Modalities of molecular hydrogen administration(in water, gas or saline) to animals, humans, and plants

Modalities of molecular hydrogen administration(in water, gas or saline) to animals, humans, and plants
Modalities of molecular hydrogen administration are various :
you can drink molecular hydrogen water,inhale molecular hydrogen gas, inject molecular hydrogen rich saline,drink a molecular hydrogen solution,produce molecular hydrogen as intestinal gas when bacteria ferments fruits and vegetables,bath in water with molecular hydrogen, orally take magnesium molecular hydrogen rich tablets, etc
The most popular methods of putting molecular  hydrogen in your body are drinking molecular hydrogen water,inhaling molecular hydrogen gas, injecting molecular hydrogen rich saline.
Molecular hydrogen-rich saline, which is almost exclusively used in China, dominates over the others. Hydrogenized saline is administered either by intraperitoneal injection or drip infusion. Molecular hydrogen water is mostly given ad libitum.

Molecular hydrogen gas is usually given by inhaling 1–4 % hydrogen gas, which is below the explosion level (4 %). There is a single report, in which hydrogen gas was injected intraperitoneally [10].


Among the various routes of molecular hydrogen administration , the best method still remains uncertain. This is partly because only a few reports have addressed the difference of effects among molecular hydrogen administration methods.

A comparative review was conducted on the consumption of molecular hydrogen H2-rich water, i.p. or intravenous administration of molecular hydrogen  H2-rich saline, and inhalation of molecular hydrogen H2 gas in regards to Molecular hydrogen (water) in the treatment of acute and chronic neurological conditions(Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s,etc).

The results showed that although molecular hydrogen H2 concentrations in the brain tend to be high after either intravenous administration or inhalation, no significant differences have been observed in comparison with the concentrations after the consumption of molecular hydrogen  H2-rich water and i.p. administration of molecular hydrogen H2-rich saline. Thus, although there have been variations based on the administration method, all methods have been found to result in the presence of molecular hydrogen H2 in the serum and brain tissue.

Liu et al.() measured molecular hydrogen  H2 levels in the arteries, veins, and brain tissues after the inhalation of 2% molecular hydrogen H2 gas. They found that arterial molecular hydrogen H2 peaked at 30 min after administration, whereas venous and brain tissue molecular hydrogen H2 peaked at 45 min after administration. They reported that molecular hydrogen  H2 levels were similar in arteries and brain tissues.

This demonstrated that molecular hydrogen  H2 migrates to the brain tissue regardless of the method of administration(Thus, the studies  might as well have been performed using molecular hydrogen water instead of molecular hydrogen gas or molecular hydrogen saline).

Furthermore, keep in mind that  crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a very difficult task to achieve for many substances , thus the fact that molecular hydrogen  H2 crosses the BBB and migrates to the brain tissue regardless of the method of administration (including by drinking molecular hydrogen water – which is the easiest method of administration molecular hydrogen ) is a strong indicator that one can benefit from drinking molecular hydrogen water just as much as from any other method of  administration molecular hydrogen

A dose–response effect of molecular  hydrogen is observed in drinking molecular  hydrogen-rich water [9497].

A similar dose–response effect is also observed in inhaled molecular  hydrogen gas [11798].

However, when molecular hydrogen concentrations in drinking water and in inhaled gas are compared, there is no dose–response effect.

Molecular hydrogen-rich water generally shows a more prominent effect than molecular hydrogen gas, although the amount of hydrogen taken up by hydrogen water is ~100 times less than that given by hydrogen gas [11].

We have showed that drinking molecular hydrogen water, but not continuous molecular hydrogen gas exposure, prevented development of 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats [11].

In addition, we recently showed that continuous exposure to molecular hydrogen gas and ad libitum per os administration of molecular hydrogen water modulated signaling pathways and gene expressions in different manners in mice [12].

We demonstrated that molecular hydrogen-responsive genes are divided into four groups: genes that respond favorably to molecular hydrogen gas, those that respond exclusively to molecular hydrogen water, those that respond to both molecular hydrogen gas and water, and those that respond only to the simultaneous administration of molecular hydrogen gas and water (Fig. 2).

As molecular hydrogen water and gas increase the molecular hydrogen concentrations in the rodent body to a similar level [12], the difference in the organs exposed to a high concentration of molecular  hydrogen, the rise time of molecular hydrogen concentration, and/or the area under the curve of molecular hydrogen concentration may account for the difference in the modulated genes.

On the other hand, a collation of molecular hydrogen reports indicate that a similar degree of effects can be observed with different modalities of administration. For example, the marked effect of molecular  hydrogen on a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury has been reported by four different groups with three different modalities:molecular hydrogen gas [1314], molecular hydrogen water [15], and molecular hydrogen-rich saline [1416].

Similarly, the dramatic effect of molecular hydrogen on animal models of acute myocardial infarction has been reported by eight different groups with two different modalities: molecular hydrogen gas [17181920] and molecular hydrogen-rich saline [21222324].

To clarify the difference of molecular  hydrogen’s effects with different modalities of administration, each research group should scrutinize the difference of the effects between molecular hydrogen gas, molecular hydrogen water, and molecular hydrogen-rich saline. This would uncover the best modality for each disease model, IF ANY, and also the optimal molecular hydrogen dose.


Fig. 2

Four groups of genes that show different responses to molecular hydrogen water and/or gas [12] . aBcl6 responds to molecular  hydrogen gas more than molecular hydrogen water. bG6pc responds only to molecular hydrogen water. cWee1 responds to both molecular hydrogen water and gas. dEgr1 responds only to simultaneous administration of molecular hydrogen water and gas

In order to use molecular hydrogen in clinical situations, it is essential to implement systematic clinical testing. These systems are either already in place or are under consideration at the leading Japanese universities and medical institutions.

The results of several clinical studies of molecular hydrogen-rich drinking water were recently released.

Kajiya et al. [15] reported that symptoms of intestinal inflammation prominently improved in mice with inflammatory bowel disease given molecular hydrogen-rich drinking water.

Fujita et al. succeeded in reducing the symptoms of drug-induced Parkinsonʼs disease by having mice drink molecular hydrogen-rich water [28].

Using a kidney transplant mouse model, our group also reported that kidney graft functions were maintained and imperfect grafts caused by chronic rejection were prevented in mice that drank molecular hydrogen-rich water every day [29].

Kawai et al. found that molecular hydrogen-rich drinking water reduced hepatocarcinogenesis in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model [7].

Molecular hydrogen water is also effective in dentistry as shown by its effects on periodontitis, which is marked by gingival bleeding,
the development of periodontal pockets, the destruction of connective tissue, and the loss of alveolar bone [8,9].

In China, the oral intake of molecular hydrogen-rich water by hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients was tested. After hydrogen water treatment (1,200-1,800 mL/day, twice daily, for 6 consecutive weeks), oxidative stress did not change in the routine-treatment group but markedly improved in the molecular hydrogen-treatment group, and it was associated with reduced HBV DNA levels [41]. Thus, the results from a number of human trials indicate that drinking molecular hydrogen-rich water is safe and well-tolerated and significantly improves various diseases.

Molecular Hydrogen is licensed as a food additive in Japan, and hydrogen-rich water is already being sold as a safe drinking product in Japan. Water filters /tablets with magnesium  and hydrogen-rich water made by electrolysis(electric water ionizers and molecular hydrogen water generators) are also being tested for acute/sub-acute toxicity, mutagenicity, etc. with the goal of using them for medical treatments.The safety of these methods has been con-firmed and reported [36,37].

Molecular hydrogen-rich water is expected to be easily used in place of regular everyday drinking water and will effectively treat chronic maladies such as lifestyle-related diseases.

Once again one can benefit from molecular hydrogen  H2 regardless of the method of administration (including from drinking molecular hydrogen water).

In addition, molecular hydrogen water is both safe and easy to drink at home( we think it’s easier to drink molecular hydrogen water than injecting molecular hydrogen rich saline or inhaling molecular hydrogen gas)



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