular hydrogen Hin UltraWater selectively targets only the damaging radicals – making it the “ULTIMATE” ANTIOXIDANT.

Drink more. Improve your health.

When molecular hydrogen  H2 neutralizes damaging oxygen radicals, it creates water (H2O) – increasing your CELLULAR HYDRATION.Great tasting, silky-smooth, alkaline UltraWater is also easier to drink. When you drink more, you enjoy optimal hydration and better health.

Ease your aches and pains.

Oxidative stress damages your cells, causing pain and inflammation. As we age, inflammation increases. Studies show that H₂ neutralizes the damaging radicals. Drinking UltraWater can ease chronic and acute aches and pain.

Go longer. Go stronger.

ATP powers your cells. It is the source of your energy. Research shows molecular hydrogen(water) H₂ helps INCREASE ATP PRODUCTION giving you more energy while decreasing lactic acid levels. Athlete? Exerciser? Just want more pep? UltraWater helps improve performance and recovery.

 

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies  ,safety

Molecular hydrogen (water) benefits/effects in disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants

more about molecular hydrogen water

AlkaViva water ionizers& purifiers-clean , ionized alkaline water rich in molecular hidrogen H2

 

 

 

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers Certificates 

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers Certificates

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers purifiers certifications

Company Registration

Permission for medical device manufacturing item
The manufacturer of the medical device shall be examined according to the medical device technique (Article 6) for the approval of the product and the facility and quality system for the product to be manufactured.
Since receiving the manufacturing approval of No. 889 in 2000, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained 28 licenses of alkaline water ionizer items as of 2017.
US food pharmacy medical device manufacturing site and device registration
The US Department of Health and Human Services (FDA) is responsible for the distribution and management of medical devices in the United States under the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Manufacturers, distributors, and importers of medical devices must be approved and certified by the FDA. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was approved in 2005 and registered all items of water ionizer equipment.
Trademark registration
The KIPO is a government agency that manages industrial property rights such as patents, utility models, designs and trademarks. When the inventors filed industrial property rights, the Korean Intellectual Property Office obtained the rights by examining them.

Management System

Medical device manufacturing and quality control certification
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a system for manufacturing and selling quality medical devices that are guaranteed by the organization, from the design of the product, the purchase of raw materials, to the manufacture, It is a standard that defines the things to be managed and maintained. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified for the first time in 2005 and has maintained its effectiveness since its regular review.
Quality system
It is an international standard for quality management system enacted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to evaluate and certify the quality assurance system throughout the entire production process, from products and services.
Environmental system
ISO 14001 This system evaluates the environmentally friendly management of the environment by introducing an environmental management system throughout the company’s activities. We identify the environmental hazards that occur during the production process and apply them as a method to manage the management system. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was certified in 2008.
Certificate of Origin Certification
The customs authorities shall issue a certificate of origin to the exporter who certifies that the exporter has the capability to prove that he satisfies the criteria for determining the origin of the exported goods in accordance with the Enforcement Rule of the Act on the Exemption of Customs Act for the Implementation of the FTA As a system to simplify the submission of attached documents, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained certification for each item in 2013.

Electric Safety

European Community Integration Certification
It is a mandatory certification mark indicating that the product has been tested and is in conformity with the applicable EU standards for requirements relating to safety, health, environment and consumer protection in accordance with national certification schemes and technical regulations in the European Union. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was certified by product in 1998.
North American Electrical and Electronic Products Safety Certification
The NRTL program is part of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines to ensure that the product is safe for use in North America. Normally, when you want to export to North America, you have to obtain UL-marks for the US market, CSA-marks for the Canadian market, and NOM-marks for the Mexico region. One NRTL-marks after NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) I can solve it easily. Since its acquisition of UL certification in 1998, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained the 1201sus NRTL factory certification.
International electric appliance certification
It is an international electrical certification system operated by IECEE. It is a system that tests the safety of electrical and electronic products in accordance with the IEC international standard and mutually recognizes the test results internationally among the member countries. Currently, many countries, mainly in Europe, adopt the IEC standard as their own standards. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified by product in 2010.
National Integrated Certification Mark KC
You can safely use it as a proven product that keeps safety standards. KC certification is made from materials that are harmless to human body, it is given after verifying that it is safe enough to maintain buoyancy and durability, so it is a product that you can trust and buy more.
Japan electric appliance type certification
It is the certification system according to the Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law applicable to electrical and electronic products in Japan. It is compulsory certification that the customs clearance and sale in Japan are prohibited before obtaining the certification. In 2006, AlkaViva’s manufacturer certified DIAMOND PSE Certified Electrical Appliances.
Germany certified
It is an international electrical certification system operated by IECEE. It is a system that tests the safety of electrical and electronic products in accordance with IEC international standards and mutually recognizes the test settlement internationally among the member countries. Currently, many countries, mainly in Europe, adopt the IEC standard as their own standards. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified by product in 2010.

Alkaline ionized water, obliterating arteritis and diabetes 

Alkaline ionized water, obliterating arteritis and diabetes – ionized alkaline water saves from amputation one leg of the patient with obliterated arteritis and diabetes

“I write these lines both for my facebook friends and for the multitude of patients suffering from diabetes and implicitly by obliterant arteritis and who sooner or later reach stents mounted in coronary, iliac, subclavicular arteries, or worse -amputation of the lower limbs.
I retired in 2002 following a myocardial infarction and since then the troubles (medical problems) have kept coming.
Due to the insulin-induced diabetes diagnosed in the 1990s, between 2002-2005, three (2-foot) surgeries were done to replace the arteries (due to massive atheroma deposits) with femoral-popliteal vascular prostheses (by-passes) at the right foot twice.
In 2011, the right foot bypass began to close (by deposition of the atheroma), which made the stenosis of the arteries under the knee (tibial and peronian) almost reach 100%. Having had major coronary problems, the doctors refused to change my right foot bypass (it would have been the third time and recommended me to make a daily infusion of “vasaprosta”(  expensive and which was distributed by CNAS with special approval) for 30 days, the procedure being considered (then) as a means of rescuing the foot from amputation.
In my case this procedure (vasaphase infusions) proved to have the effect of rubbing with “Galenica” on an acacia wood leg. As the number of infusions increased, the pain of the foot soles was increasing and the leg was all the time cold.
I informed him several times of the doctor under whose supervision these perfusions were being made, of the evolution of the disease (unbearable pain and cold leg) but not only did he not count me but he did not even take a strain on my leg. For peace reasons I do not give  the name of the doc!
After 20 days of infusions, one morning after I woke up, I noticed that my toes were black and soaked. We had the gangrene.
I turned to emergency and the surgeon at the vascular surgery department (as a day of rest) refused to interfere because they did not cut off fingers and advised emergency staff to call the surgery department for leg amputation.
I went to Bucharest and admitted to the Emergency University Hospital at the Vascular Surgery Clinic.
On December 6, 2011 I my right leg fingers were amputated . Because the gangrene continued, on December 9 I underwent a new metatarsal amputation and replaced my vascular prosthesis with a saphenous vein harvested from the amputee foot
On December 12, I had a heart attack and I was admitted to intensive care. On December 15 we made a cardiac arrest and I was intubated …
I stayed intubated for several days in incapacity, while my lungs were sucked several times a day.
After I was discharged from intensive care, I was admitted to cardiology and after a while I began to cough more and more. I was treated with bronchitis until discharge from the hospital
The cough continued after discharge and eventually I went to emergency in Constanta at the Otolaryngology section, where it was ascertained that due to intensive care suction maneuvers, after the cardiac arrest, my trachea was injured, which led to the appearance of an excrescence that finally almost obstructed my trachea.
I had surgery (post-tubal tracheostomy) and through surgery I was mounted a plastic cannula under the apple of Adam through which we breathe.
The operation of the foot has never healed.
In June 2013, I was implanted (I do not know if the term is correct) 5 stents in the coronary hearts at Fundeni Hospital.
In September 2013 (year with bad luck) the foot pain again began to amputate, having to accept a new amputation this time above the knee.
Finally, in September, three successive amputations were made at my right foot by a “great” doctor professor, but more about the professionalism and competence of the individual maybe another time.
After the third amputation, I went home with half the stools from the bumps and with my leg in the amputation area. After another month of home treatment, a nurse in surgery managed to heal my dent.
Since spring last year, my left foot, which has a femur-popliteal prosthesis since 2004 (they are guaranteed for 5-6 years) has started to hurt and the situation worsens in the beginning of 2017, with all medications, ointments and massages (including lymphatic) that have been given and done all along.
In February 2017, I did a vascular / arterial doppler exam that revealed that the bypass has a 70% stenosis, the anterior tibial is oval, the posterior tibial has 98% occlusion, and the peroneal artery has a 98% occlusion. Finally, the cardiologist who did my doppler exam, probably to encourage me,  said that in 2-3 weeks I will get to left foot amputation and showed me where they were going to amputate ….

I have a good friend and colleague from high school class, the energetic engineer GIDEA- SANDUTU VERGICA from Filiasi whom I told of my misfortune and that soon I will lose my left leg through amputation

Very relaxed and with great confidence he told me that I do not have to worry -they will not amputate my leg as he’ll help solve my problem. I replied that it was not good a joke … not to say anything else. He explained that there was no joke, that he would not allow himself to make jokes with me in the given situation and asked me if I heard anything about ALKALINE IONIZED WATER. NO, I said. I said that I do not know what it is, and that I do not think there is any drug in the world (which we also know, foolishness) that can dissolve the arteries deposits … much less a water,she would call it she-chiara, holy water or ionized alkaline water. Having realized he had no palpable arguments to convince me, he told me that this water produces absolutely nothing wrong with the body when drinking it and that he will send me water starting from the next day, having previously bought a water ionizer for producing this ionized alkaline water;he also told me that in my situation, I have two possibilities, namely:

– first, to expect the blood circulation to the leg to close definitively and reach to the gangrene and amputation,

-second  to drink at least 5 liters of ionized alkaline water daily, the water that will melt the atheroma from the arteries, the circulation of the blood going back to normal and save my foot.

I chose the second variant, knowing it was terrible it’s hard to live without a foot and get you I do not think it’s worth the pain anyway, I think it would not be worth the trouble for those around you, I would have become a calvary (I do not know if I’m wrong about that) I began to drink ionized alkaline water, sent by my friend, in the first few days 3 liters after which, I easily drank 5-6 liters a day. By then, the foot was from the kneel down, cold and white, and pains and burns, especially at night, were unbearable; I got 3-4 ketone pills per night. After 2 weeks of drinking ionized alkaline water the pains and burns diminished and in a few days they finally disappeared. 3 weeks ago his leg warmed and so remained. On March 17 we went to a private clinic in Constanta and I did (against the sum of 800 lei, CNAS funds not yet allocated) an angio CT scan of the arteries of in the pelvis and lower limbs that revealed:

– thigh amputation its right;

– 50% bypass stenosis

– 70% tibio-peronian occlusion trunk

– posterior tibial artery

– occlusion

In the meantime I was scheduled to be admitted to the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest and on May 12, 2017, I made an arteriography revealed that the aorta and the iliac shaft are permeable, the femoropoplite bypass is permeable and permeable gambling trunk. Arteriography is an invasive artery investigation and remains the most significant in analyzing blood circulation, measurements and images being made from within the arteries.

I will express in words what I felt when the doctor who made the investigation recorded her voice with the result of viewing the monitor on which the arteriography was displayed. Never before, in my life, a word so common as  “PERMEABLE” had such GREAT significance and value.

I think the sun has appeared on my street, which is what I want. If you want to document and see that ionized alkaline water seems to be the universal medicine, you can find hundreds of sites about it and its benefits. In the meantime I bought a  ALKAVIVA water ionizer  !

I wish only good things!

.PS I WILL TALK AND ABOUT THE DIABETES SPPN …A FEW MONTHS AGO I HAD 40 MIXTARD UNITS IN THE MORNING AND 20 AT NIGHT

NOW- 20 UNITS IN THE MORNING AND 10 IN THE EVENING …

TODAY THE GLICEMIC INDEX IN THE MORNING WAS 124 AND I DID NOT HAVE ANY MIXTARD .NOW I HAVE GLYCEMIA 70 AND I HAVE NO NEED FOR MIXTARD ”

DESPRE APA ALCALINA IONIZATA Scriu aceste randuri atat pentru prietenii mei de pe…

Posted by Alexandru Bîzdîc on 18 Iunie 2017

MORE ABOUT ALKALINE IONIZED WATER/  molecular hydrogen H2- Water  AND DIABETES

MORE ABOUT ALKALINE IONIZED WATER/ molecular hydrogen H2- Water  AND BLOOD VESSELS HEALTH

 

 

Molecular hydrogen (water) benefits/effects in disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants

Molecular hydrogen (water) benefits/effects in disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants

Molecular hydrogen (water) is effective in essentially ALL organs, as well as in plants.

We have now classified the organs and diseases into 31 categories and showed the effects of molecular hydrogen in 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants.

 

Table 2 shows the details of organs and diseases for which the effects of molecular hydrogen have been reported.

Table 2 links molecular hydrogen effects and benefits to DISEASES AND CONDITIONS and the corresponding studies:

 

organs and diseases covered

Diseases and conditions & molecular hydrogen benefits

References -plant,animal & human studies &  clinical trials in regards to molecular hydrogen benefits

Brain & molecular hydrogen , Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD)& molecular hydrogen , Cerebral I/R injury & molecular hydrogen,Hypertensive stroke & molecular hydrogen , Brain injury secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage & molecular hydrogen ,  Subarachnoid hemorrhage & molecular hydrogen , Brain injury other than CVD & molecular hydrogen, Traumatic brain injury & molecular hydrogen , Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damage & molecular hydrogen, Neurodegenerative diseases & molecular hydrogen Parkinson’s disease & molecular hydrogen , Alzheimer’s disease & molecular hydrogen, Other brain health conditions & molecular hydrogen, Restraint-induced dementia & molecular hydrogen, ,Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated mice & molecular hydrogen, LPS-induced neuroinflammation & molecular hydrogen , Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell damage & molecular hydrogen , Spinal Cord and peripheral nerve & molecular hydrogen, Spinal cord I/R injury & molecular hydrogen , Spinal cord injury & molecular hydrogen , Neuropathic pain & molecular hydrogen , Hyperalgesia & molecular hydrogen , Eyes & molecular hydrogen Retinal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen , Diabetic retinopathy & molecular hydrogen , Hyperoxia-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen , Light-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen , Glutamine-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen , S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen , Optic nerve crush & molecular hydrogen , Selenite-induced cataract & molecular hydrogen , Corneal alkali-burn & molecular hydrogen , Anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated retinal microglia cells & molecular hydrogen, Ears & molecular hydrogen Hearing loss & molecular hydrogen , Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity & molecular hydrogen , Ouabain-induced ototoxicity & molecular hydrogen , Oral Cavity & molecular hydrogen   Periodontitis & molecular hydrogen , Periodontal oxidative damage & molecular hydrogen , Lungs & molecular hydrogen, Lung I/R injury & molecular hydrogen , Oxygen-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen , Ventilation-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen , LPS-induced acute lung injury & molecular hydrogen, Intestinal I/R-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen, Burn-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen, Paraquat-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen , cigarette smoking lung injury & molecular hydrogen , Smoke inhalation lung injury & molecular hydrogen, Pulmonary hypertension & molecular hydrogen , Heart & molecular hydrogen Myocardial infarction and I/R injury & molecular hydrogen, Diabetic cardiomyopathy & molecular hydrogen, Sleep apnea-induced left ventricular remodeling & molecular hydrogen , Ventricular hypertrophy & molecular hydrogen , Stomach & molecular hydrogen Stress-induced gastric ulceration & molecular hydrogen , Aspirin-induced gastric ulceration & molecular hydrogen , Intestines & molecular hydrogen Intestinal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen , Ulcerative colitis & molecular hydrogen , Colon inflammation& molecular hydrogen , Sepsis-induced intestinal injury & molecular hydrogen , Necrotizing enterocolitis & molecular hydrogen , Liver & molecular hydrogen   Liver I/R injury & molecular hydrogen, Chronic hepatitis B& molecular hydrogen,Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis & molecular hydrogen, Liver injury induced by massive hepatectomy & molecular hydrogen,Liver injury induced by obstructive jaundice & molecular hydrogen , Liver injury induced by endotoxin & molecular hydrogen , Liver injury induced by acetaminophen & molecular hydrogen , Liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride & molecular hydrogen ,Liver injury induced by concanavalin A & molecular hydrogen ,Liver cirrhosis & molecular hydrogen , Liver fibrosis & molecular hydrogen , Pancreas & molecular hydrogen Acute pancreatitis & molecular hydrogen , Peritoneum & molecular hydrogen Acute peritonitis & molecular hydrogen ,molecular hydrogen benefits for Kidneys Renal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen ,  Acute renal injury & molecular hydrogen, Hypertensive renal injury & molecular hydrogen,Cisplatin-induced nephropathy & molecular hydrogen , Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity & molecular hydrogen, Inhibition of AGEs production & molecular hydrogen ,  Renal calcium deposition & molecular hydrogen ,molecular hydrogen benefits for Bladder Interstitial cystitis & molecular hydrogen , molecular hydrogen benefits for Reproductive organs Testicular I/R injury & molecular hydrogen , Erectile dysfunctions & molecular hydrogen , Nicotine-induced testicular oxidative stress & molecular hydrogen , Cigarette smoke-induced testicular damage, Skin & molecular hydrogen  skin I/R injury & molecular hydrogen, UV-induced skin injury & molecular hydrogen, Acute erythematous skin disease & molecular hydrogen , Atopic dermatitis & molecular hydrogen ,Psoriasis & molecular hydrogen ,   Pressure ulcer & molecular hydrogen ,Burns & molecular hydrogen ,Arsenic toxicity & molecular hydrogen,Bones and Joints & molecular hydrogen   Rheumatoid arthritis & molecular hydrogen , Osteoporosis & molecular hydrogen , Bone loss induced by microgravity & molecular hydrogen , TNFα-induced osteoblast injury & molecular hydrogen , NO-induced cartilage toxicity & molecular hydrogen , molecular hydrogen benefits for Skeletal Muscles sand soft tissues   I/R injury in skeletal muscle & molecular hydrogen , Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies & molecular hydrogen , Muscle fatigue & molecular hydrogen ,  Sports-related soft tissue injury & molecular hydrogen , molecular hydrogen benefits for Blood vessel  Atherosclerosis & molecular hydrogen , AGEs-induced blood vessel damage & molecular hydrogen ,Neointimal hyperplasia & molecular hydrogen ,  Hyperplasia in arterialized vein graft& molecular hydrogen ,Vascular dysfunction & molecular hydrogen , Vascular endothelial function& molecular hydrogen , Blood and Bone Marrow & molecular hydrogen Aplastic anemia & molecular hydrogen , Maintenance of multipotential stroma/mesenchymal stem cells & molecular hydrogen ,Neutrophil function & molecular hydrogen, Inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation & molecular hydrogen ,Improvement of blood fluidity & molecular hydrogen ,Metabolism & molecular hydrogen , Diabetes mellitus& molecular hydrogen,Hyperlipidemia & molecular hydrogen ,Metabolic syndrome & molecular hydrogen , Metabolic process-related gene expression & molecular hydrogen , Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicity & molecular hydrogen , Serum alkalinization & molecular hydrogen,Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis & molecular hydrogen,Inflammation/Allergy & molecular hydrogen Sepsis & molecular hydrogen , LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production & molecular hydrogen, LPS-induced inflammatory response & molecular hydrogen , LPS-induced vascular permeability& molecular hydrogen, Zymosan-induced inflammation & molecular hydrogen,Carrageenan-induced paw edema & molecular hydrogen , Inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass & molecular hydrogen,Type I allergy & molecular hydrogen , Asthma & molecular hydrogen , Perinatal Disorders & molecular hydrogen, Neonatal cerebral hypoxia& molecular hydrogen ,LPS-induced fetal lung injury & molecular hydrogen , Preeclampsia & molecular hydrogen, Cancer & molecular hydrogen, Growth of tongue carcinoma cells & molecular hydrogen ,Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity and tumor progression & molecular hydrogen ,Radiation-induced thymic lymphoma & molecular hydrogen , Tumor angiogenesis & molecular hydrogen , Enhancement of 5-FU antitumor efficacy & molecular hydrogen , Radiation & molecular hydrogen Cardiac damage& molecular hydrogen ,  Lung damage & molecular hydrogen , Testicular damage & molecular hydrogen , Skin damage & molecular hydrogen , Germ hematopoietic and other cell damage & molecular hydrogen , Radiation-induced adverse effects & molecular hydrogen,Radiation-induced immune dysfunction & molecular hydrogen , Intoxication & molecular hydrogen Carbon monoxide INTOXICATION & molecular hydrogen , Sevoflurane intoxication & molecular hydrogen ,  Doxorubicin-induced heart failure & molecular hydrogen ,  Melamine-induced urinary stone & molecular hydrogen , Chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity & molecular hydrogen , molecular hydrogen for Transplantation  Heart transplant & molecular hydrogen ,Lung transplant& molecular hydrogen , Kidney transplant & molecular hydrogen ,  Intestine transplant & molecular hydrogen ,Pancreas transplant & molecular hydrogen , Osteochondral grafts & molecular hydrogen ,Acute GVHD & molecular hydrogen ,Resuscitation & molecular hydrogen,   Cardiac arrest & molecular hydrogen , Hemorrhagic shock & molecular hydrogen, Dialysis & molecular hydrogen  Hemodialysis & molecular hydrogen ,  Peritoneal dialysis & molecular hydrogen , Others health conditions & molecular hydrogen , Lifespan extension & molecular hydrogen,  Sperm motility & molecular hydrogen, Decompression sickness & molecular hydrogen,  Genotoxicity and mutagenicity & molecular hydrogen, Plants & molecular hydrogen ,Root organogenesis & molecular hydrogen ,  Salt tolerance & molecular hydrogen ,  Postharvest ripening & molecular hydrogen ,  Stomatal closure & molecular hydrogen , Radish sprout tolerance to UVA & molecular hydrogen ,  High light stress & molecular hydrogen ,  Phytohormone signaling and stress responses & molecular hydrogen ,  Tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress & molecular hydrogen ,  Cadmium toxicity & molecular hydrogen ,  Mercury toxicity & molecular hydrogen

 Brain & molecular hydrogen

 

 Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD)& molecular hydrogen 

 

Cerebral I/R injury & molecular hydrogen 

[11056839499100101102103104105106107108109]

Hypertensive stroke & molecular hydrogen

[110]

Brain injury secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage & molecular hydrogen

[28]

 Subarachnoid hemorrhage & molecular hydrogen

[48616673111112113]

 Brain injury other than CVD & molecular hydrogen 

 

 Traumatic brain injury & molecular hydrogen

[114115116117118]

  Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damage & molecular hydrogen

[57]

Neurodegenerative diseases & molecular hydrogen 

 

 Parkinson’s disease  & molecular hydrogen

[11959697119]

 Alzheimer’s disease & molecular hydrogen

[43120]

 Other brain health conditions & molecular hydrogen 

 

 Restraint-induced dementia & molecular hydrogen

[121]

Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated mice & molecular hydrogen

[122]

 LPS-induced neuroinflammation & molecular hydrogen

[81123]

Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell damage & molecular hydrogen

[124125]

Spinal Cord and peripheral nerve & molecular hydrogen

 

 Spinal cord I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[126127]

 Spinal cord injury & molecular hydrogen

[77128]

 Neuropathic pain & molecular hydrogen

[3992129130]

 Hyperalgesia & molecular hydrogen

[79131132]

 Eyes & molecular hydrogen

 

 Retinal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[133134]

 Diabetic retinopathy & molecular hydrogen

[135136]

 Hyperoxia-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen

[137]

 Light-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen

[138139]

 Glutamine-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen

[50]

S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine-induced retinopathy & molecular hydrogen

[140]

 Optic nerve crush & molecular hydrogen

[141]

 Selenite-induced cataract & molecular hydrogen

[142]

 Corneal alkali-burn & molecular hydrogen

[55]

 Anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated retinal microglia cells & molecular hydrogen

[64]

Ears & molecular hydrogen

 

 Hearing loss & molecular hydrogen

[143144145146147148]

Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity & molecular hydrogen

[149150]

 Ouabain-induced ototoxicity & molecular hydrogen

[151]

Oral Cavity & molecular hydrogen

 

  Periodontitis & molecular hydrogen

[32]

 r Periodontal oxidative damage & molecular hydrogen

[152]

Lungs & molecular hydrogen

 

 Lung I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[153154]

 Oxygen-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[82155156]

 Ventilation-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[53157]

 LPS-induced acute lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[131416158]

 Intestinal I/R-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[159]

Burn-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[160]

Paraquat-induced lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[161162]

 cigarette smoking lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[163]

 Smoke inhalation lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[74]

 Pulmonary hypertension & molecular hydrogen

[78164]

Heart & molecular hydrogen

 

 Myocardial infarction and I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[171819202122232484]

Diabetic cardiomyopathy & molecular hydrogen

[40]

 Sleep apnea-induced left ventricular remodeling & molecular hydrogen

[165166]

 Ventricular hypertrophy & molecular hydrogen

[167]

Stomach & molecular hydrogen

 

 Stress-induced gastric ulceration & molecular hydrogen

[38]

 Aspirin-induced gastric ulceration & molecular hydrogen

[168169]

Intestines & molecular hydrogen

 

 Intestinal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[170171]

 Ulcerative colitis & molecular hydrogen

[172173]

 Colon inflammation& molecular hydrogen

[174]

Sepsis-induced intestinal injury & molecular hydrogen

[87]

 Necrotizing enterocolitis & molecular hydrogen

[175]

Liver & molecular hydrogen

 

  Liver I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[7198176177178]

 Chronic hepatitis B& molecular hydrogen

[179]

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis & molecular hydrogen

[180]

 Liver injury induced by massive hepatectomy & molecular hydrogen

[6793181]

 Liver injury induced by obstructive jaundice & molecular hydrogen

[31]

 Liver injury induced by endotoxin & molecular hydrogen

[35]

 Liver injury induced by acetaminophen & molecular hydrogen

[47]

 Liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride & molecular hydrogen

[42]

 Liver injury induced by concanavalin A & molecular hydrogen

[182]

 Liver cirrhosis & molecular hydrogen

[183]

 Liver fibrosis & molecular hydrogen

[184]

Pancreas & molecular hydrogen

 

Acute pancreatitis & molecular hydrogen

[76185186187]

Peritoneum & molecular hydrogen

 

Acute peritonitis & molecular hydrogen

[68]

molecular hydrogen benefits for Kidneys

 

 Renal I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[188189190]

  Acute renal injury & molecular hydrogen

[3772191192193194]

 Hypertensive renal injury & molecular hydrogen

[69]

Cisplatin-induced nephropathy & molecular hydrogen

[195196197]

 Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity & molecular hydrogen

[198]

Inhibition of AGEs production & molecular hydrogen

[199]

 Renal calcium deposition & molecular hydrogen

[200]

molecular hydrogen benefits for Bladder

 

Interstitial cystitis & molecular hydrogen

[201]

molecular hydrogen benefits for Reproductive organs

 

 Testicular I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[202203]

Erectile dysfunctions & molecular hydrogen

[204]

 Nicotine-induced testicular oxidative stress & molecular hydrogen

[205]

 Cigarette smoke-induced testicular damage

[206]

Skin & molecular hydrogen

 

 skin I/R injury & molecular hydrogen

[46207]

 UV-induced skin injury & molecular hydrogen

[45208209210211]

] Acute erythematous skin disease & molecular hydrogen

[212]

 Atopic dermatitis & molecular hydrogen

[213214]

 Psoriasis & molecular hydrogen

[215]

  Pressure ulcer & molecular hydrogen

[216]

  Burns & molecular hydrogen

[4970]

  Arsenic toxicity & molecular hydrogen

[217]

 Bones and Joints & molecular hydrogen

 

  Rheumatoid arthritis & molecular hydrogen

[218219]

  Osteoporosis & molecular hydrogen

[3662]

 Bone loss induced by microgravity & molecular hydrogen

[34]

 TNFα-induced osteoblast injury & molecular hydrogen

[220]

 NO-induced cartilage toxicity & molecular hydrogen

[221]

molecular hydrogen benefits for Skeletal Muscles sand soft tissues

 

  I/R injury in skeletal muscle & molecular hydrogen

[222]

 Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies & molecular hydrogen

[223]

 Muscle fatigue & molecular hydrogen

[224]

  Sports-related soft tissue injury & molecular hydrogen

[225]

molecular hydrogen benefits for Blood vessel

 

 Atherosclerosis & molecular hydrogen

[585985226227]

  AGEs-induced blood vessel damage  & molecular hydrogen

[228]

  Neointimal hyperplasia & molecular hydrogen

[29]

  Hyperplasia in arterialized vein graft& molecular hydrogen

[229]

 Vascular dysfunction & molecular hydrogen

[60]

 Vascular endothelial function& molecular hydrogen

[230]

 Blood and Bone Marrow & molecular hydrogen

 

 Aplastic anemia & molecular hydrogen

[231]

 Maintenance of multipotential stroma/mesenchymal stem cells & molecular hydrogen

[232]

 Neutrophil function & molecular hydrogen

[233]

  Inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation & molecular hydrogen

[234]

Improvement of blood fluidity & molecular hydrogen

[235]

Metabolism & molecular hydrogen

 

 Diabetes mellitus& molecular hydrogen

[236237238239240241]

 Hyperlipidemia & molecular hydrogen

[44242243244]

 Metabolic syndrome & molecular hydrogen

[245246247]

Metabolic process-related gene expression & molecular hydrogen

[248]

 Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicity & molecular hydrogen

[54]

 Serum alkalinization & molecular hydrogen

[249]

Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis & molecular hydrogen

[250]

 Inflammation/Allergy & molecular hydrogen

 

 Sepsis & molecular hydrogen

[4186251252253254255]

 LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production & molecular hydrogen

[27]

 LPS-induced inflammatory response & molecular hydrogen

[90]

 LPS-induced vascular permeability& molecular hydrogen

[80256]

 Zymosan-induced inflammation & molecular hydrogen

[257]

Carrageenan-induced paw edema & molecular hydrogen

[258]

Inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass & molecular hydrogen

[259]

Type I allergy & molecular hydrogen

[26]

 Asthma & molecular hydrogen

[63]

Perinatal Disorders & molecular hydrogen

 

Neonatal cerebral hypoxia& molecular hydrogen

[260261262263]

 LPS-induced fetal lung injury & molecular hydrogen

[15]

Preeclampsia & molecular hydrogen

[264265]

Cancer & molecular hydrogen

 

 Growth of tongue carcinoma cells & molecular hydrogen

[266]

 Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity and tumor progression & molecular hydrogen

[65]

  Radiation-induced thymic lymphoma & molecular hydrogen

[267]

 Tumor angiogenesis & molecular hydrogen

[268]

Enhancement of 5-FU antitumor efficacy & molecular hydrogen

[269]

Radiation & molecular hydrogen

 

Cardiac damage& molecular hydrogen

[270]

 Lung damage & molecular hydrogen

[271]

Testicular damage & molecular hydrogen

[272]

 Skin damage & molecular hydrogen

[273274]

 Germ, hematopoietic and other cell damage & molecular hydrogen

[275276277278279280]

Radiation-induced adverse effects & molecular hydrogen

[281]

Radiation-induced immune dysfunction & molecular hydrogen

[282]

 Intoxication & molecular hydrogen

 

 Carbon monoxide INTOXICATION & molecular hydrogen

[283284285286]

Sevoflurane intoxication & molecular hydrogen

[287288]

  Doxorubicin-induced heart failure & molecular hydrogen

[289]

 Melamine-induced urinary stone & molecular hydrogen

[290]

Chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity & molecular hydrogen

[291]

molecular hydrogen for Transplantation

 

 Heart transplant & molecular hydrogen

[52292293294]

 Lung transplant& molecular hydrogen

[3388295296297298299]

 Kidney transplant & molecular hydrogen

[3051]

 Intestine transplant & molecular hydrogen

[89300301]

Pancreas transplant & molecular hydrogen

[302]

Osteochondral grafts & molecular hydrogen

[303]

Acute GVHD & molecular hydrogen

[304305]

Resuscitation & molecular hydrogen

 

  Cardiac arrest & molecular hydrogen

[306307]

 Hemorrhagic shock & molecular hydrogen

[75308309]

Dialysis & molecular hydrogen

 

 Hemodialysis & molecular hydrogen

[310311312313]

 Peritoneal dialysis & molecular hydrogen

[314315]

Others health conditions & molecular hydrogen

 

 Lifespan extension & molecular hydrogen

[316]

 Sperm motility & molecular hydrogen

[317]

 Decompression sickness & molecular hydrogen

[318]

 Genotoxicity and mutagenicity & molecular hydrogen

[319]

Plants & molecular hydrogen

 

 Root organogenesis & molecular hydrogen

[91320]

 Salt tolerance & molecular hydrogen

[321322]

 Postharvest ripening & molecular hydrogen

[323]

 Stomatal closure & molecular hydrogen

[324]

 Radish sprout tolerance to UVA & molecular hydrogen

[325]

 High light stress & molecular hydrogen

[326]

 Phytohormone signaling and stress responses & molecular hydrogen

[327]

 Tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress & molecular hydrogen

[328]

 Cadmium toxicity & molecular hydrogen

[329330]

 Mercury toxicity & molecular hydrogen

[331]

 

 

Once again one can benefit from molecular hydrogen  H2 regardless of the method of administration, including from drinking molecular hydrogen water wich proved to be far superior than inhaling hydrogen gas for example – read more about Modalities of molecular hydrogen administration(in water, gas or saline) to animals, humans, and plantsMolecular hydrogen-rich water is expected to be easily used in place of regular everyday drinking water and will effectively treat chronic maladies such as lifestyle-related diseases.In addition, molecular hydrogen water is both safe and easy to drink at home( we think it’s easier to drink molecular hydrogen water than injecting molecular hydrogen rich saline or inhaling molecular hydrogen gas)
 

References

  1. Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, et al. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;13(6):688–94. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1577.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Dole M, Wilson FR, Fife WP. Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy: a possible treatment for cancer. Science. 1975;190(4210):152–4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Roberts BJ, Fife WP, Corbett TH, Schabel Jr FM. Response of five established solid transplantable mouse tumors and one mouse leukemia to hyperbaric hydrogen. Cancer Treat Rep. 1978;62(7):1077–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abraini JH, Gardette-Chauffour MC, Martinez E, Rostain JC, Lemaire C. Psychophysiological reactions in humans during an open sea dive to 500 m with a hydrogen-helium-oxygen mixture. J Appl Physiol. 1994;76(3):1113–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gharib B, Hanna S, Abdallahi OM, Lepidi H, Gardette B, De Reggi M. Anti-inflammatory properties of molecular hydrogen: investigation on parasite-induced liver inflammation. C R Acad Sci III. 2001;324(8):719–24.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;234(1):269–74. doi:https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6622.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Li Y, Nishimura T, Teruya K, Maki T, Komatsu T, Hamasaki T, et al. Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species. Cytotechnology. 2002;40(1–3):139–49. doi:https://doi.org/10.1023/A%3A1023936421448.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang KC, Yang CC, Lee KT, Chien CT. Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney Int. 2003;64(2):704–14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00118.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Yanagihara T, Arai K, Miyamae K, Sato B, Shudo T, Yamada M, et al. Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69(10):1985–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang G, Zhou J, Zhan W, Xiong Y, Hu C, Li X, et al. The neuroprotective effects of intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen in rabbits with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2013;84(5):690–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.10.018.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Ito M, Hirayama M, Yamai K, Goto S, Ito M, Ichihara M, et al. Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-15.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Sobue S, Yamai K, Ito M, Ohno K, Ito M, Iwamoto T, et al. Simultaneous oral and inhalational intake of molecular hydrogen additively suppresses signaling pathways in rodents. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;403(1–2):231–41. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-015-2353-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Qiu X, Li H, Tang H, Jin Y, Li W, Sun Y, et al. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11(12):2130–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.09.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Xie K, Yu Y, Huang Y, Zheng L, Li J, Chen H, et al. Molecular hydrogen ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Shock. 2012;37(5):548–55. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e31824ddc81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hattori Y, Kotani T, Tsuda H, Mano Y, Tu L, Li H, et al. Maternal molecular hydrogen treatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced rat fetal lung injury. Free Radic Res. 2015;49:1026–37. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2015.1038257.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang J. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced lung dysfunction. J Surg Res. 2015;198:41–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.055.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayashida K, Sano M, Ohsawa I, Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Kimura K, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373(1):30–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.165.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Sakai K, Cho S, Shibata I, Yoshitomi O, Maekawa T, Sumikawa K. Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects against myocardial stunning and infarction in swine. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2012;46(3):183–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/14017431.2012.659676.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Yoshida A, Asanuma H, Sasaki H, Sanada S, Yamazaki S, Asano Y, et al. H(2) mediates cardioprotection via involvements of K(ATP) channels and permeability transition pores of mitochondria in dogs. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2012;26(3):217–26. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10557-012-6381-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Shinbo T, Kokubo K, Sato Y, Hagiri S, Hataishi R, Hirose M, et al. Breathing nitric oxide plus hydrogen gas reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury and nitrotyrosine production in murine heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305(4):H542–50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00844.2012.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun Q, Kang Z, Cai J, Liu W, Liu Y, Zhang JH, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234(10):1212–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3181/0812-RM-349.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhang Y, Sun Q, He B, Xiao J, Wang Z, Sun X. Anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Int J Cardiol. 2011;148(1):91–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.08.058.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Jing L, Wang Y, Zhao XM, Zhao B, Han JJ, Qin SC, et al. Cardioprotective Effect of Hydrogen-rich Saline on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;24(6):602–10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2014.11.018.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang G, Gao S, Li X, Zhang L, Tan H, Xu L, et al. Pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and hydrogen rich saline alleviates myocardial reperfusion injury in rats. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9858. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/srep09858.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Ohno K, Ito M, Ichihara M, Ito M. Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:353152. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/353152.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Itoh T, Fujita Y, Ito M, Masuda A, Ohno K, Ichihara M, et al. Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389(4):651–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.047.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Itoh T, Hamada N, Terazawa R, Ito M, Ohno K, Ichihara M, et al. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411(1):143–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.116.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Manaenko A, Lekic T, Ma Q, Zhang JH, Tang J. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell-mediated brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(5):1266–75. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827711c9.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen Y, Jiang J, Miao H, Chen X, Sun X, Li Y. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and inactivating the Ras-ERK1/2-MEK1/2 and Akt pathways. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31(3):597–606. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2013.1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cardinal JS, Zhan J, Wang Y, Sugimoto R, Tsung A, McCurry KR, et al. Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Kidney Int. 2010;77(2):101–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2009.421.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu Q, Shen WF, Sun HY, Fan DF, Nakao A, Cai JM, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against liver injury in rats with obstructive jaundice. Liver Int. 2010;30(7):958–68. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02254.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Kasuyama K, Tomofuji T, Ekuni D, Tamaki N, Azuma T, Irie K, et al. Hydrogen-rich water attenuates experimental periodontitis in a rat model. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(12):1085–90. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01801.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Tanaka Y, Shigemura N, Kawamura T, Noda K, Isse K, Stolz DB, et al. Profiling molecular changes induced by hydrogen treatment of lung allografts prior to procurement. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425(4):873–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.005.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun Y, Shuang F, Chen DM, Zhou RB. Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(3):969–78. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-012-2028-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu XF, Zhang J. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats. Physiol Res. 2013;62(4):395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Li DZ, Zhang QX, Dong XX, Li HD, Ma X. Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells. J Bone Miner Metab. 2014;32(5):494–504. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00774-013-0530-1.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Guo SX, Fang Q, You CG, Jin YY, Wang XG, Hu XL, et al. Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early acute kidney injury in severely burned rats by suppressing oxidative stress induced apoptosis and inflammation. J Transl Med. 2015;13:183. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-015-0548-3.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu X, Chen Z, Mao N, Xie Y. The protective of hydrogen on stress-induced gastric ulceration. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;13(2):197–203. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.04.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen Q, Chen P, Zhou S, Yan X, Zhang J, Sun X, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuated neuropathic pain by reducing oxidative stress. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013;40(6):857–63.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Wu F, Qiu Y, Ye G, Luo H, Jiang J, Yu F, et al. Treatment with hydrogen molecule attenuates cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2015;24:294–303. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2015.04.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhai Y, Zhou X, Dai Q, Fan Y, Huang X. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates lung injury associated with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;98(2):268–76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.03.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Sun H, Chen L, Zhou W, Hu L, Li L, Tu Q, et al. The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice. J Hepatol. 2011;54(3):471–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2010.08.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang C, Li J, Liu Q, Yang R, Zhang JH, Cao YP, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-kappaB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 2011;491(2):127–32. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.022.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  44. Iio A, Ito M, Itoh T, Terazawa R, Fujita Y, Nozawa Y, et al. Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Med Gas Res. 2013;3(1):6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-3-6.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  45. Shin MH, Park R, Nojima H, Kim HC, Kim YK, Chung JH. Atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, modulates basal and UV-induced gene expressions in human skin in vivo. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61696. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061696.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu YQ, Liu YF, Ma XM, Xiao YD, Wang YB, Zhang MZ, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates skin ischemia/reperfusion induced apoptosis via regulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ASK-1/JNK pathway. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015;68(7):e147–56. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2015.03.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang JY, Song SD, Pang Q, Zhang RY, Wan Y, Yuan DW, et al. Hydrogen-rich water protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(14):4195–209. doi:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4195.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  48. Hong Y, Shao A, Wang J, Chen S, Wu H, McBride DW, et al. Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e96212. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096212.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  49. Guo SX, Jin YY, Fang Q, You CG, Wang XG, Hu XL, et al. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0124897. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124897.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  50. Wei L, Ge L, Qin S, Shi Y, Du C, Du H, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects retina against glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury in guinea pig. Exp Eye Res. 2012;94(1):117–27. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2011.11.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  51. Abe T, Li XK, Yazawa K, Hatayama N, Xie L, Sato B, et al. Hydrogen-rich University of Wisconsin solution attenuates renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 2012;94(1):14–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e318255f8be.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  52. Noda K, Shigemura N, Tanaka Y, Kawamura T, Hyun Lim S, Kokubo K, et al. A novel method of preserving cardiac grafts using a hydrogen-rich water bath. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(2):241–50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2012.11.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang CS, Kawamura T, Peng X, Tochigi N, Shigemura N, Billiar TR, et al. Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408(2):253–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.04.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  54. Song G, Tian H, Liu J, Zhang H, Sun X, Qin S. H2 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expression by inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB activation in endothelial cells. Biotechnol Lett. 2011;33(9):1715–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-011-0630-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  55. Kubota M, Shimmura S, Kubota S, Miyashita H, Kato N, Noda K, et al. Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(1):427–33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6167.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  56. Ji Q, Hui K, Zhang L, Sun X, Li W, Duan M. The effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain of rats with transient ischemia. J Surg Res. 2011;168(1):e95–101. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.01.057.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  57. Shen L, Wang J, Liu K, Wang C, Wang C, Wu H, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline is cerebroprotective in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Neurochem Res. 2011;36(8):1501–11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-011-0476-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Qin ZX, Yu P, Qian DH, Song MB, Tan H, Yu Y, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline prevents neointima formation after carotid balloon injury by suppressing ROS and the TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220(2):343–50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.11.002.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  59. Song G, Tian H, Qin S, Sun X, Yao S, Zong C, et al. Hydrogen decreases athero-susceptibility in apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221(1):55–65. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.11.043.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  60. Zheng H, Yu YS. Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83(9):1269–77. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2012.01.031.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  61. Hong Y, Guo S, Chen S, Sun C, Zhang J, Sun X. Beneficial effect of hydrogen-rich saline on cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90(8):1670–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22739.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  62. Guo JD, Li L, Shi YM, Wang HD, Hou SX. Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168(6):1412–20. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.12036.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  63. Xiao M, Zhu T, Wang T, Wen FQ. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces airway remodeling via inactivation of NF-kappaB in a murine model of asthma. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(8):1033–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu GD, Zhang H, Wang L, Han Q, Zhou SF, Liu P. Molecular hydrogen regulates the expression of miR-9, miR-21 and miR-199 in LPS-activated retinal microglia cells. Int J Ophthalmol. 2013;6(3):280–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2013.03.05.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li FY, Zhu SX, Wang ZP, Wang H, Zhao Y, Chen GP. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water protects against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;61:248–54. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhuang Z, Sun XJ, Zhang X, Liu HD, You WC, Ma CY, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB/Bcl-XL pathway is involved in the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91(12):1599–608. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23281.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  67. Tan YC, Xie F, Zhang HL, Zhu YL, Chen K, Tan HM, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates postoperative liver failure after major hepatectomy in rats. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2014;38(3):337–45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2013.11.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang J, Wu Q, Song S, Wan Y, Zhang R, Tai M, et al. Effect of hydrogen-rich water on acute peritonitis of rat models. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;21(1):94–101. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2014.04.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  69. Xin HG, Zhang BB, Wu ZQ, Hang XF, Xu WS, Ni W, et al. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water alleviates renal injury in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;392(1–2):117–24. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-014-2024-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang X, Yu P, Yong Y, Liu X, Jiang J, Liu D, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline resuscitation alleviates inflammation induced by severe burn with delayed resuscitation. Burns. 2015;41(2):379–85. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2014.07.012.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang CB, Tang YC, Xu XJ, Guo SX, Wang HZ. Hydrogen gas inhalation protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Exp Ther Med. 2015;9(6):2114–20. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2385.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shi Q, Liao KS, Zhao KL, Wang WX, Zuo T, Deng WH, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis by inhibiting ROS and NF-kappaB pathway. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:685043. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/685043.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Shao A, Wu H, Hong Y, Tu S, Sun X, Wu Q et al. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuated Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Early Brain Injury in Rats by Suppressing Inflammatory Response: Possible Involvement of NF-kappaB Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome. Mol Neurobiol. 2015. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9242-y.
  74. Chen X, Liu Q, Wang D, Feng S, Zhao Y, Shi Y, et al. Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Rats with Smoke Inhalation Injury. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:106836. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/106836.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kohama K, Yamashita H, Aoyama-Ishikawa M, Takahashi T, Billiar TR, Nishimura T, et al. Hydrogen inhalation protects against acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Surgery. 2015;158(2):399–407. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  76. Ren JD, Ma J, Hou J, Xiao WJ, Jin WH, Wu J, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental acute pancreatitis in mice. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:930894. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/930894.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu FT, Xu SM, Xiang ZH, Li XN, Li J, Yuan HB, et al. Molecular hydrogen suppresses reactive astrogliosis related to oxidative injury during spinal cord injury in rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014;20(8):778–86. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/cns.12258.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  78. Kishimoto Y, Kato T, Ito M, Azuma Y, Fukasawa Y, Ohno K, et al. Hydrogen ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in rats by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;150:645–54. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.05.052.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang L, Shu R, Wang C, Wang H, Li N, Wang G. Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3beta in the DRG in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2014;106:47–55. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2014.05.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  80. Xie K, Wang W, Chen H, Han H, Liu D, Wang G, et al. Hydrogen-Rich Medium Attenuated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Vascular Endothelial Permeability via Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Protein Kinase. Shock. 2015;44(1):58–64. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000365.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  81. Spulber S, Edoff K, Hong L, Morisawa S, Shirahata S, Ceccatelli S. Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42078. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042078.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  82. Kawamura T, Wakabayashi N, Shigemura N, Huang CS, Masutani K, Tanaka Y, et al. Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;304(10):L646–56. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00164.2012.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhai X, Chen X, Shi J, Shi D, Ye Z, Liu W, et al. Lactulose ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by inducing hydrogen by activating Nrf2 expression. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:731–41. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.08.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  84. Xie Q, Li XX, Zhang P, Li JC, Cheng Y, Feng YL, et al. Hydrogen gas protects against serum and glucose deprivationinduced myocardial injury in H9c2 cells through activation of the NFE2related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10(2):1143–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2014.2283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Song G, Zong C, Zhang Z, Yu Y, Yao S, Jiao P, et al. Molecular Hydrogen stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;87:58–68. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.06.018.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  86. Li Y, Xie K, Chen H, Wang G, Yu Y. Hydrogen gas inhibits high-mobility group box 1 release in septic mice by upregulation of heme oxygenase 1. J Surg Res. 2015;196(1):136–48. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.02.042.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  87. Li Y, Li Q, Chen H, Wang T, Liu L, Wang G, et al. Hydrogen Gas Alleviates the Intestinal Injury Caused by Severe Sepsis in Mice by Increasing the Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1. Shock. 2015;44(1):90–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000382.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  88. Kawamura T, Huang CS, Peng X, Masutani K, Shigemura N, Billiar TR, et al. The effect of donor treatment with hydrogen on lung allograft function in rats. Surgery. 2011;150(2):240–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2011.05.019.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  89. Buchholz BM, Masutani K, Kawamura T, Peng X, Toyoda Y, Billiar TR, et al. Hydrogen-enriched preservation protects the isogeneic intestinal graft and amends recipient gastric function during transplantation. Transplantation. 2011;92(9):985–92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e318230159d.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Chen HG, Xie KL, Han HZ, Wang WN, Liu DQ, Wang GL, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of molecular hydrogen in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Int J Surg. 2013;11(10):1060–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.10.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  91. Lin Y, Zhang W, Qi F, Cui W, Xie Y, Shen W. Hydrogen-rich water regulates cucumber adventitious root development in a heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide-dependent manner. J Plant Physiol. 2014;171(2):1–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.08.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  92. Chen Y, Chen H, Xie K, Liu L, Li Y, Yu Y, et al. H Treatment Attenuated Pain Behavior and Cytokine Release Through the HO-1/CO Pathway in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain. Inflammation. 2015;38:1835–46. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-015-0161-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  93. Yu J, Zhang W, Zhang R, Ruan X, Ren P, Lu B. Lactulose accelerates liver regeneration in rats by inducing hydrogen. J Surg Res. 2015;195(1):128–35. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.01.034.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  94. Wei R, Zhang R, Xie Y, Shen L, Chen F. Hydrogen Suppresses Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Cell Death in Hippocampal Neurons Through Reducing Oxidative Stress. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;36(2):585–98. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000430122.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  95. Matsumoto A, Yamafuji M, Tachibana T, Nakabeppu Y, Noda M, Nakaya H. Oral ‘hydrogen water’ induces neuroprotective ghrelin secretion in mice. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3273. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03273.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  96. Yoritaka A, Takanashi M, Hirayama M, Nakahara T, Ohta S, Hattori N. Pilot study of H(2) therapy in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2013;28(6):836–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.25375.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  97. Fujita K, Seike T, Yutsudo N, Ohno M, Yamada H, Yamaguchi H, et al. Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One. 2009;4(9):e7247. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007247.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  98. Fukuda K, Asoh S, Ishikawa M, Yamamoto Y, Ohsawa I, Ohta S. Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361(3):670–4. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.088.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  99. Chen CH, Manaenko A, Zhan Y, Liu WW, Ostrowki RP, Tang J, et al. Hydrogen gas reduced acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a focal ischemia rat model. Neuroscience. 2010;169(1):402–14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.04.043.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  100. Hugyecz M, Mracsko E, Hertelendy P, Farkas E, Domoki F, Bari F. Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2011;1404:31–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.068.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  101. Ono H, Nishijima Y, Adachi N, Tachibana S, Chitoku S, Mukaihara S, et al. Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):12. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-12.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  102. Liu Y, Liu W, Sun X, Li R, Sun Q, Cai J, et al. Hydrogen saline offers neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress in a focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-15.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  103. Li J, Dong Y, Chen H, Han H, Yu Y, Wang G, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Brain Res. 2012;1486:103–11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.09.031.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  104. Nagatani K, Wada K, Takeuchi S, Kobayashi H, Uozumi Y, Otani N, et al. Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia. Shock. 2012;37(6):645–52. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e31824ed57c.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  105. Ge P, Zhao J, Li S, Ding Y, Yang F, Luo Y. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cognitive impairment in transient cerebral ischemia via inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurol Res. 2012;34(2):187–94. doi:https://doi.org/10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nagatani K, Nawashiro H, Takeuchi S, Tomura S, Otani N, Osada H, et al. Safety of intravenous administration of hydrogen-enriched fluid in patients with acute cerebral ischemia: initial clinical studies. Med Gas Res. 2013;3(1):13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-3-13.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  107. Olah O, Toth-Szuki V, Temesvari P, Bari F, Domoki F. Delayed neurovascular dysfunction is alleviated by hydrogen in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Neonatology. 2013;104(2):79–86. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000348445.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  108. Cui Y, Zhang H, Ji M, Jia M, Chen H, Yang J, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates neuronal ischemia–reperfusion injury by protecting mitochondrial function in rats. J Surg Res. 2014;192(2):564–72. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2014.05.060.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  109. Han L, Tian R, Yan H, Pei L, Hou Z, Hao S, et al. Hydrogen-rich water protects against ischemic brain injury in rats by regulating calcium buffering proteins. Brain Res. 2015;1615:129–38. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.04.038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  110. Takeuchi S, Nagatani K, Otani N, Nawashiro H, Sugawara T, Wada K, et al. Hydrogen improves neurological function through attenuation of blood–brain barrier disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. BMC Neurosci. 2015;16(1):22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12868-015-0165-3.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhuang Z, Zhou ML, You WC, Zhu L, Ma CY, Sun XJ, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:47. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-13-47.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhan Y, Chen C, Suzuki H, Hu Q, Zhi X, Zhang JH. Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(4):1291–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31823da96d.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  113. Takeuchi S, Mori K, Arimoto H, Fujii K, Nagatani K, Tomura S, et al. Effects of intravenous infusion of hydrogen-rich fluid combined with intra-cisternal infusion of magnesium sulfate in severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurol. 2014;14:176. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-014-0176-1.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  114. Ji X, Liu W, Xie K, Liu W, Qu Y, Chao X, et al. Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Brain Res. 2010;1354:196–205. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  115. Eckermann JM, Chen W, Jadhav V, Hsu FP, Colohan AR, Tang J, et al. Hydrogen is neuroprotective against surgically induced brain injury. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-7.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  116. Hou Z, Luo W, Sun X, Hao S, Zhang Y, Xu F, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Res Bull. 2012;88(6):560–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.06.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  117. Ji X, Tian Y, Xie K, Liu W, Qu Y, Fei Z. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. J Surg Res. 2012;178(1):e9–16. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.12.038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  118. Dohi K, Kraemer BC, Erickson MA, McMillan PJ, Kovac A, Flachbartova Z, et al. Molecular hydrogen in drinking water protects against neurodegenerative changes induced by traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108034. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108034.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  119. Fu Y, Ito M, Fujita Y, Ito M, Ichihara M, Masuda A, et al. Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 2009;453(2):81–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  120. Li J, Wang C, Zhang JH, Cai JM, Cao YP, Sun XJ. Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Res. 2010;1328:152–61. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.02.046.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  121. Nagata K, Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mikami T, Ohsawa I, Ohta S. Consumption of molecular hydrogen prevents the stress-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks during chronic physical restraint in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34(2):501–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.95.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  122. Gu Y, Huang CS, Inoue T, Yamashita T, Ishida T, Kang KM, et al. Drinking hydrogen water ameliorated cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010;46(3):269–76. doi:https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.10-19.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  123. Liu L, Xie K, Chen H, Dong X, Li Y, Yu Y, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates brain injury in mice with cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Brain Res. 2014;1589:78–92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.030.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  124. Ueda Y, Nakajima A, Oikawa T. Hydrogen-related enhancement of in vivo antioxidant ability in the brain of rats fed coral calcium hydride. Neurochem Res. 2010;35(10):1510–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0204-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  125. Kashiwagi T, Yan H, Hamasaki T, Kinjo T, Nakamichi N, Teruya K, et al. Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:869121. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/869121.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  126. Huang Y, Xie K, Li J, Xu N, Gong G, Wang G, et al. Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Res. 2011;1378:125–36. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.071.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhou L, Wang X, Xue W, Xie K, Huang Y, Chen H, et al. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Res. 2013;1517:150–60. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2013.04.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  128. Chen C, Chen Q, Mao Y, Xu S, Xia C, Shi X, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats. Neurochem Res. 2010;35(7):1111–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0162-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  129. Ge Y, Wu F, Sun X, Xiang Z, Yang L, Huang S, et al. Intrathecal infusion of hydrogen-rich normal saline attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia in rats. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97436. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097436.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  130. Kawaguchi M, Satoh Y, Otsubo Y, Kazama T. Molecular hydrogen attenuates neuropathic pain in mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100352. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100352.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhang L, Shu R, Wang H, Yu Y, Wang C, Yang M, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline prevents remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits MnSOD nitration via regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in rats. Neuroscience. 2014;280:171–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.09.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  132. Shu RC, Zhang LL, Wang CY, Li N, Wang HY, Xie KL, et al. Spinal peroxynitrite contributes to remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia via enhancement of divalent metal transporter 1 without iron-responsive element-mediated iron accumulation in rats. Anesthesiology. 2015;122(4):908–20. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000562.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  133. Oharazawa H, Igarashi T, Yokota T, Fujii H, Suzuki H, Machide M, et al. Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(1):487–92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-4089.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  134. Liu H, Hua N, Xie K, Zhao T, Yu Y. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces cell death through inhibition of DNA oxidative stress and overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12(2):2495–502. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3731.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Xiao X, Cai J, Xu J, Wang R, Cai J, Liu Y, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen saline on diabetic retinopathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2012;28(1):76–82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1089/jop.2010.0129.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  136. Feng Y, Wang R, Xu J, Sun J, Xu T, Gu Q, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline prevents early neurovascular dysfunction resulting from inhibition of oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38(3):396–404. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2012.748919.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  137. Huang L, Zhao S, Zhang JH, Sun X. Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression. Ophthalmic Res. 2012;47(3):122–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000329600.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  138. Feng M, Wang XH, Yang XB, Xiao Q, Jiang FG. Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. Int J Ophthalmol. 2012;5(2):151–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.07.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Tian L, Zhang L, Xia F, An J, Sugita Y, Zhang Z. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the retina against light-induced damage in rats. Med Gas Res. 2013;3(1):19. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-3-19.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  140. Yokota T, Kamimura N, Igarashi T, Takahashi H, Ohta S, Oharazawa H. Protective effect of molecular hydrogen against oxidative stress caused by peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide in rat retina. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2015;43:568–77. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ceo.12525.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  141. Sun JC, Xu T, Zuo Q, Wang RB, Qi AQ, Cao WL, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of optic nerve crush. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e99299. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099299.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  142. Yang CX, Yan H, Ding TB. Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1684–93.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kikkawa YS, Nakagawa T, Horie RT, Ito J. Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals. Neuroreport. 2009;20(7):689–94. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832a5c68.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  144. Taura A, Kikkawa YS, Nakagawa T, Ito J. Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2010;130(563):95–100. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/00016489.2010.486799.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  145. Lin Y, Kashio A, Sakamoto T, Suzukawa K, Kakigi A, Yamasoba T. Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487(1):12–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.09.064.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  146. Zhou Y, Zheng H, Ruan F, Chen X, Zheng G, Kang M, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience. 2012;209:47–53. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.02.028.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  147. Chen L, Yu N, Lu Y, Wu L, Chen D, Guo W, et al. Hydrogen-saturated saline protects intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs through an antioxidant effect. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100774. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100774.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  148. Kurioka T, Matsunobu T, Satoh Y, Niwa K, Shiotani A. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss through reducing reactive oxygen species. Neurosci Res. 2014;89:69–74. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2014.08.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  149. Qu J, Li X, Wang J, Mi W, Xie K, Qiu J. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(1):111–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.10.014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  150. Kikkawa YS, Nakagawa T, Taniguchi M, Ito J. Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced free radicals. Neurosci Lett. 2014;579:125–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2014.07.025.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  151. Qu J, Gan YN, Xie KL, Liu WB, Wang YF, Hei RY, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabain-induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33(4):445–51. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/aps.2011.190.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  152. Tomofuji T, Kawabata Y, Kasuyama K, Endo Y, Yoneda T, Yamane M, et al. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues in rats. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5534. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05534.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  153. Shi J, Yao F, Zhong C, Pan X, Yang Y, Lin Q. Hydrogen saline is protective for acute lung ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in rats. Heart Lung Circ. 2012;21(9):556–63. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2012.05.782.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  154. Li H, Zhou R, Liu J, Li Q, Zhang J, Mu J, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. J Surg Res. 2012;174(1):e11–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.10.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  155. Zheng J, Liu K, Kang Z, Cai J, Liu W, Xu W, et al. Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2010;37(3):185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sun Q, Cai J, Liu S, Liu Y, Xu W, Tao H, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline provides protection against hyperoxic lung injury. J Surg Res. 2011;165(1):e43–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.09.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  157. Huang CS, Kawamura T, Lee S, Tochigi N, Shigemura N, Buchholz BM, et al. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury. Crit Care. 2010;14(6):R234. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/cc9389.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  158. Liu H, Liang X, Wang D, Zhang H, Liu L, Chen H, et al. Combination therapy with nitric oxide and molecular hydrogen in a murine model of acute lung injury. Shock. 2015;43(5):504–11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000316.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  159. Mao YF, Zheng XF, Cai JM, You XM, Deng XM, Zhang JH, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381(4):602–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.105.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  160. Fang Y, Fu XJ, Gu C, Xu P, Wang Y, Yu WR, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat model. J Burn Care Res. 2011;32(3):e82–91. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e318217f84f.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  161. Liu S, Liu K, Sun Q, Liu W, Xu W, Denoble P, et al. Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:305086. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/305086.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sato C, Kamijo Y, Yoshimura K, Nagaki T, Yamaya T, Asakuma S, et al. Effects of hydrogen water on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Kitasato Med J. 2015;45(1):9–16.Google Scholar
  163. Ning Y, Shang Y, Huang H, Zhang J, Dong Y, Xu W, et al. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83429. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083429.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  164. He B, Zhang Y, Kang B, Xiao J, Xie B, Wang Z. Protection of oral hydrogen water as an antioxidant on pulmonary hypertension. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40(9):5513–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2653-9.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  165. Hayashi T, Yoshioka T, Hasegawa K, Miyamura M, Mori T, Ukimura A, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301(3):H1062–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00150.2011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  166. Kato R, Nomura A, Sakamoto A, Yasuda Y, Amatani K, Nagai S, et al. Hydrogen gas attenuates embryonic gene expression and prevents left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;307(11):H1626–33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00228.2014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  167. Yu YS, Zheng H. Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduces oxidative stress and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;365(1–2):233–42. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-012-1264-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  168. Zhang JY, Wu QF, Wan Y, Song SD, Xu J, Xu XS, et al. Protective role of hydrogen-rich water on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(6):1614–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i6.1614.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  169. Xue J, Shang G, Tanaka Y, Saihara Y, Hou L, Velasquez N, et al. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:81. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-81.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  170. Zheng X, Mao Y, Cai J, Li Y, Liu W, Sun P, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Free Radic Res. 2009;43(5):478–84. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760902870603.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  171. Chen H, Sun YP, Hu PF, Liu WW, Xiang HG, Li Y, et al. The effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the contractile and structural changes of intestine induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. J Surg Res. 2011;167(2):316–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2009.07.045.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  172. Kajiya M, Silva MJ, Sato K, Ouhara K, Kawai T. Hydrogen mediates suppression of colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386(1):11–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.117.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  173. He J, Xiong S, Zhang J, Wang J, Sun A, Mei X, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on ulcerative colitis rat model. J Surg Res. 2013;185(1):174–81. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2013.05.047.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  174. Chen X, Zhai X, Shi J, Liu WW, Tao H, Sun X, et al. Lactulose mediates suppression of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon inflammation by increasing hydrogen production. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58(6):1560–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-013-2563-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  175. Sheng Q, Lv Z, Cai W, Song H, Qian L, Wang X. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal rats. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48(8):1697–706. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.11.038.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  176. Nishimura N, Tanabe H, Sasaki Y, Makita Y, Ohata M, Yokoyama S, et al. Pectin and high-amylose maize starch increase caecal hydrogen production and relieve hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(4):485–92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511003229.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  177. Liu Y, Yang L, Tao K, Vizcaychipi MP, Lloyd DM, Sun X, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:12. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-14-12.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  178. Matsuno N, Watanabe R, Kimura M, Iwata S, Fujiyama M, Kono S, et al. Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas on porcine liver reperfusion injury with use of total vascular exclusion and active venous bypass. Transplant Proc. 2014;46(4):1104–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.11.134.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  179. Xia C, Liu W, Zeng D, Zhu L, Sun X, Sun X. Effect of hydrogen-rich water on oxidative stress, liver function, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin Transl Sci. 2013;6(5):372–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/cts.12076.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  180. Kawai D, Takaki A, Nakatsuka A, Wada J, Tamaki N, Yasunaka T, et al. Hydrogen-rich water prevents progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and accompanying hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Hepatology. 2012;56(3):912–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.25782.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  181. Xiang L, Tan JW, Huang LJ, Jia L, Liu YQ, Zhao YQ, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces liver injury during major hepatotectomy in swine. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(37):5197–204. doi:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i37.5197.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Kajiya M, Sato K, Silva MJ, Ouhara K, Do PM, Shanmugam KT, et al. Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386(2):316–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.06.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  183. Lee PC, Yang YY, Huang CS, Hsieh SL, Lee KC, Hsieh YC, et al. Concomitant inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis by chronic hydrogen-rich saline and N-acetylcysteine treatments improves systemic, splanchnic and hepatic hemodynamics of cirrhotic rats. Hepatol Res. 2015;45(5):578–88. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/hepr.12379.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  184. Koyama Y, Taura K, Hatano E, Tanabe K, Yamamoto G, Nakamura K, et al. Effects of oral intake of hydrogen water on liver fibrogenesis in mice. Hepatol Res. 2014;44(6):663–77. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/hepr.12165.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  185. Chen H, Sun YP, Li Y, Liu WW, Xiang HG, Fan LY, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393(2):308–13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  186. Ren J, Luo Z, Tian F, Wang Q, Li K, Wang C. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces the oxidative stress and relieves the severity of trauma-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72(6):1555–61. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31824a7913.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhang DQ, Feng H, Chen WC. Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis in rat. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:731932. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/731932.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Zhu WJ, Nakayama M, Mori T, Nakayama K, Katoh J, Murata Y, et al. Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(7):2112–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq727.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  189. Shingu C, Koga H, Hagiwara S, Matsumoto S, Goto K, Yokoi I, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline solution attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Anesth. 2010;24(4):569–74. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00540-010-0942-1.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  190. Wang F, Yu G, Liu SY, Li JB, Wang JF, Bo LL, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2011;167(2):e339–44. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.11.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  191. Xu B, Zhang YB, Li ZZ, Yang MW, Wang S, Jiang DP. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates renal injury induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;17(2):447–52. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2013.06.033.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  192. Gu H, Yang M, Zhao X, Zhao B, Sun X, Gao X. Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2014;188(1):243–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2013.12.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  193. Liu W, Dong XS, Sun YQ, Liu Z. A novel fluid resuscitation protocol: provide more protection on acute kidney injury during septic shock in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7(4):919–26.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Homma K, Yoshida T, Yamashita M, Hayashida K, Hayashi M, Hori S. Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Is Beneficial for Preventing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2015. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000369068.
  195. Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mori T, Ohsawa I, Asoh S, Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64(4):753–61. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-008-0924-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  196. Kitamura A, Kobayashi S, Matsushita T, Fujinawa H, Murase K. Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. Br J Radiol. 2010;83(990):509–14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1259/bjr/25604811.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  197. Matsushita T, Kusakabe Y, Kitamura A, Okada S, Murase K. Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol. 2011;29(7):503–12. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11604-011-0588-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  198. Matsushita T, Kusakabe Y, Kitamura A, Okada S, Murase K. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging. Magn Reson Med Sci. 2011;10(3):169–76.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  199. Katakura M, Hashimoto M, Tanabe Y, Shido O. Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):18. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-18.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  200. Peng Z, Chen W, Wang L, Ye Z, Gao S, Sun X, et al. Inhalation of hydrogen gas ameliorates glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate deposition and renal oxidative stress in mice. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8(3):2680–9.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Matsumoto S, Ueda T, Kakizaki H. Effect of supplementation with hydrogen-rich water in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology. 2013;81(2):226–30. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.10.026.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  202. Lee JW, Kim JI, Lee YA, Lee DH, Song CS, Cho YJ, et al. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47(4):736–42. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.09.035.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  203. Jiang D, Wu D, Zhang Y, Xu B, Sun X, Li Z. Protective effects of hydrogen rich saline solution on experimental testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Urol. 2012;187(6):2249–53. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.01.029.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  204. Fan M, Xu X, He X, Chen L, Qian L, Liu J, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model. J Urol. 2013;190(1):350–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.12.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  205. Li S, Lu D, Zhang Y, Zhang Y. Long-term treatment of hydrogen-rich saline abates testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2014;31(1):109–14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10815-013-0102-2.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  206. Chen S, Jiang W. Effect of hydrogen injected subcutaneously on testicular tissues of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(4):5565–70.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Zhao L, Wang YB, Qin SR, Ma XM, Sun XJ, Wang ML, et al. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013;14(5):382–91. doi:https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1200317.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  208. Yoon KS, Huang XZ, Yoon YS, Kim SK, Song SB, Chang BS, et al. Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(11):1671–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  209. Guo Z, Zhou B, Li W, Sun X, Luo D. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ultraviolet B radiation injury in rats. J Biomed Res. 2012;26(5):365–71. doi:https://doi.org/10.7555/JBR.26.20110037.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  210. Kato S, Saitoh Y, Iwai K, Miwa N. Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012;106:24–33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.09.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  211. Ignacio RM, Yoon Y-S, Sajo MEJ, Kim C-S, Kim D-H, Kim S-K, et al. The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice. Mol Cell Toxicol. 2013;9(1):15–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13273-013-0003-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  212. Ono H, Nishijima Y, Adachi N, Sakamoto M, Kudo Y, Nakazawa J, et al. Hydrogen(H2) treatment for acute erythymatous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-14.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  213. Ignacio RM, Kwak HS, Yun YU, Sajo ME, Yoon YS, Kim CS, et al. The Drinking Effect of Hydrogen Water on Atopic Dermatitis Induced by Dermatophagoides farinae Allergen in NC/Nga Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:538673. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/538673.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  214. Yoon YS, Sajo ME, Ignacio RM, Kim SK, Kim CS, Lee KJ. Positive Effects of hydrogen water on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(9):1480–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  215. Ishibashi T, Ichikawa M, Sato B, Shibata S, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, et al. Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12(2):2757–64. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Li Q, Kato S, Matsuoka D, Tanaka H, Miwa N. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro. Med Gas Res. 2013;3(1):20. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-3-20.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  217. Yu W, Chiu Y, Lee C, Yoshioka T, Yu H. Hydrogen-enriched water restoration of impaired calcium propagation by arsenic in primary keratinocytes. J Asian Earth Sci. 2013;77:342–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.07.007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  218. Ishibashi T, Sato B, Rikitake M, Seo T, Kurokawa R, Hara Y, et al. Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):27. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-27.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  219. Ishibashi T, Sato B, Shibata S, Sakai T, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of infused molecular hydrogen in saline on rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;21(2):468–73. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2014.06.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  220. Cai WW, Zhang MH, Yu YS, Cai JH. Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;373(1–2):1–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-012-1450-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  221. Hanaoka T, Kamimura N, Yokota T, Takai S, Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):18. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-18.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  222. Huang T, Wang W, Tu C, Yang Z, Bramwell D, Sun X. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. J Surg Res. 2015;194(2):471–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2014.12.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  223. Ito M, Ibi T, Sahashi K, Ichihara M, Ito M, Ohno K. Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):24. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-24.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  224. Aoki K, Nakao A, Adachi T, Matsui Y, Miyakawa S. Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):12. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-12.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  225. Ostojic SM, Vukomanovic B, Calleja-Gonzalez J, Hoffman JR. Effectiveness of oral and topical hydrogen for sports-related soft tissue injuries. Postgrad Med. 2014;126(5):187–95. doi:https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2014.09.2813.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  226. Ohsawa I, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Ishikawa M, Ohta S. Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377(4):1195–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.156.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  227. Ekuni D, Tomofuji T, Endo Y, Kasuyama K, Irie K, Azuma T, et al. Hydrogen-rich water prevents lipid deposition in the descending aorta in a rat periodontitis model. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57(12):1615–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.04.013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  228. Jiang H, Yu P, Qian DH, Qin ZX, Sun XJ, Yu J, et al. Hydrogen-rich medium suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species, elevates the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced apoptosis. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31(6):1381–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2013.1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Sun Q, Kawamura T, Masutani K, Peng X, Sun Q, Stolz DB, et al. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94(1):144–53. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvs024.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  230. Sakai T, Sato B, Hara K, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, Koyanagi S, et al. Consumption of water containing over 3.5 mg of dissolved hydrogen could improve vascular endothelial function. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014;10:591–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S68844.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Zhao S, Mei K, Qian L, Yang Y, Liu W, Huang Y, et al. Therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich solution on aplastic anemia in vivo. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32(3):549–60. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000354459.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  232. Kawasaki H, Guan J, Tamama K. Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397(3):608–13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.06.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  233. Tanikawa R, Takahashi I, Okubo N, Ono M, Okumura T, Ishibashi G, et al. Relationship between Exhaled Hydrogen and Human Neutrophil Function in the Japanese General Population. Hirosaki Medical Journal. 2015;65:138–46.Google Scholar
  234. Takeuchi S, Wada K, Nagatani K, Osada H, Otani N, Nawashiro H. Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Intern Med. 2012;51(11):1309–13.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  235. Kato S, Hokama R, Okayasu H, Saitoh Y, Iwai K, Miwa N. Colloidal platinum in hydrogen-rich water exhibits radical-scavenging activity and improves blood fluidity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012;12(5):4019–27.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  236. Kajiyama S, Hasegawa G, Asano M, Hosoda H, Fukui M, Nakamura N, et al. Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutr Res. 2008;28(3):137–43. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  237. Kamimura N, Nishimaki K, Ohsawa I, Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice. Obesity. 2011;19(7):1396–403. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  238. Li Y, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Kashiwagi T, Komatsu T, Ye J, et al. Suppressive effects of electrolyzed reduced water on alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cytotechnology. 2011;63(2):119–31. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-010-9317-6.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  239. Yu P, Wang Z, Sun X, Chen X, Zeng S, Chen L, et al. Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409(2):350–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  240. Wang QJ, Zha XJ, Kang ZM, Xu MJ, Huang Q, Zou DJ. Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125(9):1633–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.2012.09.020.Google Scholar
  241. Amitani H, Asakawa A, Cheng K, Amitani M, Kaimoto K, Nakano M, et al. Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53913. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053913.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  242. Zong C, Song G, Yao S, Li L, Yu Y, Feng L, et al. Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Metabolism. 2012;61(6):794–800. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2011.10.014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  243. Song G, Li M, Sang H, Zhang L, Li X, Yao S, et al. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res. 2013;54(7):1884–93. doi:https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M036640.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  244. Song G, Lin Q, Zhao H, Liu M, Ye F, Sun Y, et al. Hydrogen activates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent efflux ex vivo and improves high-density lipoprotein function in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:2724–33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1321.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  245. Nakao A, Toyoda Y, Sharma P, Evans M, Guthrie N. Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome-an open label pilot study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010;46(2):140–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.09-100.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  246. Hashimoto M, Katakura M, Nabika T, Tanabe Y, Hossain S, Tsuchikura S, et al. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat – a metabolic syndrome rat model. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):26. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-26.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  247. Nishimura N, Tanabe H, Adachi M, Yamamoto T, Fukushima M. Colonic hydrogen generated from fructan diffuses into the abdominal cavity and reduces adipose mRNA abundance of cytokines in rats. J Nutr. 2013;143(12):1943–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.183004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  248. Nakai Y, Sato B, Ushiama S, Okada S, Abe K, Arai S. Hepatic oxidoreduction-related genes are upregulated by administration of hydrogen-saturated drinking water. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(4):774–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.100819.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  249. Ostojic SM. Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(5):501–2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.008.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  250. Ostojic SM, Stojanovic MD. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men. Res Sports Med. 2014;22(1):49–60. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2013.852092.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  251. Xie K, Yu Y, Pei Y, Hou L, Chen S, Xiong L, et al. Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release. Shock. 2010;34(1):90–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc4ae.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  252. Zhou J, Chen Y, Huang GQ, Li J, Wu GM, Liu L, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline reverses oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. J Surg Res. 2012;178(1):390–400. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.01.041.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  253. Xie K, Fu W, Xing W, Li A, Chen H, Han H, et al. Combination therapy with molecular hydrogen and hyperoxia in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Shock. 2012;38(6):656–63. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e3182758646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Li GM, Ji MH, Sun XJ, Zeng QT, Tian M, Fan YX, et al. Effects of hydrogen-rich saline treatment on polymicrobial sepsis. J Surg Res. 2013;181(2):279–86. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.06.058.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  255. Liu W, Shan LP, Dong XS, Liu XW, Ma T, Liu Z. Combined early fluid resuscitation and hydrogen inhalation attenuates lung and intestine injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(4):492–502. doi:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v19.i4.492.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  256. Yu Y, Wang WN, Han HZ, Xie KL, Wang GL, Yu YH. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide-induced monocytic adhesion and vascular endothelial permeability through regulation of vascular endothelial cadherin. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14(2):6202–12. doi:https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.June.9.6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  257. Xie K, Yu Y, Zhang Z, Liu W, Pei Y, Xiong L, et al. Hydrogen gas improves survival rate and organ damage in zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model. Shock. 2010;34(5):495–501. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181def9aa.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  258. Xu Z, Zhou J, Cai J, Zhu Z, Sun X, Jiang C. Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond). 2012;9:2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-9-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  259. Fujii Y, Shirai M, Inamori S, Shimouchi A, Sonobe T, Tsuchimochi H, et al. Insufflation of hydrogen gas restrains the inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass in a rat model. Artif Organs. 2013;37(2):136–41. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1594.2012.01535.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  260. Cai J, Kang Z, Liu WW, Luo X, Qiang S, Zhang JH, et al. Hydrogen therapy reduces apoptosis in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441(2):167–72. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.077.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  261. Cai J, Kang Z, Liu K, Liu W, Li R, Zhang JH, et al. Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen saline in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Brain Res. 2009;1256:129–37. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.11.048.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  262. Domoki F, Olah O, Zimmermann A, Nemeth I, Toth-Szuki V, Hugyecz M, et al. Hydrogen is neuroprotective and preserves cerebrovascular reactivity in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Pediatr Res. 2010;68(5):387–92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181f2e81c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Mano Y, Kotani T, Ito M, Nagai T, Ichinohashi Y, Yamada K, et al. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;69:324–30. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.01.037.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  264. Yang X, Guo L, Sun X, Chen X, Tong X. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in preeclampsia rat model. Placenta. 2011;32(9):681–6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2011.06.020.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  265. Guan Z, Li HF, Guo LL, Yang X. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen on the placental function in trophoblast cells. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292(2):337–42. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-015-3647-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  266. Saitoh Y, Okayasu H, Xiao L, Harata Y, Miwa N. Neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water achieves tumor-preferential clonal growth inhibition over normal cells and tumor invasion inhibition concurrently with intracellular oxidant repression. Oncol Res. 2008;17(6):247–55.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  267. Zhao L, Zhou C, Zhang J, Gao F, Li B, Chuai Y, et al. Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7(3):297–300.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  268. Ye J, Li Y, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Komatsu T, Kashiwagi T, et al. Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(1):19–26.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  269. Runtuwene J, Amitani H, Amitani M, Asakawa A, Cheng KC, Inui A. Hydrogen-water enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced inhibition of colon cancer. PeerJ. 2015;3:e859. doi:https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.859.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  270. Qian L, Cao F, Cui J, Wang Y, Huang Y, Chuai Y, et al. The potential cardioprotective effects of hydrogen in irradiated mice. J Radiat Res. 2010;51(6):741–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1269/jrr.10093.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  271. Terasaki Y, Ohsawa I, Terasaki M, Takahashi M, Kunugi S, Dedong K, et al. Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301(4):L415–26. doi:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00008.2011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  272. Jiang Z, Xu B, Yang M, Li Z, Zhang Y, Jiang D. Protection by hydrogen against gamma ray-induced testicular damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013;112(3):186–91. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  273. Mei K, Zhao S, Qian L, Li B, Ni J, Cai J. Hydrogen protects rats from dermatitis caused by local radiation. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25(2):182–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/09546634.2012.762639.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  274. Watanabe S, Fujita M, Ishihara M, Tachibana S, Yamamoto Y, Kaji T, et al. Protective effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on radiation-induced dermatitis and skin injury in rats. J Radiat Res. 2014;55(6):1107–13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rru067.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  275. Qian L, Cao F, Cui J, Huang Y, Zhou X, Liu S, et al. Radioprotective effect of hydrogen in cultured cells and mice. Free Radic Res. 2010;44(3):275–82. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/10715760903468758.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  276. Qian L, Li B, Cao F, Huang Y, Liu S, Cai J, et al. Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Nucl Technol Radiat Prot. 2010;25(1):23–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.2298/ntrp1001023q.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  277. Chuai Y, Gao F, Li B, Zhao L, Qian L, Cao F, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates radiation-induced male germ cell loss in mice through reducing hydroxyl radicals. Biochem J. 2012;442(1):49–56. doi:https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20111786.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  278. Yang Y, Li B, Liu C, Chuai Y, Lei J, Gao F, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18(4):BR144–8.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  279. Chuai Y, Shen J, Qian L, Wang Y, Huang Y, Gao F, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis in irradiated BALB/c mice. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18(3):BR89–94.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  280. Yang Y, Gao F, Zhang H, Hunag Y, Zhang P, Liu C, et al. Molecular hydrogen protects human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells against 12C6+ heavy ion radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2013;89(12):1003–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2013.817704.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  281. Kang KM, Kang YN, Choi IB, Gu Y, Kawamura T, Toyoda Y, et al. Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Med Gas Res. 2011;1(1):11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-1-11.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  282. Zhao S, Yang Y, Liu W, Xuan Z, Wu S, Yu S, et al. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18(5):938–46. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.12245.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  283. Sun Q, Cai J, Zhou J, Tao H, Zhang JH, Zhang W, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline reduces delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(4):765–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206bf44.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  284. Wang W, Li Y, Ren J, Xia F, Li J, Zhang Z. Hydrogen rich saline reduces immune-mediated brain injury in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurol Res. 2012;34(10):1007–15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000106.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  285. Shen MH, Cai JM, Sun Q, Zhang DW, Huo ZL, He J, et al. Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline in acute carbon monoxide poisoning. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013;19(5):361–3. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/cns.12094.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  286. Wang W, Tian L, Li Y, Wang X, Xia F, Li L, et al. Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. J Emerg Med. 2013;44(1):107–15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.01.065.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  287. Yonamine R, Satoh Y, Kodama M, Araki Y, Kazama T. Coadministration of hydrogen gas as part of the carrier gas mixture suppresses neuronal apoptosis and subsequent behavioral deficits caused by neonatal exposure to sevoflurane in mice. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(1):105–13. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318275146d.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  288. Takaenoki Y, Satoh Y, Araki Y, Kodama M, Yonamine R, Yufune S, et al. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane in mice causes deficits in maternal behavior later in adulthood. Anesthesiology. 2014;120(2):403–15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000435846.28299.e7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  289. Wu S, Zhu L, Yang J, Fan Z, Dong Y, Luan R, et al. Hydrogen-containing saline attenuates doxorubicin-induced heart failure in rats. Pharmazie. 2014;69(8):633–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Yoon YS, Kim DH, Kim SK, Song SB, Uh Y, Jin D, et al. The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(8):1814–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.033.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  291. Wang T, Zhao L, Liu M, Xie F, Ma X, Zhao P, et al. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;280(1):169–76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.06.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  292. Nakao A, Kaczorowski DJ, Wang Y, Cardinal JS, Buchholz BM, Sugimoto R, et al. Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010;29(5):544–53. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2009.10.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  293. Tan M, Sun X, Guo L, Su C, Sun X, Xu Z. Hydrogen as additive of HTK solution fortifies myocardial preservation in grafts with prolonged cold ischemia. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167(2):383–90. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.12.109.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  294. Noda K, Tanaka Y, Shigemura N, Kawamura T, Wang Y, Masutani K, et al. Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water protects cardiac allografts from inflammation-associated deterioration. Transpl Int. 2012;25(12):1213–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2012.01542.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  295. Kawamura T, Huang CS, Tochigi N, Lee S, Shigemura N, Billiar TR, et al. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of lung transplant-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Transplantation. 2010;90(12):1344–51. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e3181fe1357.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  296. Zhou H, Fu Z, Wei Y, Liu J, Cui X, Yang W, et al. Hydrogen inhalation decreases lung graft injury in brain-dead donor rats. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(2):251–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2012.11.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  297. Noda K, Shigemura N, Tanaka Y, Bhama J, D’Cunha J, Kobayashi H, et al. Hydrogen preconditioning during ex vivo lung perfusion improves the quality of lung grafts in rats. Transplantation. 2014;98(5):499–506. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000000254.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  298. Haam S, Lee S, Paik HC, Park MS, Song JH, Lim BJ, et al. The effects of hydrogen gas inhalation during ex vivo lung perfusion on donor lungs obtained after cardiac deathdagger. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;48:542–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezv057.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  299. Liu R, Fang X, Meng C, Xing J, Liu J, Yang W, et al. Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015;240:1214–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370214563895.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  300. Buchholz BM, Kaczorowski DJ, Sugimoto R, Yang R, Wang Y, Billiar TR, et al. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant. 2008;8(10):2015–24. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02359.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  301. Shigeta T, Sakamoto S, Li XK, Cai S, Liu C, Kurokawa R, et al. Luminal injection of hydrogen-rich solution attenuates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Transplantation. 2015;99(3):500–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000000510.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  302. Luo ZL, Cheng L, Ren JD, Fang C, Xiang K, Xu HT, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in grafts after pancreas transplantations by reducing oxidative stress in rats. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:281985. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/281985.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Yamada T, Uchida K, Onuma K, Kuzuno J, Ujihira M, Inoue G, et al. Hydrogen supplementation of preservation solution improves viability of osteochondral grafts. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:109876. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/109876.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  304. Qian L, Mei K, Shen J, Cai J. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline protects mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Transplantation. 2013;95(5):658–62. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e31827e6b23.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  305. Yuan L, Chen X, Qian L, Shen J, Cai J. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline in mice with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:749–54. doi:https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.891338.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  306. Hayashida K, Sano M, Kamimura N, Yokota T, Suzuki M, Ohta S, et al. Hydrogen inhalation during normoxic resuscitation improves neurological outcome in a rat model of cardiac arrest independently of targeted temperature management. Circulation. 2014;130(24):2173–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011848.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  307. Huo TT, Zeng Y, Liu XN, Sun L, Han HZ, Chen HG, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline improves survival and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. Anesth Analg. 2014;119(2):368–80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000000303.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  308. Du Z, Jia H, Liu J, Zhao X, Wang Y, Sun X. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Exp Ther Med. 2014;7(5):1253–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.1572.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Du Z, Jia H, Liu J, Zhao X, Xu W. Effects of three hydrogen-rich liquids on hemorrhagic shock in rats. J Surg Res. 2015;193(1):377–82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2014.06.051.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  310. Nakayama M, Kabayama S, Nakano H, Zhu WJ, Terawaki H, Nakayama K, et al. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;112(1):c9–15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1159/000210569.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  311. Nakayama M, Nakano H, Hamada H, Itami N, Nakazawa R, Ito S. A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(9):3026–33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq196.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  312. Terawaki H, Zhu WJ, Matsuyama Y, Terada T, Takahashi Y, Sakurai K, et al. Effect of a hydrogen (H2)-enriched solution on the albumin redox of hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int. 2014;18(2):459–66. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12112.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  313. Tange Y, Takesawa S, Yoshitake S. Dialysate with high dissolved hydrogen facilitates dissociation of indoxyl sulfate from albumin. Nephrourol Mon. 2015;7(2):e26847. doi:https://doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.26847.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Terawaki H, Hayashi Y, Zhu WJ, Matsuyama Y, Terada T, Kabayama S, et al. Transperitoneal administration of dissolved hydrogen for peritoneal dialysis patients: a novel approach to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity. Med Gas Res. 2013;3(1):14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-3-14.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  315. Terawaki H, Nakano H, Zhu WJ, Nakayama M. Successful treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis by hemodialysis and peritoneal lavage using dialysate containing dissolved hydrogen. Perit Dial Int. 2015;35(1):107–12. doi:https://doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2013.00255.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  316. Yan H, Tian H, Kinjo T, Hamasaki T, Tomimatsu K, Nakamichi N, et al. Extension of the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the use of electrolyzed reduced water. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(10):2011–5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.100250.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  317. Nakata K, Yamashita N, Noda Y, Ohsawa I. Stimulation of human damaged sperm motility with hydrogen molecule. Med Gas Res. 2015;5(1):2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13618-014-0023-x.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  318. Ni XX, Cai ZY, Fan DF, Liu Y, Zhang RJ, Liu SL, et al. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on decompression sickness in rats. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011;82(6):604–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.3357/asem.2964.2011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  319. Saitoh Y, Harata Y, Mizuhashi F, Nakajima M, Miwa N. Biological safety of neutral-pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water upon mutagenicity, genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity. Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26(4):203–16. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233710362989.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  320. Chen M, Cui W, Zhu K, Xie Y, Zhang C, Shen W. Hydrogen-rich water alleviates aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in alfalfa via decreasing nitric oxide production. J Hazard Mater. 2014;267:40–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.029.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  321. Xie Y, Mao Y, Lai D, Zhang W, Shen W. H(2) enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49800. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049800.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  322. Xu S, Zhu S, Jiang Y, Wang N, Wang R, Shen W, et al. Hydrogen-rich water alleviates salt stress in rice during seed germination. Plant Soil. 2013;370(1–2):47–57. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1614-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  323. Hu H, Li P, Wang Y, Gu R. Hydrogen-rich water delays postharvest ripening and senescence of kiwifruit. Food Chem. 2014;156:100–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.067.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  324. Xie Y, Mao Y, Zhang W, Lai D, Wang Q, Shen W. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to Hydrogen-Promoted Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2014;165(2):759–73. doi:https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.%20114.237925.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  325. Su N, Wu Q, Liu Y, Cai J, Shen W, Xia K, et al. Hydrogen-rich water reestablishes ROS homeostasis but exerts differential effects on anthocyanin synthesis in two varieties of radish sprouts under UV-A irradiation. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(27):6454–62. doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5019593.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  326. Zhang X, Zhao X, Wang Z, Shen W, Xu X. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich water on the photosynthetic apparatus of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) as a result of an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities under high light stress. Plant Growth Regul. 2015;77:43–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  327. Zeng J, Zhang M, Sun X. Molecular hydrogen is involved in phytohormone signaling and stress responses in plants. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71038. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071038.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  328. Jin Q, Zhu K, Cui W, Xie Y, Han B, Shen W. Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system. Plant Cell Environ. 2013;36(5):956–69. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12029.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  329. Cui W, Gao C, Fang P, Lin G, Shen W. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water. J Hazard Mater. 2013;260:715–24. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.06.032.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  330. Wu Q, Su N, Cai J, Shen Z, Cui J. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities. J Plant Physiol. 2015;175:174–82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2014.09.017.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  331. Cui W, Fang P, Zhu K, Mao Y, Gao C, Xie Y, et al. Hydrogen-rich water confers plant tolerance to mercury toxicity in alfalfa seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2014;105:103–11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.04.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  332. Sato Y, Kajiyama S, Amano A, Kondo Y, Sasaki T, Handa S, et al. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375(3):346–50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.020.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  333. Ono H, Nishijima Y, Adachi N, Sakamoto M, Kudo Y, Kaneko K, et al. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level. Med Gas Res. 2012;2(1):21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-21.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  334. Seo T, Kurokawa R, Sato B. A convenient method for determining the concentration of hydrogen in water: use of methylene blue with colloidal platinum. Med Gas Res. 2012;2:1. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-1.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  335. Shimouchi A, Nose K, Shirai M, Kondo T. Estimation of molecular hydrogen consumption in the human whole body after the ingestion of hydrogen-rich water. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;737:245–50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1566-4_36.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  336. Shimouchi A, Nose K, Mizukami T, Che DC, Shirai M. Molecular hydrogen consumption in the human body during the inhalation of hydrogen gas. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;789:315–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7411-1_42.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  337. Liu C, Kurokawa R, Fujino M, Hirano S, Sato B, Li XK. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5485. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05485.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Penders J, Kissner R, Koppenol WH. ONOOH does not react with H2: Potential beneficial effects of H2 as an antioxidant by selective reaction with hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;75:191–4. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.07.025.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  339. Kato S, Matsuoka D, Miwa N. Antioxidant activities of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water assessed by ESR and 2,2′-bipyridyl methods. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015;53:7–10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.064.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Molecular hydrogen (dissolved in water) alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin (chemotherapy)  without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice.

Molecular hydrogen (dissolved in water) alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin (chemotherapy)  without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice.

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug in the treatment of a wide range of tumors; however, its application is limited by nephrotoxicity, which is affected by oxidative stress ROS. We have reported that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as an efficient selctive antioxidant (Ohsawa et al. in Nat Med 13:688-694, 2007). Here we show that molecular hydrogen efficiently mitigates the side effects of toxic chemotherapeutic cisplatin by reducing oxidative stress.

METHODS:

Mice were administered chemotherapy ( cisplatin)  followed by inhaling molecular hydrogen gas (1% H(2) in air). Furthermore, instead of inhaling molecular hydrogen gas, we examined whether drinking water containing hydrogen (hydrogen water; 0.8 mM H(2) dissolved in water) is applicable by examining oxidative stress, mortality, and body-weight loss. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by morphological changes, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels.

RESULTS:

Inhalation of molecular hydrogen gas improved mortality and body-weight loss caused by chemotherapy/ cisplatin, and alleviated nephrotoxicity. Molecular hydrogen was detected in blood when molecular hydrogen water was placed in the stomach of a rat. Consuming molecular hydrogen water ad libitum also reduced oxidative stress, mortality, and body-weight loss induced by cisplatin in mice. Molecular hydrogen water improved metamorphosis accompanying decreased apoptosis in the kidney, and nephrotoxicity as assessed by serum creatinine and BUN levels.

Despite molecular hydrogen (water)’s protective effects against cisplatin-induced toxicity, molecular hydrogen water did not impair anti-tumor activity of cisplatin against cancer cell lines in vitro and tumor-bearing mice in vivo.

CONCLUSION:

Molecular hydrogen water  has potential for improving the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy by efficiently mitigating the side effects of cisplatin while not compromising antitumor effects.

 

REFERENCES

Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mori T, Ohsawa I, Asoh S, Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64(4):753–61. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0924-2.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Effects of drinking molecular hydrogen water on the quality of life of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

Effects of drinking molecular hydrogen water on the quality of life of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

This is the first report demonstrating the benefits of drinking molecular hydrogen water in liver cancer patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant tumors.
– Molecular hydrogen dissolved in water improved the QOL of (liver) cancer patients reciving radiotherapy
– Molecular hydrogen water mitigated oxidative stress marker during radiotherapy
– Molecular hydrogen water did NOT compromise the radiation cancer treatment efficacies
-Molecular hydrogen water treatment did NOT alter liver function or blood composition during radiotherapy

This study examined whether molecular hydrogen (dissolved in water ) treatment, improved QOL in patients receiving radiotherapy.

Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy often experience fatigue and impaired quality of life (QOL).

Most radiation-induced symptoms are believed to be associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during radiotherapy, and may significantly affect the patient’s quality of life (QOL) [].

Molecular hydrogen (dissolve in water) can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas, has selective ANTIoxidant( molecular hydrogen ( water ) neutralizes only bad free radicals while supporting the beneficial ones)  & ANTIinflammatory (molecular hydrogen( water )reduces inflammation in tisues) properties.

Drinking liquids(i.e. : water) with dissolved molecular hydrogen represents a novel method of molecular hydrogen gas delivery that is easily translatable into clinical practice, with beneficial effects for several medical conditions, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cognitive impairment during aging and in Parkinson’s disease [].

Methods

A randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of drinking molecular hydrogen-rich water on 49 patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors.

The subjects were randomly assigned to groups to either drink molecular hydrogen-rich water for 6 weeks (n = 25) or drink water containing a placebo (n = 24).

Subjects were provided with four 500 mL bottles of drinking molecular hydrogen water per day .

Molecular hydrogen rich water had final molecular hydrogen concentration; 0.55~0.65 mM.

The subjects were expected to consume 100-300 mL of molecular hydrogen-rich water more than 10 times per day for a total minimum consumption of 1500 mL (1.5 L) and a maximum consumption of 2000 mL (2.0 L).

Oral intake of molecular hydrogen water or placebo water started on the first day of radiotherapy and continued for 6 weeks.

All participants received 5040-6500 cGy of radiotherapy for 7-8 weeks using a 6 MV system (Cyber Knife, Fanuc, Yamanashi, Japan).

Table 1

Patient Characteristics

All the liver cancer patients survived through the 6 week follow-up period when the QOL questionnaire was administered.

The Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer’s QLQ-C30 instrument was used to evaluate global health status and QOL. The concentration of derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites and biological antioxidant power in the peripheral blood were assessed.

Results & Conclusions

The consumption of molecular hydrogen-rich water for 6 weeks reduced reactive oxygen metabolites in the blood and maintained blood oxidation potential. QOL scores during radiotherapy were SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED in patients treated with molecular hydrogen-rich water compared to patients receiving placebo water.

There was no difference in tumor response to radiotherapy between the two groups( meaning drinking molecular hydrogen water did not interfere with the desired antitumor effects of radiation therapy ).

Daily consumption of molecular hydrogen-rich water is a potentially novel, therapeutic strategy for improving QOL after radiation exposure.

Consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects.

Molecular hydrogen dissolved in water improved the QOL of (liver) cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

The QOL of the liver cancer patients who were given placebo water deteriorated significantly within the first month of radiotherapy (Figure1A)

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common complaints of patients undergoing radiotherapy and are considered to have a high impact on the patient’s QOL after 6 weeks of radiotherapy.

The patients consuming molecular hydrogen water experienced significantly less appetite loss and fewer tasting disorders compared to the patients consuming placebo water.

Liver cancer patients experience GI symptoms and decreased QOL during radiotherapy. These symptoms usually occur as a result of the body repairing damage to healthy cells, are particularly common towards the end of a course of radiation treatment, and can last for some time. The symptoms and their impact on QOL can be worsened by having to travel to the hospital each day.

Drinking molecular hydrogen-rich water improved the QOL of the liver cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and did not require additional hospital visits.

There were no differences between the groups in the QOL subscales for fatigue, depression, or sleep. No significant difference was seen in the mean scores for vomiting or diarrhea (Figure1B).

Figure 1

Placebo water and molecular hydrogen water improved the QOL of patients receiving radiotherapy. A. Weekly assessment of the patients’ QOL. B. Scoring system of GI symptoms after 6 weeks of radiotherapy with or without molecular hydrogen water.

Molecular hydrogen water mitigated oxidative stress marker during radiotherapy

Before treatment, there were no differences in total hydroperoxide levels, representative of total dROM levels, between the treatment groups.

Radiotherapy markedly increased total hydroperoxide levels in the patients consuming placebo water.

However, drinking molecular hydrogen water prevented this increase in total serum hydroperoxide, as determined by the dROM test (Figure2A), indicating DECREASED OXIDATIVE STRESS during radiotherapy in the liver cancer patients who consumed molecular hydrogen water.

Similarly, endogenous serum antioxidant activity significantly deteriorated during radiotherapy in the patients consuming placebo water, and biologic antioxidant activity was MAINTAINED in liver cancer patients who consumed molecular hydrogen-rich water, even after 6 weeks of radiotherapy (Figure2B).

Figure 2

Molecular hydrogen water mitigated oxidative stress marker during radiotherapy. Antioxidative effects in patients with placebo water (n = 24) and molecular hydrogen rich water (n = 25). The dROM level (A) represents the total level of peroxide metabolities, and BAP (B) reflects ...
Previous experimental studies have linked daily consumption of molecular hydrogen-rich water with improvement of a number of conditions in rodent models, including reducing atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice [], alleviating cisplatin(chemotherapy)-induced nephrotoxicity [], reducing vitamin C deficiency-induced brain injury [], preventing chronic allograft nephropathy after renal transplantation [], and ameliorating cognitive defects in senescence-accelerated mice [] and a Parkinson’s disease model []. In human studies, consumption of molecular hydrogen-rich water prevented adult-onset diabetes and insulin resistance [], as well as oxidative stress in potential metabolic syndrome [].

Radiotherapy is associated with an increase in ROS, followed by damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins, and activation of transcription factors and signal transduction pathways. It has been estimated that 60-70% of the ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals [].

Therefore, a number of trials with the goal of reducing adverse effects due to excess ROS production have been performed with antioxidants delivered during the course of radiotherapy. Supplementation with α-tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate and maintains salivary parameters []. Treatment with the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase prevented radiotherapy-induced cystitis and rectitis in bladder cancer patients receiving radiotherapy []. In addition, the combined use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E reduced radiation-induced lung fibrosis in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy [].

Thus, in general, supplementation with antioxidants is likely to offer overall benefits in the treatment of adverse effects of radiotherapy.

However, not all antioxidants can afford radioprotection [].

Furthermore, of significant concern is the finding that high doses of antioxidants administered as adjuvant therapy might compromise the efficacy of radiation treatment and increase of the risk of local recurrence of cancer [,].

Hence, the relatively lower toxicity associated with the use of these antioxidant agents is appealing, but not at the cost of poor tumor control.

In contrast, in this study, drinking molecular hydrogen-rich water did NOT affect radiotherapy’s anti-tumor effects.

Molecular hydrogen water did NOT compromise the radiation cancer treatment efficacies

Tumor response to radiotherapy was similar between the cancer treatment groups, and 12 of 24 (50.0%)  liver cancer patients in the placebo group and 12 of 25 (48%) patients in molecular hydrogen water group exhibited either a completed response (CR) or a partial response (PR). There were no patients in either group with progressive disease (PD) during the follow-up period (3 months). Thus, drinking molecular hydrogen water did  NOT compromise the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy.

Our results may suggest that hydrogen water functions not only as an antioxidant, but also plays a protective role by inducing radioprotective hormones or enzymes. 

Molecular hydrogen water treatment did NOT alter liver function or blood composition during radiotherapy

There were no significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and total cholesterol levels at week 0 and week 6, regardless of the type of water consumed(Table2), indicating that molecular hydrogen water consumption did NOT alter liver function.

Similarly, there were no significant differences in red blood cell count, white blood cell count, or platelet count between patients consuming molecular hydrogen water and patients consuming placebo water (Table3).

Table 2

Changes in liver function tests

Table 3

Peripheral blood cell counts

 

This finding may provide the foundation for a clinically applicable, effective, and safe strategy for the delivery of molecular hydrogen gas (dissolved in water) to mitigate radiation-induced cellular injury.

Oral intake of daily molecular hydrogen-supplemented water might be a prophylactic strategy to improve QOL of the (liver cancer ) patients receiving radiotherapy.

Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen-rich water during radiotherapy have not been clearly elucidated, drinking molecular hydrogen dissolved in water reduced dROM levels and maintained BAP levels in the serum, suggesting molecular hydrogen-rich water exhibits potent systemic antioxidant activity.

The safety of molecular hydrogen-rich water has also been determined as well as the optimal concentration of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water;

Daily intake of molecular hydrogen-rich water may be a promising approach for counteracting radiation-induced impairments to QOL.

This therapeutic use of molecular hydrogen is also supported by the work of Qian et al., who demonstrated that treating human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells with molecular hydrogen (saline) before irradiation significantly inhibited ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis and increased cell viability in vitro.

They also showed that injection of molecular hydrogen-rich saline could protect the gastrointestinal endothelia from radiation-induced injury, decrease plasma malondialdehyde and intestinal 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, and increase plasma endogenous antioxidants in vivo [].

Conclusions

In conclusion, our study demonstrated that drinking molecular hydrogen-rich water improved QOL and reduced oxidative markers in patients receiving radiotherapy for liver tumors.

This novel approach of oral intake of molecular hydrogen-rich water may be applicable to a wide range of radiation-related adverse symptoms.

Drinking solubilized molecular hydrogen (dissolved in water) on a daily basis is beneficial and would be quite easy to administer without complicating or changing a patient’s lifestyle

Background

Radiotherapy is one of the major treatment options for malignant neoplasms. Nearly half of all newly diagnosed cancer patients will receive radiotherapy at some point during treatment and up to 25% may receive radiotherapy a second time []. Radiotherapy adversely affects the surrounding normal cells []. Acute radiation-associated side effects include fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, loss of appetite, hair loss, sore skin, and depression. Radiation increases the long-term risk of cancer, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cataracts. The likelihood of radiation-induced complications is related to the volume of the irradiated organ, the radiation dose delivered, the fractionation of the delivered dose, the delivery of radiation modifiers, and individual radiosensitivity []. Most radiation-induced symptoms are believed to be associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during radiotherapy, and may significantly affect the patient’s quality of life (QOL) [].

original article:
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231938/

References

  • Ringborg U, Bergqvist D, Brorsson B, Cavallin-Stahl E, Ceberg J, Einhorn N, Frodin JE, Jarhult J, Lamnevik G, Lindholm C, Littbrand B, Norlund A, Nylen U, Rosen M, Svensson H, Moller TR. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of radiotherapy for cancer including a prospective survey of radiotherapy practice in Sweden 2001–summary and conclusions. Acta Oncol. 2003;42(5-6):357–65. doi: 10.1080/02841860310010826.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Zhao W, Robbins ME. Inflammation and chronic oxidative stress in radiation-induced late normal tissue injury: therapeutic implications. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(2):130–43. doi: 10.2174/092986709787002790. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Citrin D, Cotrim AP, Hyodo F, Baum BJ, Krishna MC, Mitchell JB. Radioprotectors and mitigators of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Oncologist. 2010;15(4):360–71. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2009-S104. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Katsura K, Katayama Y, Asoh S, Ohta S. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;13(6):688–94. doi: 10.1038/nm1577. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Buchholz BM, Kaczorowski DJ, Sugimoto R, Yang R, Wang Y, Billiar TR, McCurry KR, Bauer AJ, Nakao A. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant. 2008;8(10):2015–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02359.x. [PubMed][Cross Ref]
  • Huang C, Kawamura T, Toyoda Y, Nakao A. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Research as a Therapeutic Medical Gas. Free Rad Res. 2010;44(9):971–82. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2010.500328.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Fujita K, Seike T, Yutsudo N, Ohno M, Yamada H, Yamaguchi H, Sakumi K, Yamakawa Y, Kido MA, Takaki A, Katafuchi T, Tanaka Y, Nakabeppu Y, Noda M. Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. PLoS One. 2009;4(9):e7247. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007247.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
  • Nakao A, Toyoda Y, Sharma P, Evans M, Guthrie N. Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome-an open label pilot study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010;46(2):140–9. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.09-100. [PMC free article] [PubMed][Cross Ref]<