Category Archives: [:en] ionized water [:ro] apa ionizata

Daily ingestion of alkaline electrolyzed water containing hydrogen influences human health, including gastrointestinal symptoms

Abstract

In Japan, alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) apparatus have been approved as a medical device. And for the patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, drinking AEW has been found to be effective in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms. But some users of AEW apparatus do not have abdominal indefinite complaint. Little attention has been given to the benefit for the users which have no abdominal indefinite complaint. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect on health, including gastrointestinal symptoms, when a person without abdominal indefinite complaint, etc., drinks AEW on a daily basis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial has been designed. Four-week period of everyday water drinking, PW drinking group: drink purified tap water as a placebo, AEW drinking group: drink alkaline electrolyzed water which made by electrolysis of purified tap water. Before the experiment and after the 4-week period of water drinking, Blood tests, physical fitness evaluations, and questionnaire evaluations is conducted. In this study, we did not specifically select patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Sufficiently clear effect could not be confirmed. But the stools were more normal, and, as shown in the previous report, that drinking AEW is considered to contribute to intestinal normalization. In addition, when drinking AEW, a high proportion of the respondents said that they felt they were able to sleep soundly, and the proportion of subjects who answered that they felt good when awakening increased. The effect of reducing oxidative stress, thus allowing for improved sleep, was exhibited by drinking AEW containing hydrogen, which is considered to be an antioxidant substance. This research were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (No. 837) and were registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN000031800) on March 22, 2018.

Keywords: alkaline electrolyzed water, gastrointestinal symptoms, hydrogen-dissolved water, physical fitness evaluations, questionnaire evaluations, functional beverage

Introduction

In Japan, water which is obtained on the cathode side by the electrolysis of tap water is called alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) or reduced hydrogen water. Improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms by ingesting AEW has been confirmed by Japanese researchers. For example, Naito et al. reported the inhibitory effect of AEW ingestion on gastric mucosal disorder caused by aspirin, and Hayakawa et al.reported the inhibitory effect of AEW ingestion on abnormal intestinal fermentation. Tashiro et al.examined the effect of ingesting AEW or purified tap water (PW; as a placebo) at a rate of at 500 mL per day for 4 weeks in patients who had abdominal pain such as heartburn, stomach discomfort, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, constipation, etc., and reported that the results of the AEW group were superior to those of the placebo group., From these results, apparatus that produce AEW have been approved as medical devices by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. AEW is thought to be effective for functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Since AEW is produced by electrolyzing water, hydroxide ions, which are alkaline in nature, are generated. Hydrogen molecules are also generated on the electrode surface and dissolved in water. Therefore, AEW is alkaline water containing hydrogen. In conventional efficacy studies, evaluations with respect to ingesting AEW have typically been conducted focusing on the alkalinity of the water.,,, In recent years, however, the assumed effectiveness of the antioxidant effect of dissolved hydrogen on various diseases has been reported.,,,,,,,, Nevertheless, some users of AEW apparatus do not have any definite abdominal symptoms. In many cases, they are drinking AEW on a daily basis to improve their health, and many users also feel health benefits such as improvement in exercise capacity. These may be thought to be due to the action of dissolved hydrogen. There have been no researched studies of these in detail. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of AEW on health, including gastrointestinal symptoms, in subjects without any definite abdominal symptoms.

Participants and Methods

Participants

Healthy men and women (20–60 years) who use the Osaka City Citizen Health Development Consultation Center were selected as test subjects to determine the health effect of daily AEW ingestion. It was aimed to clarify whether general subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms have another good effect besides gastrointestinal symptoms by drinking AEW which is good for gastrointestinal symptoms. We explained this purpose to the subjects and asked for research participation. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. All procedures used in this research were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (No. 837) and were registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN000031800) on March 22, 2018. This study follows the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial has been designed, and the research design is shown in Figure 1.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g001.jpg

Research design.

Note: PW: Purified tap water; AEW: alkaline electrolyzed water.

Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with an AEW group (n = 30) and a PW group (n = 30). Blood tests, physical fitness evaluations, and questionnaire evaluations were conducted before the experiment was initiated. Subjects were provided with AEW apparatus that had been modified to produce only AEW or PW. They ingested 500 mL or more of freshly produced AEW or PW per day (they were required to ingest 200 mL immediately after awakening, and 300 mL or more during the rest of the day). After the end of the four-week period, blood tests, physical fitness evaluations, and questionnaire evaluations were conducted again to check whether the ingestion of AEW for four weeks had beneficial effects on the health of the subjects.

Blood sample/urinalysis

General blood test: Red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count.

Blood biochemical examination: Total protein, albumin, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), γ-GTP, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, neutral fat, uric acid, creatinine, and blood sugar.

Urinalysis: Urine sugar, urine protein, urine occult blood, and urine pH.

Physical measurements

Right/left grip strength, right/left leg muscle strength, vertical jump, whole body reaction time, standing time on one leg with eyes closed, sit-up, seated forward bend, and resting blood pressure.

Questionnaire variables

Gastrointestinal symptoms (stomachache, heartburn, heavy stomach, lower abdominal pain, bloated stomach), urinary frequency, condition of the stools (fecal properties and bowel movement), and physical condition (sleep quality and upon awakening).

Statistical analysis

In the blood data, the urinalysis and physical measurement values, the statistical significance of the average difference (before and after AEW, PW drinking) was analysed using a paired t-test (Statcel 4 Software [OMS Publishing, Saitama, Japan). The questionnaire data (before and after AEW, PW drinking) was analysed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test using the same Statcel 4 software. Differences for which Pvalues of < 0.05 and < 0.01 were inferred as significant.

Results

Conditions of subjects and water quality

Subjects with abdominal symptoms such as heartburn, stomach discomfort, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and constipation were used in the study previously performed., For the current study, subjects aged 20 to 69 years were randomly selected among medical checkup examinees who visited the Osaka City Citizen Health Development Consultation Center, and then divided into two groups. One group ingested PW while the other ingested AEW. Neither the subjects nor the experimenters knew which group the subjects belonged to. Figure 2 shows that no significant differences were found in dispersion of mean values and distribution values.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g002.jpg

Age distribution of subjects.

Note: PW: Purified tap water; AEW: alkaline electrolyzed water.

Each subject was provided with an AEW apparatus that had been modified to either produce or not produce AEW, and asked to install it at their home. In order to verify the quality of the drinking water, the water produced by the apparatus was taken into aluminum containers and collected when the subjects came in for measurement. Figure 3 shows the water quality distribution of each drinking water.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g003.jpg

Water quality distribution of two types of drinking water.

Note: PW: Purified tap water; AEW: alkaline electrolyzed water.

Because we selected subjects who live in or around Osaka City, the tap water from either the same or a nearby water source was used for the evaluation. For this reason, the tests have been conducted using water of equivalent quality and which shows little bias in the distribution of ions.

Regarding the water before and after the electrolysis, the pH was 7.6 ± 0.2 for the PW group, and 9.2 ± 0.2 for the AEW group. Dissolved hydrogen concentration was not measurable at the subjects’ houses because hydrogen easily escapes water. However, for non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed tap water from the same water source and using the same water apparatus, the hydrogen concentration was confirmed as 0 mg/L in the PW group and 0.2 mg/L for the AEW group for the characteristics of the device.

Comparison of hematological values

The hematological data of subjects in the PW group and the AEW group were compared before and after the four-week period, but no significant differences were observed in both groups. This is consistent with the contents of the previous report. However, the HDL cholesterol level, a newly measured value this time, of the AEW group showed a tendency to increase with P = 0.097, as shown in Figure 4.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g004.jpg

Change in HDL cholesterol before and after drinking.

Note: (A) alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group. HDL: High-density lipoprotein.

Comparison of data related to physical abilities

For the seated forward bend, vertical jump, right/left grip strength, and sit-up, there was no significant difference before and after the 4-week period for both the PW group and the AEW group.

Regarding the whole body reaction time, no significant differences were observed before and after the 4-week period in the case of the PW group, as seen in Figure 5B. However, a significant difference (decrease) (P < 0.05) was observed in the AEW group, as seen in Figure 5A. As for standing time on one leg with eyes closed, longer times were observed in the AEW group (P = 0.09), as seen in Figure 6A.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g005.jpg

Change in whole body reaction time before and after drinking.

Note: (A) Alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group; (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g006.jpg

Changes in the standing time on one leg with eyes closed before and after drinking.

Note: (A) alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

Questionnaire to subjects

As for the questionnaire items, we asked the subjects to provide answers in 3 to 5 points about gastrointestinal symptoms (Table 1), defecation and urination (Table 2), and physical condition (Table 3).

Table 1

Gastrointestinal symptoms

Item 1 2 3 4
Stomachache Not at all Slightly Quite a lot Very much
Heartburn Not at all Slightly Quite a lot Very much
Heavy stomach Not at all Slightly Quite a lot Very much
Lower abdominal pain Not at all Slightly Quite a lot Very much
Bloated stomach Not at all Slightly Quite a lot Very much

Note: Scoring 1 to 4, where: Not at all = 1, and Very much = 4.

Table 2

Defecation and urination

Item 1 2 3 4 5
Uninary frequency Very often Often Sometimes Occasionally Rarely
Fecal properties Hard Slightly hard Normal Slightly soft Soft
Bowel movement Very good Good Normal Bad Very bad

Table 3

Physical conditionn

Item 1 2 3
Sleep quality Good Neither nor Bad
Waking up Good Neither nor Bad

Note: Scoring 1 to 3, where: Good = 1, and Bad = 3.

First, as seen in Figures 77 to to11,11, as for gastrointestinal symptoms, sufficiently clear effect could not be confirmed in this study. Next, as seen in Figure 12, the urinary frequency significantly increased in both groups, likely due to an increase in urine volume resulting from water ingestion. Regarding bowel movement, the stools slightly changed from slightly soft to normal or slightly hard, or from soft to normal (P < 0.05) in the AEW group, as can be seen in Figure 13A. There was no difference between subjects of the two groups who had answered that they were in “good” or “bad” physical condition.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g007.jpg

Change in stomach ache before and after drinking.

Note: Left side: alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW), and right side: purified tap water (PW).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g011.jpg

Change in bloated stomach before and after drinking.

Note: Left side: alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW), and right side: purified tap water (PW).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g012.jpg

Change in urinary frequency before and after drinking.

Note: (A) Alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, and (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g013.jpg

Changes in the condition of stools before and after drinking.

Note: (A) Alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, and (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g008.jpg

Change in heartburn before and after drinking.

Note: Left side: alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW), and right side: purified tap water (PW).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g009.jpg

Change in heavy stomach before and after drinking.

Note: Left side: alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW), and right side: purified tap water (PW).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g010.jpg

Change in lower abdominal pain before and after drinking.

Note: Left side: alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW), and right side: purified tap water (PW).

Regarding sleep quality, there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the number of AEW group subjects who responded that they were able to sleep well, as shown in Figure 14A, and there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the number of subjects from the same group who said that they felt good upon awakening, as seen in Figure 15A.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g014.jpg

Change in sleep quality before and after drinking.

Note: (A) Alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, and (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is MGR-8-160-g015.jpg

Changes in the state of getting up before and after drinking.

Note: (A) Alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) drinking group, and (B) purified tap water (PW) drinking group.

Discussion

In Japan, AEW apparatus have been approved as medical devices, and ingesting AEW has been found to be effective in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms. A clinical evaluation of this effect was conducted with patients with gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn, stomach discomfort, and abdominal symptoms such as abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and constipation).

Antioxidant action by hydrogen and gastric acid neutralization by alkaline pH have been considered. In addition, recent studies have shown that the intestinal bacterial flora distribution changes. It seems that these are involved in the normalization of the gastrointestinal activity. However, for this study, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were not specifically selected. As for these as well as the previous results, in general, there was no difference in the hematological values between the PW group and the AEW group. However, the newly measured HDL cholesterol value showed a tendency to increase with P = 0.097. The increase in HDL cholesterol by ingesting water containing hydrogen is reported by Gadek and colleagues. The effect of hydrogen can be considered to have had an effect in the AEW group this time as well.

As for gastrointestinal symptoms—which showed a significant difference during the previous study (significant improvement of abdominal symptoms and improvement of abnormal bowel movement),—sufficiently clear effect could not be confirmed by this study because the subjects did not show gastrointestinal symptoms, and very few of them responded that they had abnormal abdominal symptoms and bowel movement before participating in this study. Therefore, we believe this is the reason the answers of the subjects were the same before and after their participation in the study.

However, with respect to bowel movement, the stools slightly changed from soft to normal or slightly hard, or from loose to normal in the AEW group. This reflects that the stools are more normal, and, as shown in the previous report, that ingesting AEW is considered to contribute to intestinal normalization.,,Regarding items other than the gastrointestinal tract, a high proportion of the respondents said that they felt they were able to sleep well, and the proportion of subjects who answered that they felt good when awakening increased. Various studies on the relationship between the ingestion of antioxidant substances and the condition of sleep have been undertaken, and the effect of reducing oxidative stress, thus allowing for improved sleep quality, is exhibited by ingesting AEW containing hydrogen, which is considered an antioxidant substance.

Regarding sports performance, various reports on the effects of sleep on sports performance have concluded that willingly sleeping longer can lead to faster running, shortened reaction time, and improved motivation during practice and games. Improved sleep quality by ingesting AEW is, therefore, believed to help reduce fatigue, ensure appropriate endurance recovery, and improve overall sports performance.

The findings of this study indicate that ingesting AEW on a daily basis improves health and exercise capacity, even in healthy people who do not have gastrointestinal symptoms.

Footnotes

Funding: The study was supported by a grant from Matsushita Electric Works Co., Ltd. Home Appliances R&D Center (to HN).

Conflicts of interest

The corresponding author (YT) is a salaried employee of the Panasonic Corporation. One of the authors (SY) was a salaried employee of the Panasonic Corporation. This study does not alter our adherence to Medical Gas Research policies on sharing data and materials. Another authors (KI and HN) report no conflict of interest related to this manuscript.

Financial support

The study was supported by a grant from Matsushita Electric Works Co., Ltd. Home Appliances R&D Center (to HW).

Institutional review board statement

All procedures used in this research were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (No. 837) and were registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN000031800) on March 22, 2018.

Declaration of participant consent

The authors certify that they have obtained participant consent forms. In the form, participant have given their consent for their images andother clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Reporting statement

This study follows the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

Biostatistics statement

The statistical methods of this study were reviewed by the biostatistician of the Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Copyright license agreement

The Copyright License Agreement has been signed by all authors before publication.

Data sharing statement

Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures, and appendices). Study protocol and informed consent form will be available immediately following publication, without end date. Results will be disseminated through presentations at scientific meetings and/or by publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Anonymized trial data will be available indefinitely at www.figshare.com.

Plagiarism check

Checked twice by iThenticate.

Peer review

Externally peer reviewed.

Logo of mgr

Link to Publisher's site
. 2018 Oct-Dec; 8(4): 160–166.
Published online 2019 Jan 9. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.248267
PMCID: PMC6352572
PMID: 30713669
Daily ingestion of alkaline electrolyzed water containing hydrogen influences human health, including gastrointestinal symptoms

References

1. Tanaka Y. Structure and function of alkaline ionized water apparatus. J Funct Water. 2017;12:29–33.[]
2. Naito Y, Takagi T, Uchiyama K, et al. Chronic administration with electrolyzed alkaline water inhibits aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2002;32:69–81. []
3. Hayakawa T. Functions and applications of alkaline ionized water. Food Styl. 1999;3:49–55.[]
4. Tashiro H, Kitahora T, Fujiyama Y, Bammba T. Clinical evalutaion of alkaline ionized water for chronic diarrhea- placebo controlled Double-blind study. Diges Absor. 2000;23:52–56. []
5. Yoshihide Fujiyama. Utility and reliability of alkaline electrolyzed water. The 27th General Assembly of the Japan Medical Congress Osaka. 2007:1–30. []
6. Hotta K, Saihara Y. Basic Information on alkaline ionized water (potable alkaline electrolyzed water) – scientific and social basis and perspectives. Functi Water. 2017;12:35–44. []
7. Xue J, Shang G, Tanaka Y, et al. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:81. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
8. Koyama K, Tanaka Y, Saihara Y, Ando D, Goto Y, Katayama A. Effect of hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on urinary oxidative stress makers after an acute severe exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Anti Med. 2008;4:117–122. []
9. Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, et al. n acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;13:688–694. [PubMed[]
10. Iketani M, Sekimoto K, Igarashi T, et al. Administration of hydrogen-rich water prevents vascular aging of the aorta in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Sci Rep. 2018;8:16822. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
11. Zhang W, Zhang Q, Yao W. Intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water and lactulose in female piglets fed a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet. Toxins (Base) 2018;10:E246. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
12. Muramatsu, S, Fujiwara K, Ito M, et al. Effect of electrolyzedreduced water ingestion on the changes of biochemical markers under the graded exercise test, Studies on humanities and social sciences of Chiba University. 2010:1–15. []
13. Fujita K, Seike T, Yutsudo N, et al. Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One. 2009;4:e7247. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
14. Hamasaki T, Harada G, Nakamichi N, et al. Electrochemically reduced water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water. PLoS one. 2017;12:e0171192. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
15. Shirahata S, Hamasaki T, Teruya K. Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2012;23:124–131. []
16. Gadek Z, Hamasaki T, Shirahata S. “Nordenau Phenomenon” Application of Natural Reduced Water to Therapy. Anim Cell Tech. 2008;15:279–285. []
17. Sawada Y, Sugimoto A, Sami M, Shirasawa T. Dietary supplement with Apple Polyphenols and antioxidants decrease the oxidative stress in human. J Japan Mib Syst Asso. 2015;21:21–35.[]
18. Mah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011;34:943–950. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]

Articles from Medical Gas Research are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications

Novel haemodialysis (HD) treatment employing molecular hydrogen (H2)-enriched dialysis solution improves prognosis of chronic dialysis patients: A prospective observational study

Abstract

Recent studies have revealed unique biological characteristics of molecular hydrogen (H2) as an anti-inflammatory agent. We developed a novel haemodialysis (E-HD) system delivering an H2 (30–80 ppb)-enriched dialysis solution by water electrolysis, and conducted a non-randomized, non-blinded, prospective observational study exploring its clinical impact. Prevalent chronic HD patients were allocated to either the E-HD (n = 161) group or the conventional HD (C-HD: n = 148) group, and received the respective HD treatments during the study. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and development of non-lethal cardio-cerebrovascular events (cardiac disease, apoplexy, and leg amputation due to peripheral artery disease). During the 3.28-year mean observation period, there were no differences in dialysis parameters between the two groups; however, post-dialysis hypertension was ameliorated with significant reductions in antihypertensive agents in the E-HD patients. There were 91 events (50 in the C-HD group and 41 in the E-HD group). Multivariate analysis of the Cox proportional hazards model revealed E-HD as an independent significant factor for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio 0.59; [95% confidence interval: 0.38–0.92]) after adjusting for confounding factors (age, cardiovascular disease history, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein). HD applying an H2-dissolved HD solution could improve the prognosis of chronic HD patients.

Introduction

The combination of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation in patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) treatment plays a crucial role in the occurrence of excessive cardiovascular events and death,. The bio-incompatibility of the HD procedure is supposed to be involved with this pathology. HD may exaggerate leukocyte activation and injury, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that ameliorating the stress to leukocytes during HD may have a beneficial effect on patient outcomes.

Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an inert gas with no known side effects. Recent studies have shown that H2acts as an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent, and ameliorates cellular and organ damage,. We therefore developed a novel HD system using highly dissolved H2 water rendered by the water electrolysis technique. Previous pilot studies, including ours, have reported that suppression of interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), decrease oxidative injury of lymphocytes, improve the redox status of serum albumin, and ameliorate hypertension. In reference to these findings, we conducted a non-randomized, non-blinded, prospective observational study to compare the outcomes between patients receiving haemodialysis using an H2-enriched dialysis solution (E-HD group) and patients receiving conventional haemodialysis (C-HD group).

Results

Patient registration and characteristics

Patients were recruited during April 2011 and October 2012. Of the 327 prevalent chronic HD patients who were pre-registered, 18 were excluded because of the lack of data and withdrawal. Ultimately, 148 patients were allocated to the C-HD group and 161 patients were allocated to the E-HD group (Fig. 1). The patients’ characteristics in the two groups at baseline are shown in Table 1. All subjects were treated by the standard HD schedule (three sessions/week, 4–5 h/session), using high-performance biocompatible dialyzers with fixed blood flow rate (QB) (200 mL/min) and dialysate flow rate (QD) (500 mL/min). Patients who had been treated by a vitamin-E coated dialyzer were excluded from this study. At baseline, there was no statistical difference between the groups in the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) reduction rate by HD (69.7 ± 6.9% in the C-HD group and 70.3 ± 8.4% in the E-HD group; p = 0.485).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 41598_2017_18537_Fig1_HTML.jpg

Flow chart from pre-registration to the end of observation. Abbreviations: C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis; KH, Kashima Hospital; GJC, Gumyoji Jin Clinic; TJC, Tateishi Jin Clinic; NH, Noboribetsu Hospital; NMH, Nikko Memorial Hospital; HMC, Higashi Muroran Clinic; HHC, Higashi Horai Clinic.

Table 1

Patient characteristics.

Characteristic C-HD E-HD P Value
N 148 161
Age (y) 67.4 ± 11.8 64.0 ± 11.9 <0.05
Gender, male (%) 92 (62.2) 85 (52.8) NS
Dialysis vintage (months) 60 (3, 263) 80 (2, 478) <0.01
Cause of renal failure (DM, (%)) 62 (41.9) 55 (34.2) NS
Patients with CVD history (%)) 36 (24.3) 53 (32.9) NS
with multiple CVDs (%) 5 (3.4) 10 (6.2) NS
with cardiac disease (%) 25 (16.9) 31 (19.3) NS
with apoplexy (%) 11 (7.4) 29 (18.0) <0.01
with PAD (%) 5 (3.4%) 3 (1.9%) NS
Body weight (pre HD, kg) 59.3 ± 12.0 58.9 ± 11.2 NS
Body weight (post HD, kg) 57.0 ± 11.7 56.3 ± 10.9 NS
CTR (%) 48.7 ± 6.0 48.7 ± 5.5 NS
Pre-dialysis SBP (mmHg) 154 ± 27 154 ± 25 NS
Pre-dialysis DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 15 80 ± 16 NS
Post-dialysis SBP (mmHg) 142 ± 24 135 ± 24 <0.05
Post-dialysis DBP (mmHg) 75 ± 14 73 ± 14 NS
Patients on Anti-hypertensive agents (%) 108 (73.0) 107 (66.5) NS
Patients with ESA (%) 124 (83.8) 140 (87.0) NS
Fatigue Grade 2.9 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.1 NS
Pruritis Intensity Grade 3.4 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.9 <0.05
Puriritis Frequency Grade 3.2 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.1 NS

C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis.

CVD, cardio-cerebrovascular disease; HD, haemodialysis; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ESA, erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

Changes in laboratory and subjective/objective parameters during the study

HD-related laboratory parameters at the time of the first HD session of the respective weeks are shown in Table 2. No differences were noted between the two groups during the study period. Regarding subjective symptoms, there was a significant difference in the grade of pruritus between the two groups at baseline (with more severe symptoms in the E-HD group); however, no differences were found during the course of the study. Small but significant differences were noted between the two groups in the fatigue grade (fewer symptoms in the E-HD group) at 48 weeks. No differences were observed in the time-course pre-dialysis blood pressures (BPs); however, post-dialysis BPs differed between the two groups. In sub-analysis of the post-dialysis systolic BP (SBP) levels at baseline, there were significant differences in post-dialysis SBP (6 months) and Defined Daily Dose of antihypertensive medication (6, 12, 18 months) in patients with post-dialysis SBP ≥ 140 mmH at baseline, while no statistical differences were found in those parameters in patients with post-dialysis SBP < 140 mmHg (Fig. 2).

Table 2

Dialysis-related and subjective/objective parameters in the two groups.

Months 0 m 6 m 12 m 18 m 24 m 30 m 36 m 42 m 48 m
WBC count (/µL) C-HD 5504 ± 1653 5597 ± 1840 5461 ± 1669 5321 ± 1778 5251 ± 1996 5404 ± 2093 5701 ± 2014 5543 ± 1840 5541 ± 1985
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 109 104 84 80
E-HD 5852 ± 1803 5865 ± 2091 5734 ± 2083 5648 ± 1851 5779 ± 1823 5584 ± 1751 5620 ± 1684 5637 ± 1759 5642 ± 1793
(n) 161 160 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
Hemoglobin (g/dL) C-HD 10.6 ± 1.1 10.6 ± 1.2 10.4 ± 1.3 10.7 ± 1.4 10.4 ± 1.3 10.5 ± 1.3 10.4 ± 1.3 10.6 ± 1.3 10.7 ± 1.3
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 109 104 83 80
E-HD 11.1 ± 1.2 11.0 ± 1.0 10.7 ± 1.2 10.9 ± 1.2 10.4 ± 1.3 11.1 ± 1.1 10.8 ± 1.1 10.9 ± 1.1 11.1 ± 1.3
(n) 161 159 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
BUN (mg/dL) C-HD 66.8 ± 15.1 63.7 ± 15.0 65.3 ± 13.9 56.1 ± 14.5 58.8 ± 14.3 56.3 ± 14.0 61.3 ± 13.1 57.0 ± 14.0 61.1 ± 13.7
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 109 103 84 80
E-HD 69.0 ± 15.8 67.5 ± 16.5 65.2 ± 15.5 62.9 ± 15.8 64.3 ± 14.5 61.0 ± 13.2 62.5 ± 15.1 63.0 ± 14.8 61.4 ± 13.4
(n) 161 160 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
creatinine (mg/dL) C-HD 10.8 ± 2.6 11.1 ± 2.5 10.9 ± 2.5 10.0 ± 2.3 10.3 ± 2.3 10.4 ± 2.5 10.9 ± 2.5 11.0 ± 2.4 10.8 ± 2.5
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 110 104 84 80
E-HD 10.6 ± 3.0 10.4 ± 2.8 10.7 ± 2.8 10.3 ± 2.8 10.6 ± 2.6 10.7 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 2.3 10.8 ± 2.2 10.6 ± 2.4
(n) 161 159 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
Ca (mg/dL) C-HD 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.8 8.8 ± 0.8 8.8 ± 0.6 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.7 8.9 ± 0.8 8.6 ± 0.8
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 110 104 84 79
E-HD 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.6 8.7 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.6 8.7 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.6 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.6 8.8 ± 0.6
(n) 160 159 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
Pi (mg/dL) C-HD 5.5 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 1.4 5.6 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.3 5.6 ± 1.3 5.3 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.6 5.8 ± 1.4
(n) 148 136 128 126 117 109 104 84 80
E-HD 5.6 ± 1.4 5.6 ± 1.5 5.4 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.4 5.4 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.1
(n) 161 161 154 147 133 125 123 114 107
B2-microglobulin (mg/L) C-HD 27.7 ± 7.0 28.2 ± 6.6 27.5 ± 6.4 26.9 ± 5.8 26.6 ± 6.0 27.5 ± 5.3 29.9 ± 5.8 29.8 ± 5.7 29.1 ± 6.0
(n) 148 131 126 126 116 108 102 80 78
E-HD 26.9 ± 6.5 27.0 ± 6.9 27.6 ± 6.5 26.0 ± 5.9 26.9 ± 6.3 27.3 ± 5.6 28.4 ± 5.6 28.2 ± 5.7 28.6 ± 5.3
(n) 161 159 149 142 131 122 120 110 104
CRP (mg/dL) C-HD 0.32 ± 0.57 0.23 ± 0.34 0.41 ± 0.93 0.53 ± 2.24 0.26 ± 0.44 0.40 ± 0.95 0.45 ± 0.97 0.99 ± 5.12 0.82 ± 2.10
(n) 148 133 128 126 115 109 101 81 78
E-HD 0.39 ± 0.73 0.45 ± 1.03 0.66 ± 1.52 0.56 ± 1.87 0.57 ± 1.17 0.38 ± 0.88 0.41 ± 0.71 0.35 ± 0.67 0.62 ± 1.91
(n) 161 160 152 145 131 123 121 112 105
albumin (g/dL) C-HD 3.5 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.3
(n) 148 136 126 124 116 109 103 83 79
E-HD 3.7 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.3
(n) 161 159 152 145 131 123 121 112 107
Dry weight (kg) C-HD 56.6 ± 11.8 57.0 ± 11.6 57.6 ± 12.3 57.0 ± 11.6 56.9 ± 11.4 56.8 ± 11.1 56.6 ± 11.5 56.4 ± 12.6 56.4 ± 12.3
147 140 133 129 119 114 106 87 82
E-HD 56.4 ± 10.9 56.5 ± 11.0 56.5 ± 11.4 56.3 ± 11.5 56.9 ± 11.8 56.4 ± 11.3 56.5 ± 11.3 56.5 ± 11.6 58.3 ± 12.2
(n) 161 160 152 146 131 125 120 113 107
CTR (%) C-HD 48.7 ± 6.0 49.1 ± 4.2 49.0 ± 4.2 49.0 ± 4.4 49.9 ± 5.3 49.6 ± 5.2 49.7 ± 5.2 49.5 ± 5.8 49.1 ± 6.2
(n) 148 134 131 115 117 112 104 84 79
E-HD 48.7 ± 5.5 49.0 ± 5.4 49.3 ± 5.6 49.4 ± 5.4 49.2 ± 5.3 49.3 ± 5.4 49.5 ± 5.6 48.7 ± 5.4 49.0 ± 5.1
(n) 161 155 148 133 129 123 119 108 101
pre-dialysis MBP (mmHg) C-HD 104 ± 17 97 ± 16 104 ± 15 100 ± 14 100 ± 16 101 ± 17 104 ± 15 101 ± 18 101 ± 18
(n) 148 137 121 112 101 88 78 66 62
E-HD 103 ± 22 94 ± 19 103 ± 18 102 ± 19 103 ± 19 105 ± 15* 105 ± 15 104 ± 16 106 ± 18
(n) 161 163 152 146 131 125 120 115 105
post-dialysis MBP (mmHg) C-HD 97 ± 13 93 ± 18 96 ± 13 96 ± 15 96 ± 13 98 ± 14 98 ± 12 100 ± 12 95 ± 12
(n) 148 137 121 112 101 88 78 66 62
E-HD 93 ± 20 90 ± 18 94 ± 16 92 ± 16* 92 ± 15** 95 ± 16 95 ± 14* 96 ± 16 95 ± 13
(n) 161 162 152 146 131 125 120 115 105
DDD C-HD 1.04 1.03 1.00 1.00 1.22 1.36 1.34 1.12 1.00
(0, 2.34) (0, 2.53) (0, 2.05) (0, 2.00) (0, 2.83) (0.18, 2.33) (0, 2.50) (0, 2.05) (0.02, 2.71)
(n) 147 137 130 127 118 112 105 86 84
E-HD 0.57 0.57* 0.5** 0.50 0.76** 0.81* 1.07 0.86 0.62*
(0, 2.14) (0, 1.53) (0, 1.21) (0, 1.34) (0, 1.50) (0.03, 1.62) (0.06, 1.90) (0, 1.87) (0, 1.62)
(n) 159 159 151 145 130 124 120 115 104
Fatigue Grade C-HD 2.9 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1
(n) 148 136 124 123 111 112 103 79 74
E-HD 2.9 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.3 3.1 ± 1.1* 2.9 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 1.1
(n) 161 152 139 136 124 120 118 106 96
Pruritus Intensity Grade C-HD 3.4 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0
(n) 148 136 124 123 110 112 103 79 74
E-HD 3.2 ± 0.9* 3.2 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.0* 3.4 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 0.9*
(n) 161 152 139 136 124 120 118 106 96
Puriritus Frequency Grade C-HD 3.2 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2
(n) 148 135 124 123 111 112 103 79 74
E-HD 3.0 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.1*
(n) 161 152 139 136 124 120 118 106 96

vs. C-HD; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

MBP, mean blood pressure; CTR, cardiothoracic ratio; DDD, defined daily dose of anti-hypertensive agents.

C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis; WBC, white blood cell; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Ca, serum Calcium; Pi, serum phosphate; CRP, C-reactive protein.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 41598_2017_18537_Fig2_HTML.jpg

Changes in post-dialysis systolic blood pressure, and prescription of antihypertensive agents during the study. Patients with post-dialysis SBP ≥ 140 mmHg (n = 139) at baseline (0 month): changes in post-dialysis SBP (a), and changes in DDD (b); Patients with post-dialysis SBP < 140 mmHg (n = 168) at baseline: changes in post-dialysis SBP (c), and changes in DDD (d). Abbreviations: C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DDD, daily defined dose of antihypertensive agents. (a,c) There were significant differences in post-dialysis SBP (6 months; p < 0.05), and DDD (6, 12, 18 months; p < 0.05, respectively) between the two groups. (b,d) No differences were observed in post-dialysis SBP or DDD between the two groups.

Composite events summary and multivariate analysis of risk factors for events

During the mean observation period of 3.28 years, there were 91 events: 50 in the C-HD group and 41 in the E-HD group (Table 3). In Cox proportional hazards model analysis, possible risk factors for the primary endpoints, which were identified via p-values < 0.1, were depicted, e.g., E-HD dialysis modality, age, history of cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CVD), serum albumin, and CRP. Multivariate analysis after adjusting for these factors revealed E-HD as an independent significant factor for the primary event (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38–0.92]) (Fig. 3 and Table 4).

Table 3

Summary of events in the two groups.

C-HD E-HD
Observation vintage (patient⋅year) 467 544
Number of Primary events 50 41
(all causes of deaths and non-lethal CVD events)
 Cardiac events including death 29 20
  Congestive heart failure 11 8
  Ischemic heart disease 13 9
  Aortic aneurysm rupture 1 1
  Sudden cardiac arrest 4 2
 Apoplexy including death (bleeding/infarction) 6 (1/5) 10 (2/8)
 PAD including death 8 2
Primary events rate (1000 patients·year: 95%CI) 107.1 (81.2–141.1) 75.4 (55.6–102.2)
Number of deaths 17 20
Deaths rate (1000 patients·year: 95%CI) 36.4 (22.7–58.3) 36.8 (23.8–56.8)

C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis.

PAD, peripheral artery disease (with surgical procedure).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 41598_2017_18537_Fig3_HTML.jpg

Cox proportional hazards model demonstrating events-free differences between patients on C-HD and those on E-HD. Treatment with E-HD was an independent predicting factor for events (hazard ratio:0.593; p < 0.05). Abbreviations: C-HD, conventional haemodialysis; E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis.

Table 4

Cox proportional hazards model analysis for the composite primary endpoints.

Univariate HR 95%CI P value Multivariate HR 95%CI P value
E-HD 0.687 0.454-1.039 0.076 0.593 0.384–0.916 0.019
HD vintage 1.000 0.997–1.002 0.824
Age 1.036 1.017–1.055 0.000 1.014 0.993–1.036 0.183
Gender (female) 0.698 0.454–1.074 0.102
History of CVD 3.085 2.040–4.665 0.000 3.037 1.977–4.665 0.000
non DM 0.865 0.569–1.314 0.497
BMI 0.987 0.933–1.044 0.644
Pre SBP 0.999 0.990–1.007 0.783
Albumin 0.195 0.101–0.377 0.000 0.328 0.160–0.674 0.002
CRP 1.266 1.017–1.576 0.035 1.323 1.005–1.740 0.046
Hg 0.893 0.741–1.075 0.230

E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis; HD, haemodialysis; CVD, cardio-cerebral vascular disease; DM, diabetes mellituss; BMI, body mass index; Pre SBP, pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure; CRP, C-reactive protein; Hg, hemoglobin.

Discussion

This prospective observational study primarily aimed to examine the clinical effects of the addition of H2to HD dialysate (an average of 30–80 ppb of H2), which was delivered continuously through the dialyzer membrane to the blood during treatment, as reported elsewhere. During the mean observation period of 3.28 years, the study results revealed E-HD as an independent significant factor for reducing the risk of the primary events of all-cause mortality and development of non-lethal cardio-cerebrovascular events. In the study, all HD systems employed an endotoxin-eliminating filter system. Thus, the different clinical profiles between the two groups, patients on E-HD and those on C-HD, reflects the influence of H2 during HD.

The mechanisms by which E-HD delivers clinical benefits remain to be elucidated, since there were no differences in dialysis-related clinically relevant parameters between the two groups during the study. However, we could speculate several possibilities. The observation that the amelioration of post-dialysis hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg) in E-HD patients may suggest an idea to elucidate the benefits of E-HD, because intra-dialysis systolic hypertension, as well as high SBP, are well-known risk factors for all-cause mortality in HD patients,. On the other hand, low SBP (<110 mmHg) has also been reported as a risk for excessive mortality. Interestingly enough, there were no differences during the course of the study in post-dialysis SBP levels among the patients with SBP < 140 mmHg at baseline (Fig. 2). Furthermore, there were no differences between the two groups in the proportion of patients with SBP < 110 mmHg (Supplementary Fig. S1). Thus, taken together the observations, the improved post-dialysis BP may have played a role, at least partially, for the better outcomes in patients with post-dialysis hypertension

Other possible mechanisms could be suggested in the previous studies, i.e., increased reduced albumin redox status by acute as well as long-term E-HD,, improved patients’ anti-oxidative capacity, amelioration of micro inflammation with reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines,, and suppression of T-cell damage. These possible mechanisms need to be clarified in the context of patients’ clinical outcomes in the future.

The mitigating effect on elevated SBP, as observed in the present study and previous studies, is very unique. We speculate that the primary mechanism of BP reduction could not be attributed to changes in fluid volume, since there were no significant differences in body weight after HD. Rather, the primary mechanism of BP reduction might be related to vasodilation or to a reduction in vascular resistance. Recent studies in deoxycortisterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension have revealed a crucial role of superoxide anion release from macrophages in mesenteric peri-arteries, due in part to impaired function of the Alpha 2-adrenergic autoreceptors, which provide negative feedback on the release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic nerves associated with the mesenteric arteries. The mesenteric arteries constitute a major resistance arterial bed for BP regulation. In addition, one fourth of the systemic blood volume is present in the splanchnic circulation. Therefore, an increase in arteriolar resistance will elevate the arterial BP, and an increase in the mesenteric venomotor tone will lead to an increase in the cardiac venous return and the cardiac load due to a decrease in the venous capacity,. The combination of these two pathological processes results in a severe cardiac load. Interestingly, a recent study showed that the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 2 blockade suppresses vascular macrophage infiltration and reduces blood pressure. Upon the observation that MCP-1 decreased in E-HD patients in the previous study, it is possible to speculate the possible action of E-HD on macrophage of patients. The question of whether the HD procedure activates the residential macrophages, or activates extrinsic macrophages to infiltrate the mesenteric vascular area, needs to be addressed.

There are several issues and limitations in this study. First, the observed results in the E-HD group were slightly complicated, i.e., the rate of the primary composite endpoint was lower in the E-HD group than in the C-HD group, although the rate of death was not different between the groups. In univariate analysis of the Cox proportional hazards model, E-HD was not a strong factor for the primary endpoint, although multivariate analysis showed E-HD to be a strong factor after adjusting for confounding factors. Regarding the reasons for this, we speculate that a potential bias existed in the patients who were allocated to the E-HD group in that these patients had a relatively higher incidence of CVD history. This may have influenced the results of the univariate-analysis, since the presence of a CVD history was the most influential risk factor for the occurrence of the primary endpoint. To clarify this point, we performed a sub-analysis on this profile according to the presence or absence of CVD history. And it was revealed that E-HD was a significant factor for reducing the risk of primary endpoint in patients without history of CVD (HR: 0.455; p = 0.010) by univariate as well as multivariate analysis (Supplementary Tables S1 and 2), which indicates the clinically significant impact of E-HD.

Second issue is the levels of H2 of HD solution. The H2 levels of the present dialysates were in the range of 30–80 ppb, and no adverse effects were observed with respect to an H2 load within this range. Upon the report that there are generation of H2 in average of 24 ml/min in healthy human (approximately over 15 mmol daily) in the colon, and that they are absorbed into body, the given H2 during the single session of HD, which we estimated approximately as much as 2.5 mmol, seemed to be within the physiological range. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the applied H2 levels were best in regards to provide clinical effects, and higher levels of H2 may offer additional clinical benefits without any adverse effects needs to be investigated.

Third, we could not conclude the influence of E-HD on clinical symptoms in this study. Of note is that during the clinical course, post-dialysis hypertension was ameliorated with significant reductions of anti-hypertensive agents in the patients on E-HD. However, patient selection in the present study was conducted according to the attending physician’s preference; therefore, the observed phenomena such as decrease in BP and improved subjective symptoms of fatigue and pruritus during the course, have remained speculative.

And lastly, there was a statistical difference in the age between the two groups in the present study, e.g. the E-HD group was 3.4 years younger than C-HD. Although we employed the age for multivariate analysis of Cox proportional hazards model analysis, this might have influenced the event rate in the real world. A randomized clinical study is critically needed to address these issues in the future.

H2 as biological gas has potentials in clinical medicine. However H2 volatile gas, is not easy to handle in the clinical setting. The technique of water electrolysis has made it possible to apply H2 very safe to generate H2 dissolved water for real HD therapy. We think that this innovative treatment could open a new therapeutic possibility beyond the conventional HD.

Method

Study design and participants

A non-randomized, non-blinded, prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the clinical impact of the E-HD system (UMIN-ICDR Clinical Trial: Study Title: “Prospective observational study of the clinical effect of haemodialysis using electrolyzed water”; Unique ID issued by UMIN: UMIN000004857, Date of disclosure of the study information: 2011/01/11, Link to view the page (ICDR): https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/icdr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno = R000005491).

The primary composite endpoints included all-cause mortality, and concomitant disease such as cardiac disease (heart failure or myocardial infarction requiring hospitalization, coronary artery disease requiring invasive therapy), stroke (symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction confirmed by diagnostic imaging), and obstructive arteriosclerosis requiring leg amputation.

The study used a non-randomized design, and the candidate patients were selected by decision of the patient’s physician. In two centers (KH and NMH), candidates for the E-HD group were selected by chief physicians; subsequently, matched control patients in the C-HD group were selected from the rest of the patients in the respective centers in terms of demographic background such as age and sex. In two of the study centers (HMC and HHC), all patients were selected for the E-HD group since the centers were to employ a central E-HD system to completely replace the conventional HD system. In three study centers in which the E-HD system was not available (NH, TJC, GJC), more than one patient was selected as part of the matched control group to the E-HD group of the above four centers in terms of age and sex as much as possible. Patients who were receiving on-line hemodiafiltration or combination therapy with peritoneal dialysis, and potential subjects with serious disease at the time of enrollment, i.e., severe heart failure (New York Heart Association III/IV), severe liver disease, psychological problems, dementia, malignant disease within the previous 3 months, or an evidently poor systemic condition with an evidently poor short-term prognosis, were excluded from this study. History of CVD included cardiac disease, stroke (these definitions were comparable to those of the primary composite endpoints mentioned above), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease requiring medical intervention.

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Fukushima Medical University (No. 1155: Supplementary file of study protocol), and the clinical investigation was conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients registered.

Data collection

All patients were monitored for subjective symptoms and objective signs during the study period. Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer on the upper arm with the patient in a supine position just before starting each HD session, and data were recorded into the clinical record. Iron, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) to correct anemia, and agents to control calcium and phosphate were administered according to the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Dialysis Treatment,. Antihypertensive agents and adjustment of body weight after HD (dry weight) were administered as needed by the attending physician. Quantities of antihypertensive agents were standardized using DDD. Regular monitoring of blood was performed at the first HD session of the week (Monday or Tuesday) at least once a month to monitor dialysis status. Patients were requested to fill out a self-assessment questionnaire every 6 months, which asked about the subjective symptoms of fatigue on the HD day and pruritus according to the following criteria: Fatigue (subjective level and daily activities)–Grade 1: Intense fatigue/Disturbed activity and required rest; Grade 2: Moderate fatigue/Reduced activity; Grade 3: Mild fatigue/Normal activity; Grade 4: Tireless/Normal activity; Grade 5: Inexhaustible/Active; Pruritus (subjective intensity and frequency)–Grade 1: Intense/Always; Grade 2: Moderate/Sometimes; Grade 3: Mild/Rarely; Grade 4: None/None. Levels of H2 were determined using the gas chromatograph with a semiconductor detector (TRIlizer mBA-3000, Taiyo Instruments Co., Osaka, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s instruction, as reported elsewhere.

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.

Statistical Methods

The target sample size of the original study (n = 70 < each) was based on an estimated event-free rate of 10% differences at 3 years between groups with 1:1 ratio between them, and calculated from the rationale that a statistical power of 90% and the alpha level 0.05, using a two-sided log-rank test.

All values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median (interquartile range) as appropriate. For comparisons between the two groups, Student’s t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used for nominal variable, as appropriate. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 for Windows (Chicago, IL, USA).

H2 delivery HD system

Figure 4 details of the system have been reported previously,. Briefly, test solutions were prepared as follows: pre-filtered water was processed using activated charcoal filtration and water softening to supply the HD-24K water electrolysis system (Nihon Trim, Osaka, Japan), where water was electrolyzed by direct current supply to the anode and cathode electrode plates. Water on the anode side was drained, and water from the cathode side (electrolyzed water) was collected to supply the reverse osmosis equipment (MH500CX; Japan Water System, Tokyo, Japan) at 500 mL/min. The intensity of electrolysis was adjusted to maintain a pH of 10.0. The reverse osmosis water produced by the water electrolysis system was supplied to prepare the HD solution. The composition of the inflow H2-HD solution was the same as the standard HD solution with the exception of the presence of dissolved H2 in the H2-HD, and there were no differences in terms of electrolytes levels and pH, as compared to the standard HD solution, as reported elsewhere,. Whereas regarding H2 levels of control group, dialysate and blood H2 levels were less than 1 ppb.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 41598_2017_18537_Fig4_HTML.jpg

Manufacturing process of haemodialysis solution in the E-HD and H2 dynamics during treatment by E-HD. Abbreviations: E-HD, electrolyzed water haemodialysis; e-, electron; AVF, arterio-venous fistula.

The present E-HD system could deliver H2 (30–80 ppb)-enriched dialysis solution. H2 levels of inflow blood and HD solution reached an equivalent state in the dialyzer, and the H2 level of outflow blood from dialyzer showed approximately the same as that of inflow H2-HD solution under QB 200 ml/min and QD 500 ml/min. Therefore, H2 load to patient is determined by time of HD treatment and H2 levels of HD solution if QB and QD are fixed, i.e., it is estimated that about 1.2 mmol of H2 is loaded in case of 4 hour-treatment, and HD solution with 50 ppb H2. Regarding the H2 dynamics in the body, previous studies,revealed that no changes were found in H2 levels of inflow blood after 4-hour treatment, and there were increases of constant H2 levels in expired air of patients by treatment, and they soon returned to the basal levels by stop of treatment. Therefore, it is supposed that delivered H2 into blood during the HD treatment is mostly excreted from lung during the time on HD.

 

Electronic supplementary material

Acknowledgements

The present study was conducted by fund from Nihon Trim Co., Ltd. (www.nihon-trim.co.jp; Osaka, Japan). The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Logo of scirep

About Editorial Board For Authors Scientific Reports
. 2018; 8: 254.
Published online 2018 Jan 10. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18537-x
PMCID: PMC5762770
PMID: 29321509
Novel haemodialysis (HD) treatment employing molecular hydrogen (H2)-enriched dialysis solution improves prognosis of chronic dialysis patients: A prospective observational study
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Author Contributions

M.N. wrote the main manuscript text and prepared all figures. M.N., N.I., S.K., R.N., M.M. and S.I. organized the study group. N.I., H.S., H.H., R.Y., K.T., N.O. and H.N. collected data. M.N. and Y.M. analyzed the data. M.N. and S.I. supervise the progress of research of all aspects.

Notes

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Footnotes

Electronic supplementary material

Supplementary information accompanies this paper at 10.1038/s41598-017-18537-x.

Associated Data

Supplementary Materials

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

References

1. Zimmermann J, Herrlinger S, Pruy A, Metzger T, Wanner C. Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1999;55:648–658. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00273.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
2. Himmelfarb J, Stenvinkel P, Ikizler TA, Hakim RM. The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1524–1538. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00600.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
3. Takahashi T, Kubota M, Nakamura T, Ebihara I, Koide H. Interleukin-6 gene expression in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients undergoing haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ren Fail. 2000;22:345–354. doi: 10.1081/JDI-100100878. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
4. Caglar K, et al. Inflammatory signals associated with hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1408–1416. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2002.kid556.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
5. Yoon JW, Pahl MV, Vaziri ND. Spontaneous leukocyte activation and oxygen-free radical generation in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2007;71:167–172. doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5002019. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
6. Ohsawa I, et al. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;13:688–694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
7. Ichihara M, et al. Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen – comprehensive review of 321 original articles. Med Gas Res. 2015;5:12. doi: 10.1186/s13618-015-0035-1.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
8. Nakayama M, et al. Less-oxidative hemodialysis solution rendered by cathode-side application of electrolyzed water. Hemodial Int. 2007;11:322–327. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2007.00187.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
9. Nakayama M, et al. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis. Nephron Clin Pract 112. 2009;15:c9. doi: 10.1159/000210569. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
10. Nakayama M, et al. A novel bioactive hemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3026–3033. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq196. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
11. Terawaki H, et al. Effect of a hydrogen (H2)-enriched solution on the albumin redox of hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int. 2014;18:459–466. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12112. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
12. Huang KC, Yang CC, Lee KT, Chien CT. Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney Int. 2003;64:704–714. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00118.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
13. Huang KC, et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients. Kidney Int. 2006;70:391–398. doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5001576. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
14. Huang KC, et al. Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:2730–2737. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq082. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
15. WHO Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology. Guidelines for DDD 2nd ed, Oslo, 1–95 (1993) .
16. Park J, et al. A comparative effectiveness research study of the change in blood pressure during hemodialysis treatment and survival. Kidney Int. 2013;84:795–802. doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.237.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
17. Inaba M, et al. Association of blood pressure with all-cause mortality and stroke in Japanese hemodialysis patients: the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study. Hemodial Int. 2014;18:607–615. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12156. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
18. Zager PG, et al. “U” curve association of blood pressure and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Medical Directors of Dialysis Clinic, Inc. Kidney Int. 1998;54:561–569. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00005.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
19. Maeda K, et al. Improvement of the fraction of human mercaptalbumin on hemodialysis treatment using hydrogen-dissolved hemodialysis fluid: a prospective observational study. Renal Replacement Therapy. 2016;2:42. doi: 10.1186/s41100-016-0054-y. [CrossRef[]
20. Thang LV, et al. Macrophage depletion lowers blood pressure and restores sympathetic nerve α2-adrenergic receptor function in mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H1186–1197. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00283.2015. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
21. Averina VA, Othmer HG, Fink GD, Osborn JW. A new conceptual paradigm for the hemodynamics of salt-sensitive hypertension: a mathematical modelling approach. J Physiol. 2012;590:5975–5992. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.228619. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
22. Chan CT, et al. Reversal of vascular macrophage accumulation and hypertension by a CCR2 antagonist in deoxycorticosterone/salt-treated mice. Hypertension. 2012;60:1207–1212. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.201251. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
23. Levitt MD. Volume and composition of human intestinal gas determined by means of an intestinal washout technic. N Engl J Med. 1971;284:1394–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197106242842502. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
24. Tsubakihara Y, et al. Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy: guidelines for renal anemia in chronic kidney disease. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;14(240–275):2010. [PubMed[]
25. Fukagawa M, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. Ther Apher Dial. 2013;17:247–288. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.12058. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]

Articles from Scientific Reports are provided here courtesy of Nature Publishing Group

Alkaline ionized water improves exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and enhances anaerobic exercise performance in combat sport athletes

note: this article may be useful to cancer patients as it is well known that most cancer cells use anaerobic glycolysis to produce ATP energy and excrete lactic acid  
Abstract

Hydration is one of the most significant issues for combat sports as athletes often use water restriction for quick weight loss before competition. It appears that alkaline water can be an effective alternative to sodium bicarbonate in preventing the effects of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate, in a double blind, placebo controlled randomized study, the impact of mineral-based highly alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status, and anaerobic capacity. Sixteen well trained combat sport athletes (n = 16), were randomly divided into two groups; the experimental group (EG; n = 8), which ingested highly alkaline ionized water for three weeks, and the control group (CG; n = 8), which received regular table water. Anaerobic performance was evaluated by two double 30 s Wingate tests for lower and upper limbs, respectively, with a passive rest interval of 3 minutes between the bouts of exercise. Fingertip capillary blood samples for the assessment of lactate concentration were drawn at rest and during the 3rd min of recovery. In addition, acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte status were evaluated. Urine samples were evaluated for specific gravity and pH. The results indicate that drinking alkalized ionized water enhances hydration, improves acid-base balance and anaerobic exercise performance.

Introduction

Despite numerous scientific data, there is still no conclusive answer regarding what and how much we should drink to optimize sports performance. Until the middle of the 20th century, the recommendation was to avoid drinking to optimize performance. The first drinking guidelines were introduced by the ACSM to avoid heat stress in 1975, while hydration and performance were first addressed only in 1996 []. At that time, athletes were encouraged to drink the maximum amount of fluids during exercise that could be tolerated without gastrointestinal discomfort and up to the rate lost through sweating. Depending on the type of exercise and the environment, volumes from 0.6 to 1.2 L per hour were recommended. These drinking guidelines have been questioned recently, and other issues such as over hydration and hyponatremia have been addressed [].

The inconsistency of the results regarding hydration and sports performance arise from differences in experimental protocols. In studies in which dehydration develops during exercise, fluid loss of up to 4% body mass does not compromise performance, while in studies that induced dehydration prior to exercise, performance impairments have been observed after dehydration as low as 1–2% body mass []. Several comprehensive reviews on the influence of dehydration on muscle endurance, strength, anaerobic capacity, jumping performance and skill performance in team sport games have revealed negative effects of dehydration ≥ 2% body mass []. Hydration is one of the most significant issues for combat sports, as athletes often use water restriction for quick weight loss before competition. During tournaments lasting several hours, combat sport athletes sweat immensely and increase their core temperature affecting muscle strength, reducing motor cortex activation, peripheral stimulus as well as the speed of reaction and power output [].

Considering the vast amounts of fluids used during exercise, water seems to be the most often form of hydration. Water comes in different forms, with specific properties depending on its mineral content. The pH of water, as well as the proportions between SO42- and HCO3 determines hydration status and other therapeutic properties []. Drinking hydrogen rich water in human nutrition is a rather new concept, and it is recently suggested for medical purposes and hydration during exercise []. Alkaline ionized water is being marketed as a nutritional aid for the general public for acidity-lowering, antioxidant, and antiaging properties. Some of the animal and human research has confirmed its effectiveness as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis []. However, metabolic acidosis that occurs during high intensity exercise is a distinct form of metabolic alteration, when cells are forced to rely on anaerobic ATP turnover that leads to proton release and a decrease in blood pH that can impair performance [].

Anaerobic exercise metabolism leads to the production of lactic acid in the working muscles. Part of the produced lactic acid is released to the blood, reducing blood pH, and disturbing acid—base balance. Several studies have provided evidence that hydrogen ions are released from the muscles in excess of lactate after intense exercise []. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. It seems that hydrogen ions are released both by a sodium-hydrogen ion exchanger and by a lactic acid transporter []. Since red blood cells have a higher buffering capacity than blood plasma, the lactate generated during exercise largely remains in the plasma while hydrogen ions are transferred to the red blood cells and buffered by hemoglobin []. One of the objectives of training and supplementation in high intensity anaerobic sports disciplines is to increase the buffering capacity of the blood and tissues []. The use of sodium bicarbonate has proven effective in speed endurance and strength endurance sports, yet its use has been limited due to the possibility of gastrointestinal distress, metabolic alkalosis, and even edema due to sodium overload []. It appears that alkaline water can be an effective alternative to sodium bicarbonate in preventing exercise-induced metabolic acidosis []. Contrary to bicarbonate, alkaline water can be used on an everyday basis and has no known side effects. However, there are only few cross-sectional or longitudinal studies on the impact of alkaline water ingestion in combat sport athletes. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to investigate in a double blind, placebo controlled randomized study, the impact of mineral-based highly alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status, and anaerobic capacity in experienced combat sport athletes subjected to a very intense exercise protocol.

Materials and methods

Subjects

Sixteen very well-trained males, who trained and competed in combat sports for at least 7.6 years, participated in the study. The athletes constituted a homogenous group in regard to age (average age of 22.3 ± 0.5 years), somatic characteristics, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performance (Table 1). The subjects (n = 16) were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group (EG; n = 8), which received highly alkaline ionized water, and the control group (CG; n = 8), which was hydrated with table water. All subjects had valid medical examinations and showed no contraindications to participate in the study. The athletes were informed verbally and in writing of the experimental protocol, the possibility to withdraw at any stage of the experiment, and gave their written consent for participation. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland.

Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants.
Variables Experimental Group
(n = 8)
Control Group
(n = 8)
Age (yrs.) 22.7±3.2 22.4 ± 2.8
Height (cm) 181.2±2.1 178.3±4.9
Body mass (kg) 81.8±3.2 79.2 ±2.6
FM (%) 10.2±2.1 10.8±2.4
Wt—upper limbs (J/kg) 138±14 136±19
Wt—lower limbs (J/kg) 276±04 283±26
Pmax–lower limbs (W/kg)
Pmax–upper limbs (W/kg)
19.8±0.9
8.9±1.1
20.2±1.6
8.7±0.4
VO2max (ml/kg/min) 64.7±2.8 62.6±3.2

Diet and hydration protocol

Energy intake, as well as macro and micronutrient an intake of all subjects was determined by the 24 h nutrition recall 3 weeks before the study was initiated. The participants were placed on an isocaloric (3455 ± 436 kcal/d) mixed diet (55% carbohydrates, 20% protein, 25% fat) prior and during the investigation. The pre-trial meals were standardized for energy intake (600 kcal) and consisted of carbohydrate (70%), fat (20%) and protein (10%). During the experiment, and 3 weeks before the commencement of the study, the participants did not take any medications or supplements. Throughout the experiment water intake was individualized based on the recommendation of the National Athletic Trainers Association and averaged 2.6–3.2 L per day. In our study we used water which had a pH of 9.13 which is highly alkaline compared to other commercially available products. The water ingested during the experiment contained 840 mg/dm3 of permanent ingredients, and was classified as medium mineral content. The bicarbonate ion HCO3 (357.8 mg/dm3) and carbonate ion CO32- (163.5 mg/dm3) consisted the dominant anions. Sodium (Na+ 254.55 mg/dm3) dominated among cations. The water contained bicarbonate, carbonate-sodium (HCO3, CO3Na+). The chemical properties of both types of water used in the experiment (alkaline and table water) are presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Chemical properties of water used in the study.
Variable Measurement Unit Alkaline Water Table Water
pH pH 9.13 ± 0.04 5.00 ± 0.08
CO32- mg/dm3 163.5 ± 6.3 14.98 ± 0.66
HCO3 mg/dm3 357.8 ± 6.14 3.62 ± 0.12
Cl mg/dm3 26.4 ± 2.3 0.41 ± 0.03
SO42- mg/dm3 7.81± 1.2 1.60 ± 0.09
Na+ mg/dm3 254.55 ± 7.1 1.21 ± 0.05
K+ mg/dm3 0.91 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.03
Ca2+ mg/dm3 10.00 ± 1.6 1.21 ± 0.05
Mg2+ mg/dm3 0.37 ± 0.03 0.40 ± 0.04

Note: Data shows mean values ± SD of three analysis of each type of water

Study protocol

The experiment lasted 3 weeks, during which two series of laboratory analyses were performed. The tests were carried out at baseline and after three weeks of hydration with alkaline or table water. The study was conducted during the preparatory period of the annual training cycle, when a high volume of work dominated the daily training loads. The participants refrained from exercise for 2 days before testing to minimize the effect of fatigue.

The subjects underwent medical examinations and somatic measurements. Body composition was evaluated in the morning, between 8.00 and 8.30 am. The day before, the participants had the last meal at 20.00. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, refraining from exercise for 48h. The measurements of body mass were performed on a medical scale with a precision of 0.1 Kg. Body composition was evaluated using the electrical impedance technique (Inbody 720, Biospace Co., Japan). Anaerobic performance was evaluated by a two double 30-second Wingate test protocol for lower and upper limbs respectively, with a passive rest interval of 3 minutes between the bouts of exercise. The test was preceded by a 5 min warm-up with a resistance of 100 W and cadence within 70–80 rpm for lower limbs and 40 W and 50–60 rpm for the upper limbs. Following the warm-up, the test trial started, in which the objective was to reach the highest cadence in the shortest possible time, and to maintain it throughout the test. The lower limb Wingate protocol was performed on an Excalibur Sport ergocycle with a resistance of 0.8 Nm·Kg-1 (Lode BV, Groningen, Netherland). The upper body Wingate test was carried out on a rotator with a flying start with a load of 0.45 Nm·Kg-1 (Brachumera Sport, Lode, Netherland). Each subject completed 4 test trials with incomplete rest intervals. The variables of peak power–Pmax (W/Kg) and total work performed–Wt (J/Kg), were registered and calculated by the Lode Ergometer Manager (LEM, software package, Netherland).

Biochemical assays

To determine lactate concentration (LA), acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte status the following variables were evaluated: LA (mmol/L), blood pH, pCO2 (mmHg), pO2 (mmHg), HCO3- act (mmol/L), HCO3-std, (mmol/L), BE (mmol/L), O2SAT (mmol/L), ctCO2 (mmol/L), Na+ (mmol/L), and K+ (mmol/L). The measurements were performed on fingertip capillary blood samples at rest and after 3 minutes of recovery. Determination of LA was based on an enzymatic method (Biosen C-line Clinic, EKF-diagnostic GmbH, Barleben, Germany). The remaining variables were measured using a Blood Gas Analyzer GEM 3500 (GEM Premier 3500, Germany).

Urine samples were taken at rest, after an overnight fast, at baseline and at the conclusion of the investigation. They were placed in a plastic container and mixed with 5 ml/L of 5% solution of isopropyl alcohol and thymol for preservation. Urine samples were assayed for the presence of blood and proteins. Specific gravity was determined using the Atago Digital refractometer (Atago Digital, USA). Urine pH was determined based on the standardized Mettler Toledo potentiometer (Mettler Toledo, Germany).

Statistical analysis

The Shapiro-Wilk, Levene and Mauchly´s tests were used to verify the normality, homogeneity and sphericity of the sample’s data variances, respectively. Verifications of the differences between analyzed variables before and after water supplementation and between the EG and CG were performed using ANOVA with repeated measures. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were reported where appropriate. Parametric effect sizes were defined as large for d > 0.8, as moderate between 0.8 and 0.5, and as small for < 0.5 (Cohen 1988; Maszczyk et al., 2014, 2016). Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistica 9.1 and Microsoft Office, and were presented as means with standard deviations.

Results

All participants completed the described testing protocol. All procedures were carried out in identical environmental conditions with an air temperature of 19.2°C and humidity of 58% (Carl Roth hydrometer, Germany).

The repeated measures ANOVA between the experimental and control group and between the baseline and post-intervention period (3 weeks of alkaline and table water ingestion) revealed statistically significant differences for thirteen variables (Table 3).

Table 3

Statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups at baseline and after 3 weeks of intervention (alkaline vs table water).
Variables d p F
Wingate Lower Limbs Average Power Exp. 0.884 0.001 21.161
Wingate Upper Limbs Average Power Exp. 0.587 0.011 8.528
Wingate UL Peak Power Exp. 0.501 0.026 6.228
Wingate LL Total Work Exp. 0.567 0.045 4.822
Wingate UL Total Work Exp. 0.522 0.011 8.459
LA rest 0.534 0.008 9.429
LA post exr 0.618 0.003 13.382
pH rest 0.834 0.001 120.159
HCO3 rest 0.844 0.001 109.250
HCO3 post exr 0.632 0.002 14.724
K+ post exr 0.501 0.040 5.154
Urine pH 0.589 0.017 7.298
SG 0.884 0.001 19.707

Note: d—effect size; p—statistical significance

F–value of analysis of variance function

Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in mean power when comparing the values (7.98 J/kg to 9.38 J/kg with p = 0.001) at baseline vs. at the conclusion of the study in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water. In contrast, the control group which received table water did not reveal any statistically significant results.

Similar changes were observed for Upper Limb Average Power (from 4.32 J/kg to 5.11 J/kg with p = 0.011) and Upper Limb Peak Power (from 7.90 J/kg to 8.91 J/kg with p = 0.025) in the experimental group. The post-hoc tests also showed statistically significant increases in values for Lower Limb Total Work (from 276.04 J/kg to 292.96 J/kg with p = 0.012) and Upper Limb Total Work (from 138.15 J/kg to 156.37 J/kg with p = 0.012) when baseline and post intervention values were compared. The changes in the control group were not statistically significant. These results are presented in Fig 1.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is pone.0205708.g001.jpg

Differences between the control and experimental groups in total work of the lower and upper limbs (30s Wingate test) at baseline and after 3 weeks of alkaline or table water ingestion.

Note: * statistically significant values.

Post-hoc tests also revealed statistically significant decreases in LA concentration at rest (from 1.99 mmol/L to 1.30 mmol/L with p = 0.008), and a significant increase in post exercise LA concentration (from 19.09 mmol/L to 21.20 mmol/L with p = 0.003) in the experimental group ingesting alkaline water.

Additionally, a significant increase in blood pH at rest (from 7.36 to 7.44 with p = 0.001), HCO3 at rest (from 23.87 to 26.76 with p = 0.001), and HCO3 post exercise (from 12.90 to 13.88 with p = 0.002) were observed in the experimental group. The other significant changes occurred in the post exercise concentration of K+ (from 4.15 to 4.41 with p = 0.039), in urine pH (from 5.75 to 6.62 with p = 0.017), and a decrease in the value of SG (from 1.02 to 1.00 with p = 0.001), all in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water.

Discussion

Acid-base equilibrium within the human body is tightly maintained through the blood and tissue buffering systems, the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs via respiration, and the excretion of hydrogen ions from the blood to urine by the kidneys. These mechanisms also regulate acid-base balance following high intensity exercise. Metabolic acidosis is a consequence of exercise induced ionic changes in contracting muscles. Increased intramuscular acidity impairs muscle contractibility, significantly limiting high intensity exercise performance []. Importantly, acid-base equilibrium can be influenced by dietary supplementation.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of mineral-based alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status and anaerobic performance of competitive combat sport athletes. The study participants were experienced athletes (Table 1), capable of performing extreme anaerobic efforts. We have chosen such an approach for two reasons. First, it is well-documented that consumption of alkalizing water can have a significant effect on the hydration status, acid-base balance, urine and blood pH [], as well as Ca metabolism and bone resorption markers []. However, the majority of these research reports have been performed on sedentary individuals [] or on subjects with self-reported physical activity []. Second, alkalization by alkaline water has been mostly discussed in the context of dehydration and aerobic performance []. Therefore, our study is novel by including both well trained combat sport athletes and the use of an extremely intensive anaerobic exercise protocol.

Acid-base balance and hydration status

The exchange of ions, CO2, and water between the intracellular and extracellular compartments helps to restore acid-base balance following intensive exercise. There is sufficient data indicating that, supplements that modify the blood buffering system affect high-intensity exercise performance []. In humans, especially well trained athletes muscle pH may decrease from 7.0 at rest to values as low as 6.4–6.5 during exercise []. Ergogenic aids that help buffer protons attenuate changes in pH and enhance the muscle’s buffering capacity. This in turn allows for a greater amount of lactate to accumulate in the muscle during exercise.

The results of our study are in line with the available literature regarding the impact of alkaline water on blood and urine pH at rest []. However, novel results of the present research are related to the changes in HCO3- after exercise in athletes ingesting alkaline water. Bicarbonate-CO2 accounts for more than 90% of the plasma buffering capacity. Supplementation can increase bicarbonate concentration in the blood and its pH. Since bicarbonate concentration is much lower in the muscles (10 mmol/L) than in the blood (25 mmol/L), the low permeability of charged bicarbonate ions precludes any immediate effects on muscle acid-base status []. These results confirm the view that an appropriate hydration status is necessary for active bicarbonate ion transport.

Several lines of evidence support the negative impact of dehydration (>2% body mass) on muscle endurance, strength, and anaerobic performance []. On the other hand, literature data indicates that consumption of alkaline water following a dehydrating bout of cycling exercise was shown to rehydrate cyclists faster and more completely compared to table water. Following consumption of alkaline water, the cyclists demonstrated lower total urine output, their urine was more concentrated (i.e., with higher specific gravity), and the total blood protein concentration was lower, indicating improved hydration status [].

Our previous study revealed that the use of water with alkalizing properties exhibits a significant potential for hydration during anaerobic exercise []. The results of the present study confirm a decrease in urine specific gravity (from 1.02 to 1.00, with p = 0.001) and an increase in urine pH as the result of consumption of alkaline water. These results illustrate that the habitual consumption of highly alkaline water can markedly improve hydration status.

Anaerobic performance

The current investigation demonstrated a significant increase in anaerobic capacity (Wt−J/Kg) of athletes in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water. The improvements in Wt following alkaline water consumption were influenced by positive changes in blood pH and bicarbonate. This phenomenon could be explained by the ergogenic effects of high alkalization and mineral ingredients.

High intensity exercise in which anaerobic glycolysis provides ATP for muscle contraction leads to an equal production of lactate and hydrogen ions. Most of the released hydrogen ions are buffered; however, a small portion (~0.001%) that remains in the cytosol causes a decrease in muscle pH and an impairment of exercise. Lactate efflux [] and its oxidation are accompanied by a similar removal of hydrogen ions. The results of the current study demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in lactate concentration at rest (from 1.99 mmol/L to 1.30 mmol/L, p = 0.008), and a significant increase post exercise (from 19.09 mmol/L to 21.20 mmol/L, p = 0.003) when compared to the baseline levels with the values recorded at the end of alkaline water supplementation. The extremely intense 4 x 30s upper/lower limb Wingate test protocol employed in our study, with only short rest intervals between each bout of exercise, was a likely reason that less of the total lactate produced in the muscles was transported to the blood [].

Muscle blood flow determines lactate efflux from the muscle [], and is dependent on the activity of lactate transport proteins [], the extracellular buffering capacity [], and the extracellular lactate concentration []. Thus, our results on lactate concentration are in agreement with the view that anaerobic performance (i.e., Wt−J/Kg, WAvr−J/Kg) depends on counter-regulatory variables. Indeed, we demonstrated that changes in resting blood pH and HCO3 significantly improved anaerobic performance.

Another variable that can affect anaerobic performance includes blood viscosity. Weidmann et al. (2016) showed that the intake of highly alkaline water decreased blood viscosity by 6.30%, compared to table water (3.36%) in 100 recreationally active female and male subjects. Therefore, it may be possible that the excess of metabolic end-products (namely, H+ and Pi), which disturb cellular homeostasis and muscle contraction, are more effectively transported. The available literature data does not specify clearly which components of buffering capacity are altered by the above changes. It must be indicated, that there are several methods available to determine muscle buffering capacity. Due to the methodological complexity, none of these methods are free from criticism. In most studies buffering capacity has been determined in vitro by titration, which does not include trans-membrane transport of acid-base substances or dynamic buffering by biochemical processes occurring in vivo [].

Most studies show a documented ergogenic effect of bicarbonate loading during exhaustive exercise lasting 1–7 min, when anaerobic glycolysis plays a major role in energy provision []. The rationale for the ergogenic effect of bicarbonate is that the increase in extracellular pH and bicarbonate will enhance the efflux of lactate and H+ from muscle. There is also evidence that the ergogenic effect of bicarbonate is more pronounced during repeated sprints than during sustained exercise [].

Different strategies used for improving buffering capacity of tissues and blood do not allow for a direct comparison. Despite this, there appears to exist an ergogenic effect in response to NaHCO3, what may explain the large effect size noted by Tobias et al. []. In our research we obtained large effect sizes with regards to 4 variables (Average power of the lower limbs, resting HCO3, resting blood pH and urine SG).

Conclusions

The results of the present study indicate that drinking alkalized water improves hydration status, acid-base balance, and high intensity anaerobic exercise performance. It appears that both greater muscle buffering capacity and enhanced removal of protons, resulting in increased glycolytic ATP production, may be responsible for these effects. Considering the energy demands and the intense sweat rate of combat sport athletes, the authors recommend the daily intake of 3–4 L of highly alkaline mineralized water to improve hydration and anaerobic performance during training and competition.

Supporting information

S1 Table

Data for Fig 1.

(XLSX)

S2 Table

Stress test data.

(XLSX)

S3 Table

Water data.

(XLSX)

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland under Grant NRSA3 03953 and NRSA4 040 54.

Funding Statement

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland under Grant NRSA3 03953 and NRSA4 040 54.

Data Availability

All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Logo of plosone

PLoS One View this Article Submit to PLoS Get E-mail Alerts Contact Us Public Library of Science (PLoS)
. 2018; 13(11): e0205708.
Published online 2018 Nov 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205708
PMCID: PMC6242303
PMID: 30452459
Alkaline ionized water improves exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and enhances anaerobic exercise performance in combat sport athletes
Jakub ChyckiConceptualizationInvestigationMethodologyWriting – original draft,1,* Anna KurylasData curationMethodologyProject administration,1 Adam MaszczykData curationValidationVisualization,2Artur GolasData curationFormal analysis,1 and Adam ZajacConceptualizationInvestigationMethodologyWriting – original draft1
Michal Toborek, Editor
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Associated Data

Supplementary Materials
Data Availability Statement
All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

References

1. Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC, Sherman WM. American college of sports medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacementMed Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28. [PubMed]
2. Noakes TD, Speedy DB. Case proven. Exercise associated hyponatraemia is due to overdrinking. So why did it take 20 years before the original evidence was accepted? Brit J Sports Med 2006; 40:567–572. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Mettler S, Mannhart CH. Hydration, drinking and exercise performanceSwiss Sports Ex Med 2017; 65(1), 16–21.
4. Davis JK, Laurent CM, Allen KE, Green IM, Stolworthy NI, Welch TR, Nevett ME. Influence of dehydration on intermittent sprint performanceJ. Strength Cond Res 2015; 29:2586–93. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000907 [PubMed]
5. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson IM, Armstrong LE, Casa DI, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS. Hydration and muscular performance: Does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity enduranceSports Med 2007; 37:907–921. 10.2165/00007256-200737100-00006 [PubMed]
6. Savoie FA, Kenefick RW, Ely BR, Cheuvront SN, Goulet ED. Effect of hypohydration on muscle endurance, strength, anaerobic power and capacity and vertical jumping ability. A meta-analysisSports Med 2015; 45:1207–27. 10.1007/s40279-015-0349-0 [PubMed]
7. Kurylas A, Zajac T, Zydek G, Zajac A. The Effectiveness of Alkaline Water in Hydrating AthletesJ Nutrition Health Food Sci 2017; 5(1): 1–4.
8. Ostojic SM, Stojanovic MD. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active menRes Sport Med 2014; 22:1,49–60. [PubMed]
9. Chycki J, Zajac T, Maszczyk A, Kurylas A. The effect of mineral-based alkaline water on hydration status & the metabolic response to short-Term anaerobic exerciseBiol Sport 2017; 34(3). [PMC free article] [PubMed]
10. Heil PD. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled waterJ Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7:29 10.1186/1550-2783-7-29 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Fang Y, Fu XJ, Gu C, Xu P, Wang Y, Yu WR, Sun Q, Sun XJ, Yao M. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat modelJournal of Burn Care and Research 2011; 32, e82–91. 10.1097/BCR.0b013e318217f84f [PubMed]
12. Watanabe T, Pan I, Fukuda Y, Murasugi E, Kamata H, Uwatoko K. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in ratsJournal of Toxicological Sciences 1998; 23, 365–371. [PubMed]
13. Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosisAmerican Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2004; 287, R502–516. 10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004 [PubMed]
14. Bangsbo J, Johansen L, Graham T, Saltin B. Lactate and H+ effluxes from human skeletal muscles during intense dynamic exerciseJournal of Physiology 1993; 422, 539–559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
15. Juel C. Lactate-proton cotransport in skeletal musclePhysiol Rev 1997; 77:321–58. 10.1152/physrev.1997.77.2.321 [PubMed]
16. Medbo JI, Hanem S, Noddeland H, Jebens E. Arterio-venous differences of blood acid-base status and plasma sodium caused by intense bicyclingActa Physiol Scand 2000; 168, 311–326. 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2000.00650.x [PubMed]
17. Putman CT, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJF. Effects of short-term training on plasma acid-base balance during incremental exercise in manJ Physiol 2003; 550, 585–603. 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.039743[PMC free article] [PubMed]
18. McNaughton LR, Siegler J, Midgley A. Ergogenic effects of sodium bicarbonateCurr Sports Med Rep2008;7 (4):230:6. 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31817ef530 [PubMed]
19. Kurylas A, Zajac T, Chycki J, Maszczyk A. Zajac A. Anaerobic Performance and Acid-Base Balance in Basketball Players after the Consumption of Highly Alkaline WaterInt J Food and Nutr Sci2018;5(1):134–9.
20. Gledhill N. Bicarbonate ingestion and anaerobic performanceSports Med 1984; 1: 177–80. 10.2165/00007256-198401030-00001 [PubMed]
21. Wynn E, Raetz E, Burckhardt P. The composition of mineral waters sourced from Europe and North America in respect to bone health: composition of mineral water optimal boneBr J Nut 2009; 101:1195–1199. [PubMed]
22. Santaka S, Takeki H, Kiichiro T. Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced waterTrends Food Sc and Technol; 2012, 23,(2): 124–131.
23. Amelia J, Carr AJ, Will G, Hopkins C, Gore J. Effects of Acute Alkalosis and Acidosis on PerformanceSport Med 2011; 1; 41(10). [PubMed]
24. Sahlin K. Intracellular pH and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, with special reference to exerciseActa Physiol Scand Suppl 1978; 455:1–56. [PubMed]
25. Weidman J, Holsworth RE, Brossman B, Cho JD, Cyr J, Fridman G. Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adultsJ Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016; 13:45 10.1186/s12970-016-0153-8 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
26. Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Klau JF, Johnson EC, Casa DJ, Maresh CM. Novel hydration assessment techniques employing thirst and a water intake challenge in healthy menAppl. Physiol Nutr Metab 2014; 39; 138–144. 10.1139/apnm-2012-0369 [PubMed]
27. Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K. Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in manClin Physiol 1986; 6:365–79. [PubMed]
28. Harris RC, Hultman E, Nordesjo LO. Glycogen, glycolytic intermediates and high-energy phosphates determined in biopsy samples of musculus quadriceps femoris of men at rest. Methods and variance of valuesScan J Clin Lab Invest 1974; 33:109–20. [PubMed]
29. Bonen A, McCullagh KJ, Putman CT. Short-term training increases human muscle MCT1 and femoral venous lactate in relation to muscle lactateAm J Physiol 1998; 274:E102–7. [PubMed]
30. Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, Gore CJ. Effect of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance: a meta-analysisSports Med. 2011, 41:801–14. 10.2165/11591440-000000000-00000 [PubMed]
31. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C. The effects of training intensity on muscle buffer capacity in femalesEur J Appl Physiol, 2006, 96:97 10.1007/s00421-005-0068-6 [PubMed]
32. Linderman JK, Gosselink KL. The effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exercise performanceSports Med 1994, 18:75–80. 10.2165/00007256-199418020-00001 [PubMed]
33. Tobias G, Benatti FB, de Salles Painelli V, Roschel H, Gualano B, Sale C, Harris RC, Lancha, AH, Artioli GG. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performanceAmino Acids 2013, 45:30917. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from PLoS ONE are provided here courtesy of Public Library of Science

alkaline ionized water and longevity

Abstract

The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline ionized water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline ionized water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline ionized water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline ionized water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline ionized water of long-lived mouse models.

1. Introduction

Alkaline water, often referred to as alkaline ionized water (AKW), is commercially available and is mainly proposed for electrolyte supplementation during intensive perspiration. Early studies on animal models reported that alkaline ionized water supplementation may exert positive effects on body weight improvement and development in offspring []. Even biochemical markers were analyzed, suggesting that alkaline ionized water intake can cause elevation of metabolic activity. In particular, hyperkaliemia was observed in 15-week-old rats and pathological changes of necrosis in myocardial muscle were found [].

More recently, studies were carried out on alkaline ionized/electrolysis reduced water (ARW), referring to electrolyzed water produced from minerals, such as magnesium and calcium, which is characterized by supersaturated hydrogen, high pH, and a negative redox potential ORP. This hydrogen-rich functional water has been introduced as a therapeutic strategy for health promotion and disease prevention [].

Alkaline ionized/ electrolyzed reduced water have been shown to exert a suppressive effect on free radical levels in living organisms, thereby resulting in disease prevention []. Various biological effects, such as antidiabetic and antioxidant actions [], DNA protecting effects [], and growth-stimulation activities [], were documented.

Although a variety of bioactive functions have been reported, the effect of alkaline water on lifespan and longevity in vivo is still unknown. Animal alkalization has been shown to be well tolerated and to increase tumor response to metronomic chemotherapy as well the quality of life in pets with advanced cancer []. Therefore, we performed a study based on survival rate experiments, which play central role in aging research and are generally performed to evaluate whether specific interventions may alter the aging process and lifespan in animal models.

2. Materials and Methods

Biological effects of alkaline ionized water were evaluated on a selected population of 150 mice (CD1, by Charles River, Oxford, UK). Pathogen-free mice were purchased and placed in a specific breeding facility. No other animal was present in the room. Contact with animal caretakers was minimized to feeding and watering. The population was divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 50 individuals, as follows:

  1. Group A: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered with alkaline ionizefd water produced by the Water Ionizer (mod. NT010) by Asiagem (Italy). The Water Ionizer is a home treatment device for producing alkaline drinking water.
  2. Group B: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered with alkalized water obtained by dilution of a concentrated alkaline solution (AlkaWater by Asiagem, Italy). AlkaWater is a concentrated alkaline solution for preparing alkaline drinking water.
  3. Group C: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered as conventional (control group) with tap water. The local water supply was evaluated weekly for assuring the absence of toxins and pathogens. The pH values were in the 6.0–6.5 range.

All procedures involving animals were conducted in accordance with the Italian law on experimental animals and were approved by the Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments of the University of Padua and the Italian health Ministry (Aut. no. 39ter/2011). Efforts were made to minimize animal suffering.

2.1. Histological Examination

Treated aged mice were sampled postmortem and subjected to histological examination. Animals belonging to the populations treated with alkaline water, A and B, were sacrificed after 24 months and compared to mice treated with tap water. Samples from kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and 4 μm sections were analyzed by optical microscopy.

2.2. Statistical Analysis

In order to investigate the biological influence of alkaline water on mouse longevity, we employed the accelerated failure time model (AFT) [], which allows formally exploring the possible effect on survival curves of the applied three-level treatment, that is, examining the role of group membership as a covariate of lifespan. As a more robust alternative to the commonly used proportional hazards models, such as the Cox model, the use of AFT models is advised in the field of survival analysis when the goal is to investigate if a covariate may affect the lifespan in a way that the life cycle may pass more or less rapidly. In fact, whereas a proportional hazard model assumes that the effect of a covariate is constant over time, an AFT model assumes that the effect of a covariate is to accelerate or decelerate the life course.

The relevance of AFT model for biomedical studies has been already recognized in the literature []. With more specific reference to the issue of aging, Swindell [] observed that some genetic manipulations were found to have a multiplicative effect on survivorship which were well characterized by the AFT model “deceleration factor.” Moreover, Swindell [] argued also that the AFT model should be utilized more widely in aging research since it provides useful tools to maximize the insight obtained from experimental studies of mouse survivorship.

To perform all calculations, we applied a parametric survival analysis approach using a class of 3-parameter AFT distribution models implemented within the statistical software Minitab, version 17.2.1 []. More specifically, we employed three types of random distributions, namely, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized Weibull.

3. Results

The experiment consisted in an initial 15-day acclimatization period. After acclimatization, animals (50, group A) were watered with alkaline ionized  water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer ,  whereas group B animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution  for 15 days. Group C animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply. This period has been identified to gradually accustom the animals treated with alkaline water. At the end of the second period of acclimatization, group A and B animals were watered with alkaline ionized water at pH 9.5, while animals of group C were watered with local tap water.

After the first year, the most aggressive individuals were moved to other cages within the same group and an environmental enrichment protocol was employed in order to decrease the hyperactivity. This phenomenon was observed especially in animals of groups A and B.

Table 1 reported basic statistics on mice survival of treated and control animals.

Table 1

Basic statistics on mice survival by treatment level.

Treatment level Mortality rate
%
Lifespan mean (std. dev.)
Days
Group A 88 679 (209)
Group B 92 671 (180)
Group C 96 667 (185)

Regarding group A, animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer (Asiagem, Italy). As for group B, animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution for 15 days. Regarding group C, animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

A first look on experimental data is provided in Figure 1, where nonparametric hazard and survival plots seem to suggest that even if no macroscopic difference emerges, starting from the second year of life mice watered with alkaline ionized  Water  and those treated with AlkaWater overwhelmed control mice.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.001.jpg

Nonparametric hazard and survival plots by treatment level. Group A: animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer  Group B: animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution  for 15 days. Group C: animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

In order to explore the possible effect of different treatments, that is, to examine the role of group membership on longevity, we applied a parametric survival analysis approach using a class of 3-parameter survival distributions that represent flexible accelerated failure time, AFT models. First of all, using the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistic, we compared three specific survival distributions, that is, log-logistic (AD = 6.397), log-normal (AD = 6.519), and generalized Weibull (AD = 6.447). Since the best fitting was shown by log-logistic model, we adopted this one as final survival distribution model. The straight lines in the log-logistic distribution QQ plots (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)) indicate that this distribution provides a suitable fit to our survival data.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.002.jpg

QQ plots using the 3-parameter log-logistic distribution model. (a) Treatment A survival time quantiles (vertical axis) versus treatment C survival time quantiles (horizontal axis); (b) treatment B survival time quantiles (vertical axis) versus treatment C survival time quantiles (horizontal axis).

Finally, by including our treatment as covariate, we performed a parametric distribution analysis whose results are graphically represented in Figure 3.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.003.jpg

Distribution plot results using the 3-parameter log-logistic model. Group A: animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer . Group B: animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution for 15 days. Group C: animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

Starting with the second year of life, it is worth noting that both alkaline water treated groups denote a decreasing hazard curve over time, while the corresponding curve for control group is monotonically increasing. To more formally compare the treatment levels, the proposed analysis provided also suitable pvalues. Since the p values related on the null hypotheses of equality of location, scale and threshold parameters were, respectively, less than 0.001 (for both locations and scales) and 0.634 (for thresholds) at a 5% significance level; we can state that there is enough experimental evidence to conclude that the treatment significantly affects the mice longevity; in particular the alkaline ionized water provides a benefit to longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it decreases the hazard functions when compared with the control group. Note that the treatment effect cannot be directly related to no one of the three distribution parameters. Anyway, using the estimated parameters, it should be possible to provide an estimate for the effect of each treatment on survivorship: setting the reference survival time to 1000, 1200, and 1400 days, Table 2 summarizes the estimated point and 95% interval survival probabilities by each treatment level.

Table 2

Table of survival probabilities by treatment level. The probabilities, along with their related 95% confidence interval limits, were calculated using the normal approximation.

Treatment level Time (days) Estimated probability Lower 95% CI limit Upper 95% CI limit
A 1000 0.116 0.056 0.226
1200 0.046 0.014 0.140
1400 0.020 0.004 0.098

B 1000 0.055 0.021 0.137
1200 0.013 0.003 0.066
1400 0.004 0.000 0.039

C 1000 0.049 0.022 0.106
1200 0.008 0.002 0.027
1400 0.001 0.000 0.007

As final remark, it should be noted that even if our parametric AFT survival analysis was performed using the log-logistic distribution, our conclusions are consistent with results obtained using the generalized Weibull distribution, while via log-normal distribution no significant effect was found.

3.1. Histological Examination

No significant differences emerged from the histological examination among the three groups. In all examined samples, renal tissue was characterized by a mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic interstitial infiltrate and few occasional glomerular changes as glomerular size reduction and increasing of Bowman’s space (Figure 4).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.004.jpg

Kidney, a specific chronic nephropathy. Focal interstitial mainly lymphocytic infiltrate (upright) and a sclerotic glomerulus (middle right). Hematoxylin and Eosin.

Final diagnosis was mild chronic progressive nephropathy for the three analyzed mouse groups.

The microscopic examination of the liver revealed a multifocal nodular pattern of the parenchyma and diffuse mild-to-moderate hepatocellular cytoplasmic hydropic degeneration with multifocal binucleation in all explored animals (Figure 5).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.005.jpg

Liver, aging change. Hepatocellular abundant dishomogeneous cytoplasm, binucleation (center), variably sized nuclei, and a nuclear pseudoinclusion cyst (arrow). Hematoxylin and Eosin.

Mild-to-moderate anisokaryosis was the most relevant alteration, with few pleomorphic nuclei and frequent intranuclear pseudoinclusions and karyomegaly. A specific mild perivascular infiltrate was occasionally present. Final diagnosis was mild-to-moderate diffuse hepatopathy with multifocal hyperplastic hyperplasia.

The pulmonary parenchyma showed mild multifocal areas of interstitial thickening of the interalveolar septa due to moderate congestion and mild cellular mixed infiltrate (Figure 6). Mild areas of emphysema were detected at the periphery of the parenchyma. Final diagnosis was multifocal very mild atelectasis and mild vicarious emphysema.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.006.jpg

Lung, mild atelectasis. Very mild multifocal interstitial thickening of the alveolar septa associated with congestion and mild cellular increase. Hematoxylin and Eosin.

At the same time, no relevant histopathologic histological changes have been noticed in intestine (Figure 7), brain, and heart.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.007.jpg

Intestine. Longitudinal section of duodenum showing uniformly thin and elongated villi. Hematoxylin and Eosin.

4. Discussion

The present work presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis of the survival data indicates the possibility of a positive effect of alkaline ionized water on mouse lifespan and AFT model allowed evaluating differences starting from the second year of the survival curves. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline ionized water on long-lived mouse models. It should be pointed out that, from the standpoint of aging research, this statistical approach presents appealing properties and provides valuable tools for the analysis of survival. The observation of tissues of deceased animals was performed for the assessment of the state of internal organs to be compared with similar analyses of untreated animals. The renal lesions observed at histology were specific and common for the three animal groups. Chronic progressive nephropathy has been well described as normal aging change in mice []. In our cases animals did not show any clinical sign of nephropathy or any other histological evidence of specific kidney disease and we ascribed the lesions to the aging process [].

The examined livers were also affected by typical lesions of mature subjects, such as hyperplastic nodules. Furthermore, well known aging changes were individuated in the hepatocytes, such as karyomegaly, nuclear pleomorphism, and pseudoinclusions cysts [].

5. Conclusions

A 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice was carried out in order to investigate the biological effect of alkaline water consumption. Firstly, nonparametric hazard and survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline ionized water overwhelmed control mice. Secondly, data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model inferring that a benefit on longevity, in terms of “deceleration aging factor,” was correlated with the consumption of alkaline ionized water. Finally, histological examination of mice kidneys, intestines, hearts, livers, and brains was performed in order to verify the risk of diseases correlated to alkaline watering. No significant damage, but aging changes, emerged; organs of alkaline watered animals resulted to be quite superimposable to controls, shedding a further light in the debate on alkaline water consumption in humans.

Acknowledgments

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Tommaso Nicoletti. The authors are grateful to Rocco Palmisano for original ideas and support. The authors would like to thank Asiagem (Italy) for partial support and Ludovico Scenna, Carlo Zatti, and Silvano Voltan for their scientific and professional contribution.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there are no competing financial interests.

Published online 2016 May 31. doi: 10.1155/2016/3084126
PMCID: PMC4906185
PMID: 27340414
Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

References

1. Watanabe T., Shirai W. Influence of alkaline ionized water on reproductive functions in the rat. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility1990;35:748–751.
2. Watanabe T. Effect of alkaline ionized water on reproduction in gestational and lactational rats. Journal of Toxicological Sciences1995;20(2):135–142. doi: 10.2131/jts.20.135. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Watanabe T., Kishikawa Y., Shirai W. Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium. Journal of Toxicological Sciences1997;22(2):141–152. doi: 10.2131/jts.22.2_141. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Jin D., Ryu S. H., Kim H. W., et al. Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry2006;70(1):31–37. doi: 10.1271/bbb.70.31. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Hanaoka K., Sun D., Lawrence R., Kamitani Y., Fernandes G. The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry2004;107(1):71–82. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2003.08.007. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Shirahata S., Kabayama S., Nakano M., et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications1997;234(1):269–274. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1997.6622. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Spugnini E. P., Buglioni S., Carocci F., et al. High dose lansoprazole combined with metronomic chemotherapy: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors. Journal of Translational Medicine2014;12:p. 225. doi: 10.1186/s12967-014-0225-y. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Collett D. Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research. 3rd. Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2014. (Texts in Statistical Science).
9. Swindell W. R. Accelerated failure time models provide a useful statistical framework for aging research. Experimental Gerontology2009;44(3):190–200. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2008.10.005.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Minitab. Minitab®, (version 17.2.1, 2013), http://www.minitab.com.
11. McInnes E. F. Background Lesions in Laboratory Animals. A Color Atlas. Saunders Elsevier; 2012.
12. Percy D. H., Barthold S. W. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 2nd. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State Press; 2001. [CrossRef]

Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited

Studies and observations on the health effects of drinking electrolyzed-reduced alkaline water ( ionized)

B. Rubik Institute for Frontier Science, Oakland, California, USA

Abstract

Studies and observations on the health effects of drinking electrolyzed-reduced alkaline(ionized ) water Municipal drinking water, prefiltered and treated by partial electrolysis, followed by collecting the cathodic water that is alkaline (pH 8.5 to 9.5), shows a high negative oxidative reductive potential (ORP) (-150 to -250 mV) compared to untreated tap water (+150 mV) as well as smaller molecular clusters.

A growing body of literature indicates beneficial effects from drinking this electrolyszed (ionized) alkaline water by patients with diabetes and kidney disease, with improved outcomes and fewer medical complications. Additional studies suggest that this water increases the activity of a key detoxifying enzyme in the body, superoxide dismutase, which is central to protecting against free radical damage both in aging and chronic degenerative disease. Recent published studies on the health benefits of this drinking (alkaline ionized/electrolyzed reduced ) water are summarized. Evidence from live blood analysis from a case study suggests that drinking reduced alkaline water reduces blood cell stickiness, aggregation, and early clotting. Results suggest that long term consumption of this water slows the effects of aging and may improve the peripheral circulation; serve as an adjunct therapy for diabetes and kidney disorders; and help prevent cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.

1 Introduction

Water, which constitutes over 70% of the human body, is involved in virtually every function of life. It is an essential but often underrated necessity that is involved in most biochemical reactions; a constituent of the bodily fluids – blood, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and other digestive fluids; joint lubrication; detoxification; and maintaining the blood pressure. Yet it is far more than just a constituent. A new science of water is emerging in which the structure and dynamics of water is much more complex than was previously thought. Water is a complex dynamic liquid sensitive and responsive to its environment. We are now in the midst of a paradigm shift in which liquid water is seen as an active agent rather than a passive constituent or universal solvent of life. For example, water and living systems are equally sensitive to a single quantum of magnetic flux [1]. Water shows long-range ordering features around cell membranes, where is it more like an epitaxial liquid crystal with distinct properties in those regions that radically distinguish it from bulk water [2] while chemically still remaining H2O. It used to be thought that water was passive, “dancing to the tune of biomolecules”, but now, water is considered the “matrix of life.” The greatest physiological change with aging is not within our biomolecules, but in the loss of water from the body. The body of a young infant consists of over 80% water, but that of a person over 70 years old is typically comprised of less than 60% water. There are many concerns about drinking water quality worldwide today. Many people choose to drink commercially bottled water for various reasons, but its healthfulness is questionable. Some device manufacturers claim that water treated by a vortex, electromagnetic fields, or other physical means to “energize” it, is more healthful than untreated waters and may also slow the aging process. In this paper, we review published evidence for the impact on health of drinking a particular type of water called “electrolyzed-reduced”(ionized alkaline) water and show observations from the blood.

2 Background and literature review

Alkaline mineral water with a relatively high negative oxidative reductive potential (ORP = -150 to -300 millivolts) and a pH over 8.0 is characteristic of natural mountain streams and certain deep wells. Aside from these natural sources, where can one find water with these properties? If this natural water were to be bottled, it would lose its high negative ORP and may react with plastic bottles that contain phthalates, toxic carcinogens. Nonetheless, one can generate water with these properties at point-of-use by using a device called a water ionizer. This is a commercially available water treatment system for the home that first filters the water through a multi-stage water filter to remove chlorine, chloramine, and other contaminants, and then performs partial electrolysis of the filtered water over platinum-coated titanium electrodes with a DC electric field. This yields 2 fractions: oxidized acidic water from the anode, and reduced alkaline water from the cathode. The reduced alkaline water appears to match most closely natural mountain spring water at the source in its physical properties and taste. This water is the subject of this paper. It has been called by various names: reduced, electrolyzed-reduced, and alkaline ionized water, to name a few. In this paper, we refer to it as ERW, “electrolyzed-reduced water.” The ERW fraction retains the alkaline ionic minerals from the tap water, including calcium and magnesium, which are important minerals for health, has a high negative ORP, an alkaline pH, a low level of dissolved oxygen, and is microstructured, with 5 to 6 molecules of water per cluster. It also has a lower surface tension than the starting tap water, which makes it a better solvent and may improve hydration.

Most of the studies on ERW have been conducted in Japan, Korea, and China. Not all of the research reports have been translated into English. Peer-reviewed studies from various laboratories worldwide show that ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water , with its high negative ORP, scavenges free radical chemical species, protecting from oxidative damage. This, along with its alkalinity and microstructure, yield numerous health benefits. In addition, clinical reports, with or without controlled studies supporting them, further suggest that ERW produces declines in blood sugar levels in diabetic patients; improvements in peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene; improvements in intestinal flora; declines in uric acid levels in patients with gout; improvements in liver function tests in hepatic disorders; improvements in gastroduodenal ulcer with prevention of recurrences; improved hydration and fluid replacement; and improvements in blood pressure in the case of either hypertension or hypotension. Here we summarize some of the key findings from the peer-reviewed literature on humans and other biological systems.

2.1 Active reducing agent and protection against oxidative stress

Shirahata et al. studied the properties of ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water and reported that it showed a superoxide dismutase-like activity in protecting against oxidative damage, alleviating oxidative damage of DNA molecules and other species in vitro [3]. This antioxidant effect of ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water has been verified [4]. The nature of the reducing species (antioxidant) in ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water has been proposed to be active hydrogen and/or molecular hydrogen, but it is NOT the same as ordinary hydrogen gas and remains unresolved [5, 6]. One group reports that ERW contains both atomic and molecular hydrogen [7]. ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water prevented oxidative cleavage of proteins and also stimulated the activity of free radical scavenger, ascorbic acid(vitamin C) [8]. Rats, upon drinking ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water for just one week, showed significantly reduced amounts of peroxidized lipid in their urine, suggesting reduced oxidative stress in the rats [9]. These studies document that ERW has strong antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity is important to protect cells and biomolecules from the toxic effects of oxidative damage associated with reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radicals that are associated with the biochemistry of inflammation and implicated as underlying factors in chronic disease.

2.2 Prolonged lifespan in nematodes and mice

It is well accepted that oxidative damaged mice compared to control mice fed tap water [10]. Landis and Tower showed that enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase, as has been demonstrated by various investigators using ERW, can reduce oxidative damage and extend life span [11]. A study on ERW used in the aqueous medium of the nematode (worm), C. Elegans in laboratory cultures showed that it significantly extended its lifespan, which has been interpreted to be at least in part due to the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging action of ERW [12].

2.3 Studies on kidney disease and use of hemodialysis

In end-stage kidney-diseased patients on dialysis, ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water appears to have a beneficial effect on reduction of hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress. Huang et al. studied the reactive oxygen species in the plasma of these patients and found that ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water diminished hemodialysis-enhanced peroxide levels, and minimized oxidized and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) after 1 month of drinking ERW “electrolyzed-reduced” water aka (ionized alkaline) water . These findings suggest that cardiovascular complications (stroke and heart attack) in these kidney dialysis patients might be prevented by ERW [13].

Another study investigated use of ERW directly in the hemodialysis process of 8 kidney patients, and found that the viability of patients’ polymorphonuclear leukocytes was better preserved [14].

2.4 Studies on diabetes and blood glucose levels

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and other free radical oxygen species, are known to cause reduction of glucose update by inhibiting the insulin-signaling pathway in cultured cells. Therefore, the scavenging of ROS is important to the control of diabetes. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and stimulated glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and mouse 3T3/L1 adipocytes. This insulin-like activity of ERW was inhibited by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, a key molecule in insulin signalling pathways. ERW protected insulin responsive cells from sugar toxicity and improved the damaged sugar tolerance of type II diabetes model mice. This suggests that ERW may improve the status of those with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus [15]. Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. ERW in diabetic mice improved islet beta-cell function, resulting in increased release of circulating insulin and improved insulin sensitivity in both type I and type II diabetes [16, 17]. In a study on Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, ERW given to one group showed significantly lower blood glucose levels than controls given tap water. Moreover, blood levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol also decreased in the rats fed ERW [18].

A study on 411 type II diabetes patients whose average age was 71.5 years, who drank natural reduced water from the Nordenau Spring in Germany, up to 2 liters per day over 6 days, showed that 186 (45%) responded positively, with reduced blood glucose, improved cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and serum creatinine levels. 70.6% of a random sample of 136 of the patients also showed a decrease in blood ROS [19].

Recent bioelectrical impedance analysis studies showed that diabetics have a lower ratio of intracellular water (ICW) to extracellular water (ECW).

336 type II diabetics were recruited in a randomized, double-blind trial. The subjects received 250 ml of ERW or distilled water twice daily for 4 weeks. Results show that ERW consumption improved cell water distribution (ICW/ECW), basal metabolism rate, and cell capacitance during the 4-week period. The authors speculate that the relatively small size of the water molecule clusters in ERW may underlie the beneficial findings of improved cell structure and function [20].

2.5 Stimulation of anaerobic microflora in the human gut

The high negative ORP of ERW favors the growth of key anaerobic bacteria in the human gut that are important for normal intestinal microflora, health of the colon, and optimum nutrition [21]. 2.6 Lack of toxicity in microbes, cells, and animals ERW used up to a concentration of 100% in the Ames Test with Salmonella typhimurium did not show any bacterial mutations, either in the presence or absence of rat liver for exogenous metabolic activation. Similarly, ERW did not induce any chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells with or without rat liver, for up to 24 hours. Rats administered ERW at a dose of 20 mL/kg/day for 28 days via intragastric infusion did not show any clinical symptoms or toxic changes. These results demonstrate the expected safety for a 60 kg human to drink at least 1.2L/day of ERW [22]. Developing animals are the most sensitive to biological agents and are often used in studies to investigate toxicity. Thus, ERW was given to pregnant and also lactating rats to look for any effects. Development of rat fetuses and offspring were normal, and ERW increased the weight of the animals over controls. ERW was also found to have positive biological effects on postnatal growth. Moreover, postnatal morphological development was also accelerated [23]. No significant difference in milk yield or suckled milk volume was noted. It is suspected that the water-hydrated calcium cations transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to the offspring through the milk, might be the cause of the increased body weight, since calcium plays a key role in skeletal formation [24].

2.7 Inhibition of cancer but not normal cells

It is known that tumor cells produce ROS more abundantly than normal cells. It is also well known that antioxidants can inhibit tumor cell proliferation, which indicates an important role of ROS in mediating the loss of growth control. Human tongue carcinoma cells were shown to be significantly inhibited for either colony formation or colony sizes by ERW in cell cultures without inhibition to normal human tongue epithelial cells. ERW also caused growth inhibition, cell degeneration, and inhibition of invasion to human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080. These studies suggest that ERW may help prevent tumor progression and invasion [25]. In vitro examination of leukemia cells (HL-60) treated with ERW showed enhanced mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. However, normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed no cytotoxic effect from ERW [26]. ERW also suppressed the growth rate of cancer cells transplanted into mice, demonstrating anti-cancer effects in vivo.

2.8 Protection of liver from toxic agents

Mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage given ERW showed significantly lowered serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers and increased activities of superoxide dismutase and other key detoxifying enzymes. The effects of ERW were similar to silymarin, an extract from milk thistle well known for its hepato-protective properties. Results suggest that ERW may be used to protect the liver against toxins that induce oxidative damage [27].

2.9 Conclusions from the literature review

These studies show impressive health benefits in humans and other biological systems from consumption of ERW over a very short time, and without any toxic effects observed. Clearly, ERW is a useful adjunct for treating ROS-associated diseases, including diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, due to its anti-aging effects in scavenging oxygen free radicals, ERW appears to be an excellent choice for regular water consumption, although its antioxidant activity is unstable upon storage. Nonetheless, it is easily produced from tap water at point-of-use.

3 Observations from live blood analysis

The blood is the most easily monitored tissue that can show rapid changes that correlate with health and disease. We have observed that persons drinking ERW show exceptionally clean biological terrains as monitored by live blood analysis. Live blood analysis is the visual examination of a small droplet of fresh capillary blood typically taken from the fingertip, put onto a glass slide, and immediately observed under a high-powered light microscope equipped with a dark-field condenser. This method offers a visual perspective of the blood cells and plasma at high magnification enhanced by modern optical techniques. It provides an assessment of the ecology of the blood, the “biological terrain”. Live blood analysis is used clinically to look for the malaria and Lyme disease parasites. Here we discuss it as a tool to assess blood cell stickiness, clumping, and coagulation and clotting processes, which are related to the activation of the inflammatory cascade.

A microphotograph from live blood analysis is shown in Figure 1. This is a photograph of normal healthy blood of a fasted female, age 37. The red blood cells (RBCs) are seen as single, free, round cells. Only a few platelet aggregates are seen in the plasma as grey areas. No RBC stickiness and no other clotting factors are found throughout the blood sample.

Figure 1: Normal healthy blood from female, age 37.

By contrast, Figure 2 shows the blood of a male, 65 years old. This blood is also typical of that found in many elderly persons. The RBCs are sticky and tightly clumped together in rouleau (rolls of coins seen on edge). Fibrin (white threads) is present, indicating that blood coagulation and clotting have been activated. This is the picture of systemic inflammation. Peripheral circulation was also impaired for this subject, because only single RBC can move freely through the smallest capillaries. Poor circulation in the extremities is a common complaint of the elderly.

Figure 2: Unhealthy blood from male, 65, showing blood congestion and clotting.

Following this test, the subject, M, age 65, drank 1 to 1.5 liters/day of ERW from a water ionizer for 6 months but made no other changes in diet or lifestyle. Figure 3 shows the blood from the same person after 6 months. The RBC stickiness, aggregation, and clotting factors are no longer present. It is particularly striking to see this change in an older person’s blood. Although this is a single case presented here, numerous other cases have been observed as well.

4 Conclusions

Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the main underlying factors of virtually all of the chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. From observing changes in the biological terrain apparently due to consumption of ERW, it appears that ERW may be a useful intervention to mitigate activation of the clotting and inflammatory pathways. Long-term consumption of ERW may improve the blood circulation and possibly help prevent the chronic diseases of our times. Acid-alkaline balance is another key to health and wellness [28]. Metabolism of food leads to acid wastes, yet the biological terrain needs to be alkaline, pH 7.2-7.4. Drinking alkaline water such as ERW can contribute to neutralizing acid waste and maintaining proper pH balance in the body. In conclusion, a growing body of scientific and clinical literature shows increasing support for ERW as a “functional” drinking water that scavenges free radicals, diminishes systemic inflammation, and is a useful adjunct for treating ROS-associated diseases, including diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. From observations of the blood, it appears to mitigate early blood clotting and systemic inflammation seen as sticky, aggregated RBCs and fibrin. Collectively, this evidence points to ERW alkaline ionized water as a healthy drinking water

References

[1] Smith, C.W., Quanta and coherence effects in water and living systems. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(1), pp. 69-79, 2004. [2] Zheng, J.-M., Pollack, G.H., Solute exclusion and potential distribution near hydrophilic surfaces. In: Water and the Cell, eds Pollack, G.H., Cameron, I.L., Wheatley, D.N., Springer: Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 165-174, 2006.

[3] Shirahata, S., Kabayama, S., Nakano, M., Miura, T., Kusumoto, K., Gotoh, M., Hayashi, H., Otsubo, K., Morisawa, Y. and Katakura, Y., Electrolyzedreduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 234, pp. 269–274, 1997.

[4] Hanaoka, K., Sun, D., Lawrence, R., Kamitani, Y., Fernandes, G., The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry 107, pp. 71-82, 2004. Water and Society

[5] Hiraoka, A., Takemoto, M., Suzuki, T., Shinohara, A., Chiba, M., Shirae, M., Yoshimura, Y., Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of “active hydrogen.” Journal of Health Science 50(5), pp. 456-465, 2004.

[6] Hanaoka, K. Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 31, pp. 1307-1313, 2001.

[7] Nakanishi, K., Hamasaki, T, Nakamura, T, Abe, M, and Teruya, K. Growth suppression of HL70 and L6 cells by atomic hydrogen. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 16, pp. 323-325, 2009.

[8] Lee, M.Y., Kim, Y.K., Ryoo, K.K., Lee, Y.B., Park, E.J. Electrolyzedreduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 135(2), pp. 133-144, 2006.

[9] Yanagihara, T., Arai, K., Miyamae, K., Sato, B., Shudo, T., Yamada, M., Aoyama, M., Electrolyzed reduced water for drinking elicits an antioxidant effect: a feeding test with rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 69(10), pp. 1985-1987, 2005

[10] Fernandes, G., unpublished presentation, conference hosted by Proton Laboratories on electrolyzed reduced water, Alameda, CA, 2000.

[11] Landis, G.N., Tower, J., Superoxide dismutase, evolution, and life span regulation. Mechanisms of Aging and Development 126(3), pp. 365-79, 2005.

[12] Yan, H., Tian, H., Hamasaki, T., Abe, M., Nakamichi, N. Electrolyzed reduced water prolongs Caenorhabditis elegans’ lifespan. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 16, pp. 289-293.

[13] Huang, K.C., Lee, K.T., Chien, C.T., Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney International 64(2), pp. 704-714, 2003.

[14] Nakayama, M., Kabayama, S., Nakano, H., Zhu, W.J., Terawaki, H., Nakayama, K., Katoh, K., Satoh, T., Ito, S. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis. Nephron Clinical Practice 112, pp. 9- 15, 2009.

[15] Oda, M., Kusumota, K., Teruya, T., Hara, T., Maki, t., Kabayama, S., Katakura, Y., Otsubo, K., Morisawa, S., Hayashi, H. Electrolyzed and natural reduced water exhibit insulin-like activity on glucose uptake into muscle cells and adipocytes. Animal Cell Technology: Products from Cells, Cells as Products, Proc of the 16th ESACT Meeting, April 25-29, 1999, eds A. Bernard, B. Griffiths, W. Noe, F. Wurm. Kluwer Academic Publishers: New York, Chapter VII, pp. 425-427, 2002.

[16] Kim, M.J., Kim, H.K. Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice. Life Sciences 79, 2288- 91, 2006.

[17] Kim, M.J., Jung, K.H., Uhm, Y.K, Leem, K.H., Kim, H.K. Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30(2), pp. 234-236, 2007.

[18] Jin, D., Ryu, S.H., Kim, H.W., Yang, E.J., Lim, S.J., Ryang, Y.S., Chung, C.H., Park, S.K., Lee, K.J. Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 70(1), pp. 31- 37, 2006.

[19] Gadek, Z., Hamasaki, T., Shirahata, S., “Nordenau Phenomenon” – application of natural reduced water to therapy. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects, 15, pp. 265-271, 2009.

[20] Wang, Z.Y., Zhou, Z.C., Zhu, K.N., Wang, X., Pan, J.G., Lorenzen, L.H., Zhou, M.C., Microclustered water and hydration. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 13(Suppl.), S128.

[21] Vorobjeva, N.V., Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water. Medical Hypotheses 64(3), pp. 543-546, 2005.

[22] Saitoh, Y., Harata, Y., Mizukashi, F., Nakajima, M., Miwa, N. Biological safety of neutral-pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water upon mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and subchronic oral toxicity. Toxicology and Industrial Health 26(4), pp. 203-216, 2010.

[23] Watanabe, T., Effect of alkaline ionized water on reproduction in gestational and lactational rats. Journal of Toxicology Science 20(2), pp. 135-142, 1995.

[24] Watanabe T., Pan, I., Fukuda, Y., Murasugi, E., Kamata, H., Uwatoko, K. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring, and perinatal dam in rats. Journal of Toxicology Science 23(5), pp. 365-71, 1998.

[25] Saitoh, Y., Okayasu, H., Xiao, L., Harata, Y., Miwa, N. Neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water achieves tumor-preferential clonal growth inhibition over normal cells and tumor invasion inhibition concurrently with intracellular oxidant repression. Oncology Research 17, pp. 247-255, 2008.

[26] Tsai, C.F., Hsu, Y.W., Chen, W.K., Ho, Y.C., Lu, F.J. Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 73(2), pp. 280-287, 2009.

[27] Tsai, C.F., Hsu, Y.W., Chen, W.K., Chang, W.H., Yen, C.C., Ho, Y.C., Lu, F.J. Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47, pp. 2031-2036, 2009.

[28] Minich, D.M., Bland, J.S. Acid-alkaline balance: role In chronic disease and detoxification. Alternative Therapies 13(4), pp. 62-65, 2007. Water and Society

www witpress com ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line) WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, Vol 153,© 2011 WIT Press – FREE /OPEN ACCESS https://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-ecology-and-the-environment/153/22933https://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-ecology-and-the-environment/153/22933

haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) in water produced by electrolysis: a clinical trial

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients indicates a poor prognosis. However, therapeutic approaches are limited. Molecular hydrogen gas (H(2)) ameliorates oxidative and inflammatory injuries to organs in animal models. We developed an HD system using a dialysis solution with high levels of dissolved molecular hydrogen H(2) and examined the clinical effects.

METHODS:

Dialysis solution with molecular hydrogen H(2) (average of 48 ppb) was produced by mixing dialysate concentrates and reverse osmosis water containing dissolved molecular hydrogen H(2) generated by a water electrolysis technique. Subjects comprised 21 stable patients on standard HD who were switched to the test HD for 6 months at three sessions a week.

RESULTS:

During the study period, no adverse clinical signs or symptoms were observed.

A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after dialysis was observed during the study, and a significant number of patients achieved SBP <140 mmHg after HD (baseline, 21%; 6 months, 62%; P < 0.05). Changes in dialysis parameters were minimal, while significant decreases in levels of plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P < 0.01) and myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05) were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adding molecular hydrogen H(2) to haemodialysis solutions ameliorated inflammatory reactions and improved BP control. This system could offer a novel therapeutic option for control of uraemia.

 2010 Sep;25(9):3026-33. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq196. Epub 2010 Apr 12.
A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial.
PMID:
20388631
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfq196

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20388631

 

Effects of Alkaline ionized Water on Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea

 A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the ingestion of alkaline-reduced water (ARW) is helpful in improving the symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Methods

Twenty-seven patients (male, 25.9%; mean, 41.7 years old) with diarrhea-predominant IBS were randomly allocated to two groups. For eight weeks, the ARW group (n = 13) ingested at least 2 liters/day of ARW, while the control group (n = 14) ingested placebo water. IBS symptom scores (quality-of-life, abdominal pain/discomfort), stool form, and frequency were assessed before and after treatment via questionnaires.

Results

Eight patients (61.5%) in the ARW group and six patients (42.9%) in the control group indicated that their symptoms had improved in more than four out of the eight weeks of treatment (p = 0.449). The IBS quality-of-life score significantly improved from 57.2 to 30.8 in the ARW group; this improvement was significantly greater than the slight improvement from 48.7 to 42.2 observed in the control group (p = 0.029). The abdominal pain score improved from 1.8 to 0.9 in the ARW group and from 1.8 to 1.1 in the control group, with no significant group difference (p = 0.232).

Conclusions

Drinking ARW for eight weeks improves the quality of life in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.

1. Introduction

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional intestinal disorder accompanied by abdominal pain and bowel habit changes, without evidence of an underlying injury. It is a very common disease, occurring in about 11% of people worldwide []. According to the Korean National Health Insurance System database, 5.1% of men and 6.9% of women were diagnosed with IBS []. IBS is one of the most common illnesses in primary care, with a repeated cycle of deterioration and relief over the years. Improving symptoms through appropriate treatment is important; IBS lowers the quality of life and increases medical costs []. Patients with IBS also suffer from anxiety, major depressive disorder, and chronic fatigue syndrome []. However, the cause and mechanisms underlying the various symptoms are not entirely understood. Many hypotheses have been proposed, including small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, genetic factors, food hypersensitivities, gastrointestinal motility disorders, gut-brain axis alterations, hypersensitivity of the intestine, and psychosocial factors []. Recent studies indicate that the intestinal microbiota is one of the important factors affecting the onset of IBS [].

Various drugs have been used to improve symptoms, including antacids, antispasmodics, and drugs that stimulate gastrointestinal motility (prokinetic agents). However, with a lack of convincing evidence for a pathophysiological basis, conventional therapies have not achieved complete symptom improvement. Therefore, several alternative therapeutic methods, including dietary changes, probiotics, and other medications, have been proposed []. Furthermore, mineral water with various electrolyte compositions has been utilized in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal diseases; mineral water supplements have been reported to improve functional dyspepsia associated with IBS by controlling gastric acid output and intestinal transit time []. In addition, carbonated water not only attenuates the hunger but also improves dyspeptic symptoms and heartburn []. Drinking sulfur-rich mineral water for more than three weeks was found to be effective in treating constipation by increasing frequency of bowel movements []. Bicarbonate-containing alkaline-reduced water (ARW) has also been hypothesized to affect various digestive functions. Although animal studies have provided evidence that ARW is effective in treating functional bowel disease, human studies are lacking []. Therefore, the purpose of this randomized double-blind pilot study was to evaluate the effect of ARW ingestion on diarrhea-predominant IBS.

2. Methods

2.1. Ethical Approval

This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects in the Declaration of Helsinki. This study was approved by the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital Medical Ethics Committee (IRB number: E-1405/250-002) and aspires to protect the lives, health, privacy, and dignity of the research participants. Thus, the purpose and characteristics of the clinical trial were fully explained to the participants. Only patients who voluntarily signed an informed consent were included, and patients were allowed to stop participating at any time during the trial. All results obtained in this clinical study are confidential.

2.2. Study Population

Men and women aged 18–75 years who met Rome III criteria [] for diarrhea-predominant IBS, had no underlying disease of the colon on a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy performed within 5 years prior to screening, and could understand and respond to the symptom questionnaires were included. Rome III criteria for IBS involve recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort at least 3 days/month in the last 3 months with two or more of the following: improvement with defecation, onset associated with a change in stool frequency, or onset associated with a change in stool form []. Diarrhea-predominant IBS involves loose or watery stools in more than 25% of bowel movements and hard or lumpy stool in less than 25% of bowel movements.

The following were excluded: patients with a psychiatric history; patients with untreated malignant tumors; patients with severe liver or kidney disease (AST, ALT levels 3-fold greater than the normal upper limit, and serum creatinine levels 1.5-fold greater than the normal upper limit); patients with severe heart failure; patients with acute gastrointestinal tract infection within the last 3 months. In addition, patients who were taking medications during the study period that could affect the results were also excluded. This included drugs that might influence IBS symptoms, such as antispasmodics, laxatives, prokinetics, anticholinergics, antianxiety drugs, antidepressants, analgesics, thyroid hormone, antibiotics, and steroids.

It is difficult to predict the therapeutic response rate between the test group and the control group since similar studies related to ARW have not existed before. This is a small-scale preliminary pilot study to investigate feasibility, adverse events, and improvement before a full-scale research project. This study was planned with 30 participants per group, which is the minimum number of participants recommended in a pilot study []. Given an estimated dropout rate of 15%, at least 35 people per group were planned to be enrolled.

2.3. Randomization and Allocation

Patients who were diagnosed with diarrhea-predominant IBS by Rome III criteria were equally allocated to experimental and control groups. Randomization was performed using a 1 : 1 computerized block randomization with a predetermined random code. Because both the investigator and the patients were blinded, a research coordinator performed the random assignment. The research coordinator did not provide information on randomization to the patients and researchers until the end of the study. Neither the participants nor the researchers could distinguish group assignments.

2.4. Study Design

A flowchart of the study design is provided in Figure 1. Patients completed screening tests (blood, urinalysis, colonoscopy, and a past medical history questionnaire) 1–3 weeks before participating in the study. Laboratory evaluation included assessments of liver function (albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels), kidney function (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus levels), and the complete blood count (CBC).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2018-9147914.001.jpg

Schedule of patients participating in the study.

Baseline questionnaires on the IBS quality of life, abdominal pain/discomfort, stool form, and stool frequency were completed at the start of the study. The IBS quality-of-life questionnaire is an indicator of abdominal discomfort and consists of 34 items (each recorded as 1–5 points: 1: not at all, 2: slightly, 3: moderately, 4: quite a bit, and 5: extremely) []. Symptom scores for abdominal pain/discomfort were rated on a scale of 0–4 (0: asymptomatic, 1: mild, 2: moderate, 3: severe, and 4: very severe) and were based on the worst level of the day. Abdominal discomfort was defined as an uncomfortable sensation not described as pain. Stool form was assessed using the Bristol stool scale, which is a diagnostic tool designed to classify the form of human feces into seven categories. In general, types 1 and 2 (hard or lumpy stool) indicate constipation, and types 5–7 (soft or watery stool) indicate diarrhea []. In addition, the number of bowel movements was recorded daily.

The experimental group ingested ARW from an installed test device, while the control group ingested placebo water from a sham device. Both groups were instructed to ingest more than 2 liters per day for eight weeks. Participants visited the hospital every two weeks and completed self-administered questionnaires on compliance, adverse effects, the amount ingested, symptom scores (abdominal pain/discomfort), stool form, and the number of daily bowel movements. Questionnaires on the IBS quality of life were completed only at the end of the eighth week. If adverse events occurred during the trial period, participants were instructed to stop the medication immediately and visit an outpatient clinic.

The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with adequate symptomatic improvement in more than four weeks of the 8-week treatment period. The secondary outcomes were changes in IBS quality of life, symptom scores (abdominal pain/discomfort), and stool form/frequency.

2.5. Research Equipment

ARW with a pH of 8.5–10.0 was produced using an alkali water ionizer (Kim Young Kwi alkali water ionizer, KYK33000). Placebo water was prepared using a sham device (model name: sham KYK33000), which was not able to generate ARW, but had the same appearance as that of the test apparatus. The devices were installed at the patient’s home and patients were allowed to drink water as needed.

2.6. Statistical Analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows (ver. 22.0, IBM Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA) and STATA software (ver. 14.0, STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Group differences were evaluated using Student’s t-test for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Group differences in treatment-related changes in variables related to IBS (abdominal pain/frequency, stool form, and frequency of bowel movements) were evaluated using a linear mixed model with an interaction term between group and time (before and after treatment). Changes in the IBS quality-of-life score were evaluated using the paired t-test. Two-sided p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

3. Results

3.1. Baseline Characteristics

Only 29 were enrolled in the study and 2 dropped out during the study; because the patients were burdened with drinking more than 2 liters of water a day for a long time, we failed to enroll the intended 70 patients. Finally, 13 patients in the ARW group and 14 patients in the control group completed the study (Figure 2). There were no significant group differences in baseline characteristics (Table 1). Ten out of thirteen (76.9%) patients in the ARW group and ten out of fourteen (71.4%) patients in the control group were women. The mean age in the ARW group was slightly higher compared to that of the control group, but without statistical significance (43.3 versus 40.1, p = 0.584). At the beginning of the study, IBS symptom scores (quality-of-life, abdominal pain/discomfort), Bristol stool form, and stool frequency were not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the consumption of water was similar in the two groups (ARW group: 2,124 ± 900 ml/day; control group: 2,052 ± 648 ml/day, p = 0.834).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2018-9147914.002.jpg

CONSORT flow diagram of patient recruitment.

Table 1

Characteristics of baseline demographics of patients.

Alkaline-reduced water group
(n = 13)
Control group
(n = 14)
p value
Female, n (%) 10 (76.9%) 10 (71.4%) 0.745
Mean age ± SD (years) 43.3 ± 14.4 40.1 ± 15.7 0.584
Initial symptom scores
 Quality-of-life score 57.2 ± 28.0 48.7 ± 26.4 0.428
 Abdominal pain 1.8 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.8 0.983
 Abdominal discomfort 1.8 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 0.362
 Stool form (BSFS) 5.3 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 1.4 0.939
 Stool frequency/day 2.6 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.0 0.130
Amount of water (ml/day) 2,124 ± 900 2,052 ± 648 0.834

SD: standard deviation; BSFS: Bristol stool form scale.

3.2. Primary Outcome Measure

Table 2 shows the number of responders (a favorable symptom improvement in more than four weeks of the eight-week treatment period) and nonresponders in each group. Although the proportion of patients responding to the treatment was higher in the ARW group (8/13, 61.5%) than in the control group (6/14, 42.9%), the difference was not statistically significant (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.449).

Table 2

Proportion of responders who showed symptomatic improvement after treatment (primary outcome measure).

Alkaline-reduced water group (n = 13) Control group (n = 14) p value
Responder, n (%) 8 (61.5%) 6 (42.9%) 0.449
Nonresponder, n (%) 5 (38.5%) 8 (57.1%)

3.3. Secondary Outcome Measures

After eight weeks of treatment, the IBS quality-of-life score had improved from 57.2 to 30.8 points in the ARW group and from 48.7 to 42.2 in the control group (Table 3), with a significant group difference (Figure 3(a)p = 0.029). The abdominal pain score improved from 1.8 to 0.9 in the ARW group and from 1.8 to 1.1 in the control group, without a statistically significant group difference (Figure 3(b)p = 0.232). Abdominal discomfort, stool form, and stool frequency were somewhat improved in the ARW group; however, there were no significant group differences (Figures 3(c)3(e)).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2018-9147914.003.jpg

Graph of change before and after treatment of IBS. (a) Quality-of-life score. (b) Abdominal pain score. (c) Abdominal discomfort score. (d) Bristol stool form scale. (e) Stool frequency per day.

Table 3

Symptom scores of patients before and after treatment (secondary outcome measures).

Alkaline-reduced water group (n = 13) Control group
(n = 14)
p value
Quality-of-life score Week 0 57.2 ± 28.0 48.7 ± 26.4 0.428
Week 8 30.8 ± 24.9 42.2 ± 36.3 0.353

Abdominal pain Week 0 1.8 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.8 0.983
Week 2 1.6 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 0.8 0.796
Week 4 1.0 ± 0.9 1.4 ± 0.8 0.324
Week 6 0.8 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.7 0.123
Week 8 0.9 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.6 0.480

Abdominal discomfort Week 0 1.8 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 0.362
Week 2 1.9 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 0.7 0.964
Week 4 1.4 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 0.8 0.688
Week 6 1.0 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.8 0.113
Week 8 1.2 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.7 0.777

Stool form (BSFS) Week 0 5.3 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 1.4 0.939
Week 2 4.9 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 0.8 0.546
Week 4 4.5 ± 0.8 4.6 ± 1.0 0.791
Week 6 4.5 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.3 0.747
Week 8 4.7 ± 0.9 4.4 ± 1.0 0.313

Stool frequency/day Week 0 2.6 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.0 0.130
Week 2 2.5 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 0.7 0.073
Week 4 2.1 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.7 0.198
Week 6 2.0 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.9 0.349
Week 8 2.1 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.7 0.213

Week 0: the time of randomization; BSFS: Bristol stool form scale.

3.4. Adverse Effects

One of the patients in the control group visited the emergency room due to vomiting and abdominal pain during the second week of the study, but improved with conservative treatment. There were no specific adverse effects associated with ARW ingestion during the eight weeks of the trial.

4. Discussion

IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in the general population []. In addition, because the effects of medications are often temporary, patients may increase the dose of the medication or take several medications, resulting in the occurrence of side effects. Thus, interest in alternative therapies that do not have side effects (even after long-term use) is growing []. Numerous animal studies have investigated the ability of controlling the electrolyte balance or acidity of the drinking water to treat functional gastrointestinal disorders. For example, animal studies have shown ARW to be effective in treating gastritis because it permanently denatures pepsin []. In addition, an animal study demonstrated that ingestion of more than 1.5 liters of bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water for 30 days improves dyspeptic symptoms []. It has also been suggested that a regular course of crenotherapy with bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water can be used to treat functional dyspepsia, improving gastrointestinal motility and secretory function by modulating the secretion of peptide hormones and regulating the movement of digestive organs []. These studies support the hypothesis that ARW can effectively treat IBS; however, prior to the present study, there were no supporting human clinical trials. Given this preclinical basis, we aimed to investigate whether ARW ingestion for eight weeks improved the symptoms of IBS.

This randomized controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine whether the ingestion of ARW could improve the quality of life, abdominal pain/discomfort, stool form, and stool frequency in diarrhea-predominant IBS. In terms of the primary endpoint, the proportion of responders (IBS patients who had improved symptoms in more than four weeks of the 8-week treatment period) was higher in the ARW group than in the control group, but the group difference was not statistically significant. This is likely due to the small number of patients who completed the trial; however, it is hard to predict an effect size, as no similar studies exist. We believe that a positive result could be obtained in a larger-scale study. In contrast to the primary outcome, a significant group difference was observed in the secondary outcomes. The IBS-related quality-of-life and abdominal pain scores were decreased to a greater extent with ARW ingestion compared to those with the ingestion of placebo water. This is a meaningful result because it demonstrates that it is possible to reduce IBS symptoms simply by ingesting water with a different pH, without taking any other medication. In addition, ARW has few adverse effects; thus, it shows potential in becoming an important complementary therapy for functional bowel disease. However, there were no significant group differences in the stool form and frequency improvements. At the beginning of the study, the frequency of bowel movements in both groups was 2-3 times a day, which is less than that for the definition of diarrhea (more than three times a day). Thus, the patients in both groups mainly had mild diarrhea, which may explain the lack of a significant change in symptom scores with treatment.

The mechanism by which ARW improves IBS symptoms remains unclear. ARW refers to water with a pH of at least 8.4; in contrast, most tap or bottled water has a pH between 6.7 and 7.4 []. ARW is thought to increase the pH level of the stomach given its large amount of bicarbonate ions. Interestingly, just infusing a small amount (0.1 mol/L) of acid into the stomach can aggravate indigestion in most people []. In addition, acidification of the duodenum exacerbates dyspeptic symptoms by inducing proximal gastric relaxation and inhibiting gastric accommodation to a meal []. In one animal study, duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity could be the cause of dyspepsia in patients with IBS and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors play a key role []. Furthermore, in patients with pancreatic insufficiency, such as cystic fibrosis, the small intestine is exposed to an acidic environment, resulting in impaired absorption. Rapid neutralization of gastric acid in the proximal portion of the duodenum and tight regulation of the gastrointestinal pH play important roles in maintaining nutrient absorption and function in the intestines []. In addition, mineral water with a unique electrolyte composition may help improve the symptoms of indigestion []. Carbonated water could regulate gastrointestinal motility diseases by stimulating bile flow and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Furthermore, drinking carbonated water for more than 15 days has been shown to improve gallbladder muscle contractions []. The ingestion of water containing a lot of mineral salts has been shown to improve gastric emptying in patients with indigestion []. It is presumed that the various ions contained in mineral water directly or indirectly (via neuroendocrine secretion of vasointestinal peptides) stimulate the smooth muscle involved in gastrointestinal motility. These actions appear to improve the symptoms of IBS by improving intestinal transit time and excretory capacity. These actions are thought to not only reduce the bowel transit time, but also promote gastrointestinal hormone secretion, thereby improving abdominal bloating. We expect that large-scale studies on ARW with various electrolytic compositions will proceed in the future.

Gut microbiota appear to be one of the important factors contributing to the cause and pathophysiology of IBS []. Postinfectious IBS should be suspected when the patient complains of dyspepsia or abdominal discomfort after acute gastroenteritis []. Postinfectious IBS is thought to be due to persistent low-grade inflammation and alteration of gut flora intestinal microorganisms. The composition of gut microbiota is also associated with the pathophysiology of IBS and the host immune response []. Abundance of Cyanobacteria is associated with bloating, satiety, and increased abdominal discomfort. The amount of Proteobacteria is associated with pain threshold []. Therefore, it was suggested that probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation might be effective in the treatment of IBS []. Many gastrointestinal disorders, including IBS, are caused by an imbalance of residential microflora of the intestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota consist of 96–99% anaerobes and 1–4% aerobes. Microorganisms have their own intrinsic reduction potential (Eh) for each species, and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria grow at different oxidation-reduction potentials. Aerobic bacteria require a positive potential of +400 mV and facultative anaerobic bacteria require negative electric potential between −300 and −400 mV. Electrochemically generated reduced water has a negative potential of 0 to −300 mV, while the tap water has a potential of +300 to +450 mV []. By drinking reduced water, it is possible to improve symptoms of functional bowel disease by accelerating the growth of anaerobic bacteria (Lactobacilli andBifidobacteria) and inhibiting the growth of aerobic pathogens.

The present study has some limitations. First, the statistical power was weak because of the small sample size. Second, patients with IBS tend to be somewhat less adherent due to the distrust of conventional therapies and hospitals. Third, although IBS is a highly prevalent disease, there were some difficulties in recruiting patients. Because the participants expressed difficulty in drinking more than 2 liters of water a day, we could not enroll as many patients as intended. In addition, subjects were already taking several medications before participating in the study, so it was not easy to stop them all and treat them with ARW only for 8 weeks. Patients’ compliance should be taken into account when designing large-scale studies on this topic in the future. Fourth, the lifestyle and diet were not controlled except for the medications. These confounding factors may be somewhat offset in the randomization process. Despite these limitations, the main strength of the present study is its randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Moreover, ARW is a simple and inexpensive treatment that physicians can easily consider in the treatment of IBS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show whether ARW can improve IBS in humans, irrespective of the mechanism.

In conclusion, the present study suggests that ingestion of ARW can improve the quality of life and reduce abdominal pain in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. We hope that this pilot study provides a cornerstone for future large-scale trials on the effectiveness of ARW in the treatment of IBS.

 

Logo of ecam

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
Published online 2018 Apr 15. doi:  [10.1155/2018/9147914]
PMCID: PMC5925025
PMID: 29849734
Effects of Alkaline-Reduced Drinking Water on Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study
1Department of Internal Medicine and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
2Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Dong Ho Lee: rk.oc.oohay@nhojlhd
Academic Editor: Senthamil R. Selvan
Received 2017 Nov 3; Revised 2018 Mar 4; Accepted 2018 Mar 6.

Acknowledgments

Statistical analysis support was provided by the Medical Science Research Institute in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. This study was funded by a grant from Seongnam Industry Promotion Agency’s 2014 Medibio products clinical trial support program.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ Contributions

Dong Woo Shin analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. Hyuk Yoon and Dong Ho Lee designed the study and revised the manuscript. Hyun Soo Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, and Nayoung Kim critically reviewed the manuscript. Dong Woo Shin and Hyuk Yoon have contributed equally to this work.

References
1. Canavan C., West J., Card T. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology2014;6:71–80. doi: 10.2147/clep.s40245. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Jung H.-K., Kim Y. H., Park J. Y., et al. Estimating the burden of irritable bowel syndrome: Analysis of a nationwide korean database. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility2014;20(2):242–252. doi: 10.5056/jnm.2014.20.2.242. doi: 10.5056/jnm.20.2.242. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Canavan C., West J., Card T. Review article: The economic impact of the irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics2014;40(9):1023–1034. doi: 10.1111/apt.12938. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Gudleski G. D., Satchidanand N., Dunlap L. J., et al. Predictors of medical and mental health care use in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in the United States. Behaviour Research and Therapy2017;88:65–75. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.07.006. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Fond G., Loundou A., Hamdani N., et al. Anxiety and depression comorbidities in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences2014;264(8):651–660. doi: 10.1007/s00406-014-0502-z. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Janssens K. A. M., Zijlema W. L., Joustra M. L., Rosmalen J. G. M. Mood and anxiety disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome: Results from the LifeLines cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine2015;77(4):449–457. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000161. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Ghoshal U. C., Srivastava D. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype. World Journal of Gastroenterology2014;20(10):2482–2491. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i10.2482. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. El-Salhy M. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology2015;21(25):7621–7636. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i25.7621. [PMC free article] [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Wouters M. M., Vicario M., Santos J. The role of mast cells in functional GI disorders. Gut2016;65(1):155–168. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309151. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Tanaka Y., Kanazawa M., Palsson O. S., et al. Increased Postprandial Colonic Motility and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Prospective Study. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility2018;24(1):87–95. doi: 10.5056/jnm16216. [PMC free article][PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Moloney R. D. Stress and the microbiota brain axis in visceral pain: relevance to irritable bowel syndrome. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics2016;22(2):102–117. [PubMed]
12. Ringel Y., Ringel-Kulka T. The intestinal microbiota and irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology2015;49:S56–S59. doi: 10.1097/mcg.0000000000000418. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Whelan K., Martin L. D., Staudacher H. M., Lomer M. C. The low FODMAP diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: an evidence-based review of FODMAP restriction, reintroduction and personalisation in clinical practice. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics2018;31(2):239–255. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12530. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Moayyedi P., Mearin F., Azpiroz F., et al. Irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and management: A simplified algorithm for clinical practice. United European Gastroenterology Journal2017;5(6):773–788. doi: 10.1177/2050640617731968. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
15. Harper A., Naghibi M., Garcha D. The Role of Bacteria, Probiotics and Diet in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Foods2018;7(2):p. 13. doi: 10.3390/foods7020013. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
16. Harris L. A., Baffy N. Modulation of the gut microbiota: a focus on treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. Postgraduate Medical Journal2017;129(8):872–888. doi: 10.1080/00325481.2017.1383819.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Gasbarrini G., Candelli M., Graziosetto R. G., Coccheri S., Di Iorio F., Nappi G. Evaluation of thermal water in patients with functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome accompanying constipation. World Journal of Gastroenterology2006;12(16):2556–2562. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i16.2556.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. Suzuki M., Mura E., Taniguchi A., Moritani T., Nagai N. Oral carbonation attenuates feeling of hunger and gastric myoelectrical activity in young women. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology2017;63(3):186–192. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.63.186. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Pohl U., Auinger A., Bothe G., Uebelhack R. Pilot Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Mineral Water Rich in Hydrogen Carbonate on Functional Dyspepsia and Heartburn. Open Journal of Gastroenterology2016;06(03):88–96. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.63012. [CrossRef]
20. Naumann J., Sadaghiani C., Alt F., Huber R. Effects of Sulfate-Rich Mineral Water on Functional Constipation: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Forschende Komplementärmedizin2016;23(6):356–363. doi: 10.1159/000449436. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
21. Koufman J. A., Johnston N. Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology2012;121(7):431–434. doi: 10.1177/000348941212100702. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
22. Nassini R., Andrè E., Gazzieri D., et al. A bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water protects from ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin2010;33(8):1319–1323. doi: 10.1248/bpb.33.1319. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
23. Bertoni M., Oliveri F., Manghetti M., et al. Effects of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water on gastric functions and functional dyspepsia: A preclinical and clinical study. Pharmacological Research2002;46(6):525–531. doi: 10.1016/S1043661802002323. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
24. Drossman D. A., Dumitrascu D. L. Rome III: new standard for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases2006;15(3):237–241. [PubMed]
25. Lancaster G. A., Dodd S., Williamson P. R. Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice2004;10(2):307–312. doi: 10.1111/j..2002.384.doc.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
26. Browne R. H. On the use of a pilot sample for sample size determination. Statistics in Medicine1995;14(17):1933–1940. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780141709. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
27. Drossman D. A., Patrick D. L., Whitehead W. E., et al. Further validation of the IBS-QOL: a disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire. American Journal of Gastroenterology2000;95(4):999–1007. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9270(00)00733-4. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
28. Miwa H., Nakajima K., Yamaguchi K., et al. Generation of dyspeptic symptoms by direct acid infusion into the stomach of healthy Japanese subjects. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics2007;26(2):257–264. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03367.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
29. Ishii M., Kusunoki H., Manabe N., et al. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid in patients with functional dyspepsia-pathogenesis and evaluation. Journal of Smooth Muscle Research2010;46(1):1–8. doi: 10.1540/jsmr.46.1. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
30. Nakata-Fukuda M., Hirata T., Keto Y., Yamano M., Yokoyama T., Uchiyama Y. Inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ramosetron on duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology2014;731(1):88–92. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.02.040. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
31. Gelfond D., Ma C., Semler J., Borowitz D. Intestinal pH and gastrointestinal transit profiles in cystic fibrosis patients measured by wireless motility capsule. Digestive Diseases and Sciences2013;58(8):2275–2281. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2209-1. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
32. Cuomo R., Grasso R., Sarnelli G., et al. Effects of carbonated water on functional dyspepsia and constipation. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology2002;14(9):991–999. doi: 10.1097/00042737-200209000-00010. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
33. Anti M., Lippi M. E., Santarelli L., Gabrielli M., Gasbarrini A., Gasbarrini G. Effects of mineral-water supplementation on gastric emptying of solids in patients with functional dyspepsia assessed with the 13C-octanoic- acid breath test. Hepato-Gastroenterology2004;51(60):1856–1859. [PubMed]
34. Grover M., Camilleri M., Smith K., Linden D. R., Farrugia G. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: Mechanisms related to pathogens. Neurogastroenterology & Motility2014;26(2):156–167. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12304. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
35. Joo Y.-E. Alteration of fecal microbiota in patients with postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility2015;21(1):135–137. doi: 10.5056/jnm14133.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
36. Jeffery I. B., O’Toole P. W., Öhman L., et al. An irritable bowel syndrome subtype defined by species-specific alterations in faecal microbiota. Gut2012;61(7):997–1006. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301501.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
37. Dupont H. L. Review article: Evidence for the role of gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome and its potential influence on therapeutic targets. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics2014;39(10):1033–1042. doi: 10.1111/apt.12728. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Vorobjeva N. V. Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water. Med Hypotheses2005;64(3):543–546. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.07.038. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet  Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet
 Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

 

“Alkaline water produced by a water ionizer has become the most important advancement in health care since Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin.”
— Dr. William Kelly, author, Cancer Cure.

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in alkaline diets and living an alkaline lifestyle. Part of this interest may involve drinking alkaline, ionized water from a water ionizer as a way to improve wellness, enhance performance, and prolong vitality. Alkaline, ionized water is water that has been selectively altered in a water ionizer to raise pH from neutral to pH 9 or more and also to display negative change (-ORP). Water above a pH 7 is alkaline and water below pH 7 is acidic. pH can be easily measured by using pH reagent or a meter, and ORP is measured using an ORP meter.

Life on earth depends on appropriate pH levels in and around living organisms and cells. Human life requires a tightly controlled pH level in the serum of about 7.4 (a slightly alkaline range of 7.35 to 7.45) to survive. The ability of the body to maintain this level of pH can be compromised by poor diet, lack of or excessive exercise, pollutants, dehydration, and stress. From available evidence, it would be prudent to consider the effects of alkaline water on the body and an alkaline diet to reduce morbidity and mortality from the chronic diseases that are plaguing our aging population. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/)

Along with this interest in all things alkaline, there have also been some unsubstantiated health claims made. Such claims give rise to pseudo-sciences that undermine the significant body of peer-reviewed, published research into how altering alkaline (pH) levels can bring about health changes. Part of the issue in studying the beneficial effects of an alkaline diet is the lack of funding available for such research coupled with the complexity in trying to isolate what factors are creating change. Indeed, a few studies failed to find health changes from altering diet, although other studies acknowledge distinct benefits. Everyone agrees that more research is needed to further investigate alkaline health benefits.

Not only do AlkaViva water ionizers produce clean, alkaline water, but they can also create a significant amount of diatomic hydrogen (H2) in the water. The peer-reviewed benefits from drinking H2 water are NOT covered in this article.

Below are excerpts from peer-reviewed, ALKALINE diet/water studies along with references as to where the full articles can be found if you wish to study further. We welcome feedback.

Alkaline water Hydration for Athleets

 

It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.

A significant difference in whole blood viscosity was detected in this study when assessing a high-pH, water versus an acceptable standard purified water during the recovery phase following strenuous exercise-induced dehydration.
Joseph Weidman, Ralph E. HolsworthJr., Bradley Brossman, Daniel J. Cho, John St.Cyr, Gregory Fridman, ffect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

After using an alkalizing supplement trained Nordic skiers experienced significant changes in cardiorespiratory, blood lactate, and upper body power output measures. Studies also indicate that drinking alkaline water can enhance the body’s buffering capacity and temper the acidity, thus improving performance.
Daniel P Heil, Erik A Jacobson, and Stephanie M Howe, Influence of an alkalizing supplement on markers of endurance performance using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 8. Published online 2012 Mar 20. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-8.

Supplementing with alkalizing minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium) decreases cardio-respiratory stress and blood lactate responses, while improving power output in endurance athletes. Alkaline water may work similarly.
Y. Kilkian, F. Engel. P. What, J. Master, Markers of Biological Stress, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308012779.

Consumption of alkaline water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of alkaline water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults. Also, over time, the mineral content of alkalized water could help active people retain more fluid in the cardiovascular system. This might improve overall hydration status and fluid reserves.
D,. Heil, Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Montana State University.

The physiology of intense exercise that produces acidosis is far more complex than originally thought. In the transition to higher exercise intensity, proton release is even greater than lactate production which indicates acidosis is only partially related to production of “lactic acid.”
Robergs, R. Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis: where do the protons come from? Sport Science 5(2) sportsci.org/jour/0102/rar.thm, 2001.

The Evolution of Diet

Estimates of the net systemic load of acid in ancestral pre-agricultural diets as compared to contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient compositions of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements. The result is that contemporary diets generate diet-induced metabolic acidosis in contemporary Homo Sapiens.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr., Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral pre-agricultural Homo sapiens, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12450898.

Report compiled by the World Health Organization from studies in different regions of the world on the importance of minerals in drinking water.
Ong, Choon. Minerals from drinking-water: Bioavailability for various world populations and health implications. WHO | Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization, 17 Aug 2004.

Because of the increased incidence of obesity in our population, electrolyzed water at 2 liters/day for 2 months was given to four obese subjects. Statistical evaluation of the results of the present study suggests that electrolyzed water as used resulted in near significant weight loss and a significant loss of body fat in obese subjects.
Abraham, Guy, and Jorge Flebas. The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report. Highbeam Research. Original Internist, 01 Sep 2011. Web. 2 Jul 2013. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-269433201.html.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Muscles

As we age, there is a loss of muscle mass, which may predispose to falls and fractures. A three-year study looking at a diet rich in potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as a reduced acid load, resulted in preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Ceglia L. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;87(3):662–665.

Correction of acidosis may preserve muscle mass in conditions where muscle wasting is common such as diabetic ketosis, trauma, sepsis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and renal failure.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 727630.

Chronic metabolic acidosis increases net muscle protein degradation in rat muscle tissue. Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism.
Mitch WE, Medina R, Grieber S, May RC, England BK, Price SR, Bailey JL, Goldberg AL., University School of Medicine, Georgia,Metabolic acidosis stimulates muscle protein degradation, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8182144.

Bone Loss prevention with alkaline water

The bone minerals that are wasted in the urine may not have complete compensation through intestinal absorption, which is thought to result in osteoporosis. An alkaline diet typically does improve the K/Na ratio and may benefit bone health, reduce muscle wasting, as well as mitigate other chronic diseases such as hypertension and strokes. It has been found increases in the alkali content of a diet, may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, Oct 2011. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/-.

Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkaline diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake.
Wynn, E, MA Krieg, JM Aeschlimann, and P Burckhardt. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism. Bone. Elsevier, 27 Oct 2008. Web. 1 Jul 2013. http://www.thebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282(08)00781-3/abstract.

Excess dietary protein with high acid renal load may decrease bone density if not buffered by ingestion of supplements or foods (water) that are alkali rich.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/.

This work shows that bone depletion is absolutely dependent on extracellular acidification; these cells are inactive at pH levels above about 7.3 and show maximum stimulation at a pH of about 6.9. Bone resorption is most sensitive to changes in H+ concentration at a pH of about 7.1 (which may be close to the interstitial pH in bone). In vivo, severe systemic acidosis (pH change of about -0.05 to -0.20) often results from renal disease; milder chronic acidosis (pH change of about -0.02 to -0.05) can be caused by excessive protein intake, acid feeding, prolonged exercise, ageing, airway diseases or menopause. Acidosis can also occur locally as a result of inflammation, infection, wounds, tumors or diabetic ischemia. Cell function, including that of osteoblasts, is normally impaired by acid; the unusual stimulatory effect of acid on osteoclasts may represent a primitive ‘fail-safe’ that evolved with terrestrial vertebrates to correct systemic acidosis by ensuring release of alkaline bone mineral when the lungs and kidneys are unable to remove sufficient H+ equivalent. The present results suggest that even subtle chronic acidosis could be sufficient to cause appreciable bone loss over time.
Arnett T., Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506899.

Humans generally consume a diet that generates metabolic acids leading to a reduction in the systemic bicarbonate and a fall of pH. Chronic metabolic acidosis alters bone cell function; there is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation. As we age, we are less able to excrete metabolic acids due to the normal decline in renal function.
Bushinski DA., Nephrology Unit, Strong Memorial Hospital, New York, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11842949.

Chronic metabolic acidosis is a process whereby an excess acid load is placed on the body due to excess acid generation or diminished acid removal by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Excessive meat ingestion and aging are two clinical conditions often associated with chronic metabolic acidosis. The body’s homeostatic response to this pathology is very efficient. Therefore, the blood pH is frequently maintained within the “normal” range. However, these homeostatic responses engender pathologic consequences such as nephrolithiasis, bone demineralization, muscle protein breakdown and renal growth.
Alpern RJ1, Sakhaee K., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9016905.

Excessive dietary intake of protein with consequent increase in metabolic acid production result in compensatory mechanisms that lead to progression of kidney stones, bone disease, renal disease and a catabolic state.
Alpern, R. Trade-offs in the adaptation to acidosis, Kidney International 47: 1205-1215, 1995.

The acid load inherent in the Western diet results in mild chronic metabolic acidosis in association with a state of cortisol excess. An alkali balanced diet modulates bone resorption and the associated alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Maurer, M.; Riesen, W.; Muser, J.; Hulter, H. and Krapf, R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resportion independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans, American Journal of Physiology and Renal Physiology 284: F32-40, 2003.

Osteoclast activity is modulated by small pH changes and is a key determinant of bone resorption in mouse calvarial cultures.
Sajeda Meghji, Matthew S. Morrison, Brian Henderson, Timothy R. Arnett, pH Dependence of Bone Resorption American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol. 280 no. 1, E112-E119.

 

 

 

Alkaline Diet and Growth Hormones

It has long been known that severe forms of metabolic acidosis in children, such as renal tubular acidosis, are associated with low levels of growth hormone with resultant short stature. Correction of the acidosis increases growth hormone significantly and improved growth. Improving growth hormone levels may improve quality of life, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve body composition, and even improve memory and cognition.
Wass JAH, Reddy R. Growth hormone and memory. Journal of Endocrinology. 2010;207(2):125–126.

Alkaline Minerals (in water) and Back Pain

There is some evidence that chronic low back pain improves with the supplementation of alkaline minerals. With supplementation there was a slight but significant increase in blood pH and intracellular magnesium. Ensuring that there is enough intracellular magnesium allows for the proper function of enzyme systems that improves back pain and also allows for activation of vitamin D.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Chemotherapy

The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents is markedly influenced by pH. Numerous agents such as epirubicin and adriamycin require an alkaline media to be more effective. Cell death correlates with acidosis and intracellular pH shifts higher (more alkaline) after chemotherapy may reflect response to chemotherapy. It has been suggested that inducing metabolic alkalosis may be useful in enhancing some treatment regimes.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Cancer

Diet-induced acidosis is a potential upstream and indirect trigger in a multifactorial cascade of molecular events associated with carcinogenesis. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) comprehensive global report has compiled numerous studies demonstrating associations between dietary habits and cancer risk. The findings recommend increased or regular consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, while discouraging excess consumption of sugary and energy-dense foods and drinks, red and processed meats, and salty processed foods.
Ian Forrest Robey, University of Arizona, Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3571898/.

Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. It is notable that cancer cells maintain a high level of glucose metabolism even in the presence of oxygen, which was first documented by Warburg more than 80 years ago. This is a consistent finding across a variety of cancers, and has been recognized as a “hallmark” of cancer.
Maria de Lourdes C Ribeiro, Ariosto S. Silva, Kate M. Bailey, Nagi B. Kumar, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Gatenby, Arig Ibrahim-Hashim, and Robert J. Gillies, Buffer Therapy for Cancer, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872072/.

A significant consequence of increased glucose metabolism is the production of acids, such as lactic acid, which can be an independent negative prognostic factor for cancer outcome. Prior mathematical models and empirical studies have shown that solid tumors export acid into the surrounding parenchyma. This is consistent with measurements of tumor pH in mouse models, which have shown that the extracellular pH of solid tumors is acidic. Combined, these observations have led to the generation of the “Acid Mediated Tumor Invasion” hypothesis, which proposes that fast-growing tumors export acid to surrounding stroma, and that reduced pH contributes to the tissue remodeling required for tumor invasion.
Ian F. Robey, Brenda K. Baggett, Nathaniel D. Kirkpatrick, Denise J. Roe, Julie Dosescu, Bonnie F. Sloane, Arig Ibrahim Hashim, David L. Morse, Natarajan Raghunand, Robert A. Gatenby, and Robert J. Gillies, Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases, Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 69(6): 2260–2268.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Effects on Aging

alkalinity and aging

Changes in renal physiology and function with aging put the elderly patient at risk for adverse effect of drug therapies due to the incidence of common problems like metabolic acidosis.
Lonergan, E. Aging and the kidney: adjusting treatment to physiologic change, Geriatrics 43: 27-30, 32-33, 1998.

Authors examined peer-reviewed literature to determine whether systemic acid-base equilibrium changes with aging in normal adults humans. Using linear regression analysis, they found that with increasing age, there is a significant increase in the steady-state blood H+ indicating a progressively worsening low-level metabolic acidosis in what may reflect, in part, the normal decline of renal function with increasing age.
Frassetto, L. and Sebastian, A. Age and systemic acid-base equilibrium: analysis of published data, Journal of Gerontology, Advanced Biological Science and Medical Science, 51: B91-99, 1996.

Dietary changes over the last two centuries have resulted in a mismatch between genetically-determined nutritional requirements in humans. Excess sodium chloride, a deficiency of potassium and excess dietary acids that are not mediated by dietary bicarbonates lead to chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis that amplifies the age-related pathophysiological consequences in humans (such as loss of bone substance, increase in urinary calcium, disturbance in nitrogen metabolism, and low levels of growth hormone).
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R.; Sellmeyer, D.; Todd, K. and Sebastian, A. Diet, evolution and aging: the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet, European Journal of Nutrition 40:5 200-213, 2001.

Otherwise healthy adults manifest a low-grade, diet-dependent metabolic acidosis, the severity of which increases with age at constant rate described by an index of endogenous acid production, apparently due in part, to the normal age-related decline of renal function.
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R. and Sebastian, A. Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline, American Journal of Physiology, 271: 1114-22, 1996.

Age-induced decline in renal functions explains, at least in part, clinically important age-related conditions including metabolic acidosis.
Krapt, R. and Jehle, A. Renal function and renal disease in the elderly, Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 130:11 398-408 2000.

Acid-base homeostasis exerts a major influence on protein function, thereby critically affecting tissue and organ performance. Deviations in body acidity can have adverse consequences and when severe, can be life-threatening.
Adrogue, H. and Madias, N. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders, New England Journal of Medicine 338: 26-34, 1998.

Decline in the ability to adjust acid-base balance is a feature of aging. Regulation of pH ultimately depends on the kidneys and lungs, however, the ability of these organs is decreased with physiological aging. Renal insufficiency and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various drugs, such as diuretics, often affect the acid-base balance in the elderly.
Nabata, T.; Morimoto, S. and Ogihara, T. Abnormalities in acid-base balance in the elderly, Nippon Rinsho 50: 2249-53, 1992.

 

AlkaViva UltraWater is alkaline and ionized making it rich in naturally occurring beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium that help you alkalize and maintain a HEALTHY PH BALANCE.

UltraWater filter & ionizer - life enhancement
UltraWater filter & ionizer – life enhancement

 

Alkaline ionized Water and Free Radicals

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be “active hydrogen”. “Active diatomic hydrogen” can be produced in reduced (alkaline) water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced (alkaline) water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2), and extremely negative redox potential (-ORP) values. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species suggesting that reduced water can scavenge different types of free radicals.
Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y., EmoryElectrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

ionized water Benefits backed by research.

Over 600 PEER-REVIEWED STUDIES show that molecular hydrogen – or H2 -water / alkaline ionized water has a therapeutic benefit in every organ of the human body and positively affects over 150 disease models and health conditions.

Get your antioxidants – in your water!

Free radical damage causes oxidative stress and is one of the primary causes of aging. Oxidation causes iron or apples to “rust”. Antioxidants prevent or slow that damage. Unfortunately, anti-oxidants are non-selective neutralizing both beneficial and harmful radicals. The molecular hydrogen Hin UltraWater selectively targets only the damaging radicals – making it the “ULTIMATE” ANTIOXIDANT.

Drink more. Improve your health.

When molecular hydrogen  H2 neutralizes damaging oxygen radicals, it creates water (H2O) – increasing your CELLULAR HYDRATION.Great tasting, silky-smooth, alkaline UltraWater is also easier to drink. When you drink more, you enjoy optimal hydration and better health.

Ease your aches and pains.

Oxidative stress damages your cells, causing pain and inflammation. As we age, inflammation increases. Studies show that H₂ neutralizes the damaging radicals. Drinking UltraWater can ease chronic and acute aches and pain.

Go longer. Go stronger.

ATP powers your cells. It is the source of your energy. Research shows molecular hydrogen(water) H₂ helps INCREASE ATP PRODUCTION giving you more energy while decreasing lactic acid levels. Athlete? Exerciser? Just want more pep? UltraWater helps improve performance and recovery.

 

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies  ,safety

Molecular hydrogen (water) benefits/effects in disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants

more about molecular hydrogen water

AlkaViva water ionizers& purifiers-clean , ionized alkaline water rich in molecular hidrogen H2

 

 

 

Alkaline ionized water, obliterating arteritis and diabetes 

Alkaline ionized water, obliterating arteritis and diabetes – ionized alkaline water saves from amputation one leg of the patient with obliterated arteritis and diabetes

“I write these lines both for my facebook friends and for the multitude of patients suffering from diabetes and implicitly by obliterant arteritis and who sooner or later reach stents mounted in coronary, iliac, subclavicular arteries, or worse -amputation of the lower limbs.
I retired in 2002 following a myocardial infarction and since then the troubles (medical problems) have kept coming.
Due to the insulin-induced diabetes diagnosed in the 1990s, between 2002-2005, three (2-foot) surgeries were done to replace the arteries (due to massive atheroma deposits) with femoral-popliteal vascular prostheses (by-passes) at the right foot twice.
In 2011, the right foot bypass began to close (by deposition of the atheroma), which made the stenosis of the arteries under the knee (tibial and peronian) almost reach 100%. Having had major coronary problems, the doctors refused to change my right foot bypass (it would have been the third time and recommended me to make a daily infusion of “vasaprosta”(  expensive and which was distributed by CNAS with special approval) for 30 days, the procedure being considered (then) as a means of rescuing the foot from amputation.
In my case this procedure (vasaphase infusions) proved to have the effect of rubbing with “Galenica” on an acacia wood leg. As the number of infusions increased, the pain of the foot soles was increasing and the leg was all the time cold.
I informed him several times of the doctor under whose supervision these perfusions were being made, of the evolution of the disease (unbearable pain and cold leg) but not only did he not count me but he did not even take a strain on my leg. For peace reasons I do not give  the name of the doc!
After 20 days of infusions, one morning after I woke up, I noticed that my toes were black and soaked. We had the gangrene.
I turned to emergency and the surgeon at the vascular surgery department (as a day of rest) refused to interfere because they did not cut off fingers and advised emergency staff to call the surgery department for leg amputation.
I went to Bucharest and admitted to the Emergency University Hospital at the Vascular Surgery Clinic.
On December 6, 2011 I my right leg fingers were amputated . Because the gangrene continued, on December 9 I underwent a new metatarsal amputation and replaced my vascular prosthesis with a saphenous vein harvested from the amputee foot
On December 12, I had a heart attack and I was admitted to intensive care. On December 15 we made a cardiac arrest and I was intubated …
I stayed intubated for several days in incapacity, while my lungs were sucked several times a day.
After I was discharged from intensive care, I was admitted to cardiology and after a while I began to cough more and more. I was treated with bronchitis until discharge from the hospital
The cough continued after discharge and eventually I went to emergency in Constanta at the Otolaryngology section, where it was ascertained that due to intensive care suction maneuvers, after the cardiac arrest, my trachea was injured, which led to the appearance of an excrescence that finally almost obstructed my trachea.
I had surgery (post-tubal tracheostomy) and through surgery I was mounted a plastic cannula under the apple of Adam through which we breathe.
The operation of the foot has never healed.
In June 2013, I was implanted (I do not know if the term is correct) 5 stents in the coronary hearts at Fundeni Hospital.
In September 2013 (year with bad luck) the foot pain again began to amputate, having to accept a new amputation this time above the knee.
Finally, in September, three successive amputations were made at my right foot by a “great” doctor professor, but more about the professionalism and competence of the individual maybe another time.
After the third amputation, I went home with half the stools from the bumps and with my leg in the amputation area. After another month of home treatment, a nurse in surgery managed to heal my dent.
Since spring last year, my left foot, which has a femur-popliteal prosthesis since 2004 (they are guaranteed for 5-6 years) has started to hurt and the situation worsens in the beginning of 2017, with all medications, ointments and massages (including lymphatic) that have been given and done all along.
In February 2017, I did a vascular / arterial doppler exam that revealed that the bypass has a 70% stenosis, the anterior tibial is oval, the posterior tibial has 98% occlusion, and the peroneal artery has a 98% occlusion. Finally, the cardiologist who did my doppler exam, probably to encourage me,  said that in 2-3 weeks I will get to left foot amputation and showed me where they were going to amputate ….

I have a good friend and colleague from high school class, the energetic engineer GIDEA- SANDUTU VERGICA from Filiasi whom I told of my misfortune and that soon I will lose my left leg through amputation

Very relaxed and with great confidence he told me that I do not have to worry -they will not amputate my leg as he’ll help solve my problem. I replied that it was not good a joke … not to say anything else. He explained that there was no joke, that he would not allow himself to make jokes with me in the given situation and asked me if I heard anything about ALKALINE IONIZED WATER. NO, I said. I said that I do not know what it is, and that I do not think there is any drug in the world (which we also know, foolishness) that can dissolve the arteries deposits … much less a water,she would call it she-chiara, holy water or ionized alkaline water. Having realized he had no palpable arguments to convince me, he told me that this water produces absolutely nothing wrong with the body when drinking it and that he will send me water starting from the next day, having previously bought a water ionizer for producing this ionized alkaline water;he also told me that in my situation, I have two possibilities, namely:

– first, to expect the blood circulation to the leg to close definitively and reach to the gangrene and amputation,

-second  to drink at least 5 liters of ionized alkaline water daily, the water that will melt the atheroma from the arteries, the circulation of the blood going back to normal and save my foot.

I chose the second variant, knowing it was terrible it’s hard to live without a foot and get you I do not think it’s worth the pain anyway, I think it would not be worth the trouble for those around you, I would have become a calvary (I do not know if I’m wrong about that) I began to drink ionized alkaline water, sent by my friend, in the first few days 3 liters after which, I easily drank 5-6 liters a day. By then, the foot was from the kneel down, cold and white, and pains and burns, especially at night, were unbearable; I got 3-4 ketone pills per night. After 2 weeks of drinking ionized alkaline water the pains and burns diminished and in a few days they finally disappeared. 3 weeks ago his leg warmed and so remained. On March 17 we went to a private clinic in Constanta and I did (against the sum of 800 lei, CNAS funds not yet allocated) an angio CT scan of the arteries of in the pelvis and lower limbs that revealed:

– thigh amputation its right;

– 50% bypass stenosis

– 70% tibio-peronian occlusion trunk

– posterior tibial artery

– occlusion

In the meantime I was scheduled to be admitted to the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest and on May 12, 2017, I made an arteriography revealed that the aorta and the iliac shaft are permeable, the femoropoplite bypass is permeable and permeable gambling trunk. Arteriography is an invasive artery investigation and remains the most significant in analyzing blood circulation, measurements and images being made from within the arteries.

I will express in words what I felt when the doctor who made the investigation recorded her voice with the result of viewing the monitor on which the arteriography was displayed. Never before, in my life, a word so common as  “PERMEABLE” had such GREAT significance and value.

I think the sun has appeared on my street, which is what I want. If you want to document and see that ionized alkaline water seems to be the universal medicine, you can find hundreds of sites about it and its benefits. In the meantime I bought a  ALKAVIVA water ionizer  !

I wish only good things!

.PS I WILL TALK AND ABOUT THE DIABETES SPPN …A FEW MONTHS AGO I HAD 40 MIXTARD UNITS IN THE MORNING AND 20 AT NIGHT

NOW- 20 UNITS IN THE MORNING AND 10 IN THE EVENING …

TODAY THE GLICEMIC INDEX IN THE MORNING WAS 124 AND I DID NOT HAVE ANY MIXTARD .NOW I HAVE GLYCEMIA 70 AND I HAVE NO NEED FOR MIXTARD ”

DESPRE APA ALCALINA IONIZATA Scriu aceste randuri atat pentru prietenii mei de pe…

Posted by Alexandru Bîzdîc on 18 Iunie 2017

MORE ABOUT ALKALINE IONIZED WATER/  molecular hydrogen H2- Water  AND DIABETES

MORE ABOUT ALKALINE IONIZED WATER/ molecular hydrogen H2- Water  AND BLOOD VESSELS HEALTH

 

 

Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed/ionized water on oral bacteria

Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed/ionized water on oral bacteria.

This study investigated the antibacterial effect of electrolyzed /ionized water on oral bacteria both in vitro and in vivo.

Tap water was electrolyzed in a water vessel using platinum cell technology.

The electrolyzed/ionized acidic tap water (called Puri-water) was put in contact with five major periodontopathogens or toothbrushes contaminated with these bacteria for 30 sec. In addition, Puri-water was used as a mouthwash for 30 sec in 16 subjects and the antibacterial effect on salivary bacteria was evaluated.

Puri-water significantly reduced the growth of all periodontopathogens in culture and on toothbrushes, and that of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in saliva, when compared to the effect of tap water. It also significantly reduced mutans streptococci growing on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar. Our results demonstrate that the electrolyzed/ionized acidic water from  tap water is effective as a mouthwash and for toothbrush disinfection.

REDUCTION WAS IMPRESSIVE TO ALMOST 10-15 PERCENT-READ FULL TEXT  FOR FREE 

PMID: 16953177
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16953177

 

Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria.  , 2006. 44(4): p. 417-22.

1
Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

 

 

Alkaline Ionized Water/ Electrolyte Reduced Water treatment administration is effective in palliating hemodialysis 

Alkaline Ionized Water/ Electrolyte Reduced Water treatment administration is effective in palliating hemodialysis

Electrolyte Reduced Water treatment administration is effective in palliating hemodialysis -evoked oxidative stress as indicated by lipid peroxidation, hemolysis, and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in hemodialysis patients:

We explored whether alkaline ionized water/electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate chronic hemodialysis HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia.(Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival).

43 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were enrolled and received alkaline ionized water/electrolyte-reduced water ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the chronic hemodialysis  patients without treatment (n=15) or with vitamin C (VC)- (n=15), vitamin E (VE)-coated dialyzer (n=15), or alkaline ionized water/electrolyte-reduced water ERW treatment (n=15) during an  hemodialysis HD course.

The patients showed marked increases (15-fold) in blood reactive oxygen species, mostly H(2)O(2), after  hemodialysis without any treatment.  hemodialysis  resulted in decreased plasma Vitamin C, total antioxidant status, and erythrocyte metHb/ferricyanide reductase activity and increased erythrocyte levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and plasma metHb.

Antioxidants treatment significantly palliated single  hemodialysis course-induced oxidative stress, plasma and RBC PCOOH, and plasma metHb levels, and preserved erythrocyte metHb /ferricyanide reductase activity in an order Vitamin C>Electrolyte Reduced Water>Vitamin E-coated dialyzer.

However, Electrolyte Reduced Water had no side effects of oxalate accumulation easily induced by Vitamin C.

Six-month Electrolyte Reduced Water treatment increased hematocrit and attenuated proinflammatory cytokines profile in the hemodialysis patients.

In conclusion, Electrolyte Reduced Water treatment administration is effective in palliating hemodialysis-evoked oxidative stress, as indicated by lipid peroxidation, hemolysis, and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in hemodialysis patients.

PMID:16760903
DOI:10.1038/sj.ki.5001576
 2006 Jul;70(2):391-8. Epub 2006 Jun 7.

Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Alkaline Ionized Water/ electrolyzed reduced water inhibits tumor angiogenesis

Alkaline Ionized Water / electrolyzed reduced water(ERW /AIW ) inhibits tumor angiogenesis

The present study demonstrated that Electrolyzed Reduced Water (aka ionized alkaline water)  down-regulated Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF gene transcription and protein secretion through inactivation of ERK.

Thus this study demostrated that alkaline ionized water inhibits tumor angiogenesis and can be safely & easily used as a complementary / integrative cancer treatment.

 
 

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor cells are exposed to higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells. Numerous reports have demonstrated that the intracellular redox (oxidation/reduction) state is closely associated with the pattern of VEGF expression.

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) aka Alkaline Ionized Water produced near the cathode during the electrolysis of water scavenged intracellular H(2)O(2) and decreased the release of H(2)O(2) from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and down-regulated both VEGF transcription and protein secretion in a time-dependent manner.

To investigate the signal transduction pathway involved in regulating VEGF expression, mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and JNKi (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor) were applied.

The results showed that only PD98059 blocks VEGF expression, suggesting an important role for ERK1/2 in regulating VEGF expression in A549 cells. As well, Alkaline Ionized Water aka Electrolyzed Reduced Water inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner. Co-culture experiments to analyze in vitro tubule formation assay revealed that A549 cell-derived conditioned medium significantly stimulated the formation of vascular tubules in all analyzed parameters; tubule total area, tubule junction, number of tubules, and total tubule length. Electrolyzed Reduced Water /Alkaline Ionized Water counteracted the effect of A549 cell-conditioned medium and decreased total tube length (p<0.01).

 
 

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/31/1/31_1_19/_pdf

PMID:18175936
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175936/

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies ,safety

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies  ,safety

molecular hydrogen water might sound new but it is not .

What is molecular hydrogen rich water ?molecular hydrogen  water or molecular hydrogen -rich water is water enriched or infused with dissolved  molecular hydrogen gas (molecular hydrogen  H2 NOT the H2 linked to O), also known as molecular hydrogen. 2 This means that hydrogen molecules or nano bubbles of molecular hydrogen are dissolved in the water, but do not actually bond with any of the H20 water molecules . another example are carbonated drinks  are enriched with CO2 (carbon dioxide gas) which gives these drinks their fizzy characteristic. 

So we have a gas made of 2 molecules of hydrogen in the water. Please note that alkaline ionize water also has more or less molecular hydrogen  H2 gas in it so Alkaline Ionized Water or Electrolysis Reduced Water is also Molecular Hydrogen Water

What is hydrogen gas?

Hydrogen gas is made up of two hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded (2 atoms of hydrogen that share common electrons). This gas has a neutral charge and is the smallest and lightest gas in the universe. 6 These qualities make hydrogen gas extremely unique because it means molecular hydrogen  H2 can get anywhere it wants to in your body, including passing the blood-brain barrier, and into subcellular compartments such as the mitochondria of your cells. Molecular hydrogen is also known as a therapeutic medical gas with amazing medical potential in the scientific literature. 7

Is molecular hydrogen-rich water beneficial?

OF COURSE!!! Molecular hydrogen(water) has been demonstrated to be therapeutic in more than 600 scientific studies for more than 170 human disease models. 8 This means molecular hydrogen (water) has the therapeutic potential to help the vast majority of individuals today. Molecular hydrogen(water) has the potential to help the person dealing with seasonal allergies and to the person facing cancer. 9 Molecular hydrogen is one of the newest and simplest ways an individual can take preventative measures in their health.

Here are some examples of scientific studies refferring to molecular hydrogen) : In 1975, an impressive study demonstrated that hyperbaric molecular hydrogen therapy could be a possible treatment for cancer. In this study, the researchers showed that exposing mice with skin cancer (tumors) to 2.5 percent oxygen (O2) and 97.5 molecular hydrogen (H2) for two weeks produced a dramatic and significant regression of the mice tumors. Here is a quote from the study:

 “After a first 10-day period of exposure of the mice to the hydrogen-oxygen therapy it was found qualitatively (i) that the tumors had turned black, (ii) that some had dropped off, (iii) that some seemed to have shrunk at their base and to be in the process of being ‘pinched off,’ and (iv) that the mice appeared to suffer no deleterious consequences.” 5

In 2007 when a groundbreaking study demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a selective antioxidant that neutralizes only the cytotoxic free radicals. The study was published in the prestigious Journal of Nature Medicine. 6 The study showed that molecular hydrogen neutralizes the hydroxyl radical (OH*), the most cytotoxic free radical in existence, one that the human body has no natural defenses against, and converts it into water.

Since 2007, medical research on molecular hydrogen has exploded proving this gas has remarkable medical potential.

Research studies and reviews about molecular hydrogen water

The evolution of molecular hydrogen (water): a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

“Hydrogen has marked therapeutic potential to help with the top 8 fatality-causing diseases listed by the CDC.” 7

Molecular hydrogen: a therapeutic antioxidant and beyond

“Overall, the impact of molecular hydrogen in medicine is extraordinary. The non-toxic and rapid intracellular diffusion features of this biological gas ensure the feasibility and readiness for its clinical translation.” 8

Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: Overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications

“Recent publications revealed that, in addition to the direct neutralization of highly reactive oxidants, molecular hydrogen  H2 indirectly reduces oxidative stress by regulating the expression of various genes. Moreover, by regulating gene expression, molecular hydrogen H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antiapoptotic molecule, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under way. Since most drugs act on their specific targets,molecular hydrogen H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, molecular hydrogen  H2 has potential for clinical applications for many diseases.” 9

Understanding the basic effects

Molecular hydrogen is a selective antioxidant 10

Molecular hydrogen appears to be a selective antioxidant. Molecular hydrogen appears to also reduce a powerful oxidant, Peroxynitrite (ONOO-). This would mean that Molecular Hydrogen has the potential to protect our DNA/RNA and proteins from damage (oxidative stress). Importantly, it does this while not perturbing cellular homeostasis;molecular hydrogen H2 does not neutralize beneficial free radicals (NO, H2O2, etc) necessary for the body to function properly.

Molecular hydrogen is a Nrf2 activator 11

Molecular hydrogen appears to stimulate the production of endogenous antioxidants via the Nrf2 Pathway, meaning it up-regulates the body’s own antioxidant system. This results in the production of more protective enzymes (antioxidants) such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. These antioxidants are powerful and aid in the reduction of excessive ROS and oxidative-stress within the body, which have been linked to nearly all human diseases.11.5

Molecular hydrogen is a signaling molecule/gene regulator 12

Molecular hydrogen appears to be a novel signaling molecule that participates in gene expression, cell modulation, and protein regulation. This means molecular hydrogen  H2 can alter cellular signaling pathways resulting in benefits far beyond its antioxidant function. Research has demonstrated that molecular hydrogen can regulate inflammatory cytokines, hormones, proteins, and much more.  Because of these properties, molecular hydrogen has the potential to give anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-cell death effects.

This is a short list of the potential therapeutic benefits for the human body that have been associated with molecular hydrogen  H2 research:

  • Selective antioxidant 10
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects 11
  • Smallest, most bioavailable molecule 12
  • Aids in Gene Expression and regulation of proteins 13
  • Anti-Allergic Effects 14
  • Anti-Cellular Death (anti-apoptotic) 15
  • Increases Endogenous Antioxidants 16
  • Anti-Diabetic Effects 17
  • Anti-Cancer Effects 18
  • Improve Cognitive Function 19
  • Protects DNA & RNA 20
  • Anti-Tumor Effect 21

Based on scientific studies/evidence, molecular hydrogen gas ( water )therapy has the potential to benefit:

Alzheimer’s 37, arthritis 38, rheumatoid arthritis 39, Type 1 diabetes 40, Type 2 diabetes 41, Parkinson’s 42, COPD 43, asthma 44, heart disease 45, kidney disease 46, stroke 47, cancer 48, tumors 49, ALS 50, dementia 51, psoriasis 52, dermatitis 53, IBS 54, hemorrhagic shock 55, Crohn’s 56, fatty liver disease 57, liver cirrhosis 58, pancreatitis 59, cardiac arrest 60, neuropathy 61, Multiple Sclerosis 62, Hepatitis B 63, atherosclerosis 64, cataracts 65, hypertension 66, gum disease 67, traumatic brain injury 68, sepsis 69, subarachnoid hemorrhage (aneurysms) 70, infant lung disease 71, metabolic syndrome 72, lymphoma 73, retinitis 74, painful bladder syndrome 75, osteosclerosis 76, osteoarthritis 77, osteoporosis 78, glaucoma 79, pulmonary hypertension 80, pulmonary fibrosis 81, autism 82, depression 83, bipolar disorder 84, anxiety 85, schizophrenia 86, inflammation 87, muscle fatigue 88, increased ATP production 89, soft tissue injuries 90, pain 91, wounds 92, burns 93, seasonal allergies 94, autoimmune disorders 95, insulin resistance 96, hearing loss 97, ulcers 98, radiation damage 99, sleep apnea 100to name just a few as there are studies on over 170 human disease models

Who can drink molecular hydrogen water?

One of the best parts about molecular hydrogen water is that it has been shown to have a tremendous safety profile. This has been demonstrated in a few ways:

  • Out of 600-plus scientific studies, molecular hydrogen  H2 has shown no cytotoxic effects or cytotoxic by-products in the human body. 22
  • We have a basal level of molecular hydrogen  H2 in our blood stream at all times, around 1~5 micromolar or less. 23
  • Humans can produce up to 10 liters of molecular hydrogen  H2 a day with a good diet containing fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods. This is due to the production of molecular hydrogen  H2 by our gut flora (gut bacteria). 24
  • Another reason we know molecular hydrogen H2 is safe is because it has been used to ameliorate decompression sickness in deep sea diving since 1945. 25 The molecular hydrogen H2 concentration has been as high 98.87 percent molecular hydrogen  H2 and 1.26 percent of O2, at 19.1 atm with minimal to no adverse or cytotoxic effects. 26 The United States military also has been using molecular hydrogen H2 for deep sea diving since the 60s. 27 Molecular hydrogen has been demonstrated to be extremely safe for the human body. 28

 

This information tells us that molecular hydrogen-rich water is safe for consumption in all age groups, from children to adults, as a preventive beverage that has the potential to reduce oxidative stress and so much more. Everyone, including children, is exposed to oxidative stress, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of nearly all disease conditions, including cancer. 29 Consuming water infused with molecular hydrogen is exactly what our society needs to aid in the battle against degenerative diseases.

Please note that most studies and research with molecular hydrogen gas were performed using molecular hydrogen rich water

 

To learn more about molecular hydrogen or hydrogen water’s potential health benefits and to see supporting scientific research visit:

AlkaViva EmcoTech/Jupiter alkaline ionized water as cancer treatment -clinical case , integrative oncology

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756422/

AlkaViva EmcoTech/Jupiter alkaline ionized water as cancer treatment -clinical case , integrative oncology

molecular hydrogen water – therapeutic effects and advantages against cancer

molecular hydrogen water – therapeutic effects and advantages against cancer

We’ll examine some research and bring to light the possible therapeutic effects and advantages biatomic molecular hydrogen water has demonstrated in scientific studies to have against cancer.

Promising anticancer effects

Molecular hydrogen (biatomic – H2)is a new medical gas that can be dissolved in water and administered orally, by inhalation, baths, intravenous drip (IV), etc. 5 Molecular hydrogen water through these administration methods has more than 600 studies, showing therapeutic benefits in more than 170 human disease models, and it is still in its infancy. 6 That being said, molecular hydrogen water is off to an extraordinary start! Based on scientific research, molecular hydrogen water appears to have promising anticancer effects.

Molecular hydrogen water may suppress cancer cell growth and invasion

… however, molecular hydrogen water  does not compromise growth of normal cells.

  •  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to suppress VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels), by the reduction of excessive ROS (oxidative stress) and through the down regulation of ERK (key growth factor needed for cellular division). 7
  •  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to reduce the excessive expressions of MMP genes (MMP proteins are in involved in multiple functions in cells, including cell proliferation, cartilage synthesis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, etc). It has been shown that cancerous cells have a higher expression of MMP genes leading to tumor invasion and tumor angiogenesis.  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to reduce tumor invasion and tumor growth and because of this effect,  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to have anti-tumor effects. 89
  • “First, molecular hydrogen water caused growth inhibition of human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 (cancerous) and human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080 (cancerous) but  biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) did not compromise growth of normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK [14].” 10

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to induce cancer cell apoptosis (cell death)

… and  biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) prevents cell apoptosis in normal cells.

CANCEROUS CELLS

Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to shorten telomeres in cancer cells. Telomeres are the “end caps” of DNA. Shortening telomeres can cause cell apoptosis (cell death).

  • “ERW [Electrolisys Reduced Water aka Alkaline Ionized Water that is also hydrogen water] causes telomere shortening in cancer cells and suppresses tumor angiogenesis by scavenging intracellular ROS and suppressing the gene expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, ERW/ Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) induces apoptosis together with glutathione in human leukemia HL60 cells (Tsai et al. 2009ab).” 11,12
  • Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to stimulate cellular death pathways in cancerous cells.
  • “Treatment with both H2 waters (HHW and NHW) increased the expression of p-AMPK, AIF and Caspase 3 (cell apoptosis pathways) in colon 26 cells. Thus, H2 water resulted in cell apoptosis mediated by the AMPK pathway in colon 26 cells”. 13
 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) effects on healthy NORMAL CELLS

Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) in numerous studies has demonstrated an anti-apoptotic effect in health or injured cells.

  • “These findings indicate that hydrogen-rich saline protects heart and liver from injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis.” 14
  • “These findings demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline could decrease DOX-induced cell apoptosis.” 15
  • “HS (hydrogen-rich saline) significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis (cell death) and improved neurological function at 24 hours after SAH (subarachnoid hemorrhage). The levels of pAkt and pGSK3β (cell survival pathways), mainly expressed in neurons, were markedly up-regulated.” 16

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may help to prevent genetic mutations

Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )has great potential to reduce somatic mutation through the reduction of excessive ROS (oxidative stress). 17 Somatic mutation is a genetic alteration acquired by a cell that can be passed to another mutated cell in the course of cell division. Somatic mutations differ from germline mutations, which are inherited genetic alterations that occur in the germ cells (i.e., sperm and eggs). 18

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may protect healthy tissue/cells from anticancer drugs

It has shown through medical studies that molecular hydrogen water has a protective effect against chemotherapy drugs.

  • “Conclusion:  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has potential for improving the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy by efficiently mitigating the side effects of cisplatin.” 19

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may have the potential to retard the development of some cancers

It was demonstrated that molecular hydrogen water  may protect and retard the development of thymic lymphoma in mice.

  • “However, the radiation-induced thymic lymphoma rate in the  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )(+) group was significantly lower than in the control group and  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )  treatment significantly increased the latency of lymphoma development after the split-dose irradiation. These data indicated that  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) protects mice from radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice.” 20

This is only a glimpse at the promising effects seen from this “simple” molecule. Molecular hydrogen/hydrogen water has demonstrated these anticancer effects in scientific studies with no cytotoxic effects or cytotoxic by-products. This makes these findings even more fascinating and intriguing. Based on the current body of research, the future for this medical gas in the area of cancer and other degenerative diseases looks promising.

According to Tyler W. LeBaron, director of MHF, more research and human studies are required to determine molecular hydrogen’s effect on cancer. However, the preliminary data we discussed throughout these articles and the many testimonials out there is very persuasive.

To learn more about molecular hydrogen or hydrogen water’s potential health benefits and to see supporting scientific research visit:

 

Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies

Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research - Peer Reviewed Studies
Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies
 

Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies

 

 

Over 500 peer-reviewed articles (covering 150+ disease models) demonstrate molecular hydrogen (water) to have therapeutic potential or benefit in essentially every organ of the body. The articles about the benefits of molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen water below are just a sampling and are organized by organ topic, disease, or mechanism of action. Each article listed can be found online. If you are investigating the research on molecular hydrogen water for the first time, we recommend reviewing the link immediately below which will take you to an excellent peer-reviewed summary of all the research.

Comprehensive Review on Benefits of Diatomic Hydrogen used in Water – US National Library of Medicine >>> Here

Molecular Hidrogen Water and Bones, Molecular Hidrogen Water and Brain , Molecular Hidrogen Water and Cancer , Molecular Hidrogen Water and Eye & Ear Molecular Hidrogen Water – H2 as Antioxidant Molecular Hidrogen Water Reviews Molecular Hidrogen Water and  Heart   Selected Human Studies about Molecular Hidrogen Water , Molecular Hydrogen water and Ischemia/Reperfusion, Molecular Hydrogen Water and Kidneys, Molecular Hydrogen water and Liver, Molecular Hydrogen water for Lung and Other Organs, Molecular Hydrogen water and Metabolic Syndrome, Molecular Hydrogen water and Sepsis, Gastritis, Intestine, Molecular Hydrogen water and Skin and Radiation,Molecular Hydrogen water and Spine, Pancreatitis,Molecular Hydrogen water Safety

http://water-ionizers.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/MOLECULAR-HYDROGEN-WATER-SCIENTIFIC-STUDIES-RESEARCH-DISEASE-SAFETY.pdf

For products that generate molecular hydrogen rich water – click here 

diatomic molecular hydrogen H2- Water Products

 Diatomic molecular hydrogen H2- Water Products 

The benefits of diatomic molecular hydrogen-infused water are clear, and are covered in this article.

As the word gets out regarding  diatomic molecular, hydrogen-infused water or H2 water  more options are becoming available to create molecular hydrogen dizzolved in water . Some of these include:

  • Electric Water Ionizers
  • Molecular Hydrogen water Generators
  • Non-electric water ionizers / non-electric water filters
  • Magnesium/hydrogen Tablets and Powders for water
  • Magnesium Sticks  (including water bottles with magnesium sticks)  Mg + 2H 2O -> Mg (OH) 2 +H 2

Electric Water Ionizers

Electric water ionizers are the most proven and convenient way to create diatomic molecular hydrogen –  H2 dissolved in water and have a 30+ year track record of improvements/ patents in this regard.

An electric water ionizer, as a flow through device, produces molecular hydrogen H2 water on-demand; you turn it on and you can instantly enjoy molecular hydrogen H2 water at the ionized alkaline level you enjoy and select.

Electric water ionizers also offer other benefits such as alkaline ionized  water or acidic ionized  water, with selectable controls that enable you to use the water in various  “functional” ways.

One added benefit is that, in the water ionization /electrolysis process, the levels of fluoride ions and chemical compounds such as nitrates, phosphates and cyanide are reduced as they get attracted towards the acid water side.

AlkaViva has test results from the University of Nevada at Reno documenting this benefit.

Electric water ionizers are the only method for generating diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water that carry approval as a health devices (Japan and Korean governments).

All AlkaViva electric water ionizers employ a patented technology that reverses the polarity of electrodes with every use, ensuring the electrode plates are maintained in a pristine condition and preserving their ability to generate therapeutic levels of diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water.

AlkaViva also offers the only USA-made water filters which were shown to reduce virtually all contaminants to 99.9% in EPA-certified lab testing.

Electric water ionizers, however, are not affordable for everyone or practical in all situations and there exist more affordable options.

Neutral Water with molecular hydrogen H2 Generators(electric)

There is a newer technology for diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water appearing on the market that is a significant departure from both the electric water ionizers and the magnesium-based, non-electric methods that produce dissolved molecular hydrogen H2  in water

These electric moleclar hydrogen H2 water generators are designed to create dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 in neutral pH water. Until they are tested extensively in the market over time, their durability remains unproven but a definite plus is that they can make good levels of diatomic molecular hydrogen water.

AlkaViva is now also importing their own molecular hydrogen H2 water generators and will be carefully observing performance and reliability over time, since unlike Korea or Japan, there is such a wide range in water quality and conditions in the USA which impact long-term performance in regards to H2 infusion /generating diatomic molecular hydrogen water.

We will be recommending UltraWater filter pre-treatment because the two standard water filters (carbon and .01m water filters) are produced in Asia and while they offer a good reduction of microorganisms, offer limited  water contaminant reduction.

The best diatomic molecular hydrogen water generators are flow through devices like electric water ionizers. Cheaper models are inconvenient, requiring you to pour a limited amount of water into a container and then wait while molecular  hydrogen is infused into the water. These models also do not usually filter the water.

Non-electric water Ionizers /water Filters

There are healing natural water springs around the world. Among them, are places like Nordenau (Germany), Tlacote (Mexico) and Hita Tenryosui, Japan. Research has documented that these waters contain dissolved molecular hydrogen1-3 along with alkaline minerals. These water springs get their healing characteristics through contact with natural alkaline earth metals and minerals. It is important to note that the molecular hydrogen level in water from the best natural healing spring is well below the molecular hydrogen H2 water level possible from an average electric water ionizer.

If quality water filters are used in non-electric water ionizers, then contaminants will be removed while helpful minerals are allowed to pass through. This makes a clean, mineralized healthy water that is designed to imitate nature’s healing springs. Unfortunately, today’s tap water is nothing like the water from natural springs. It often contains a host of chemicals, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, and other toxic substances, and it is an oxidizing agent.

Most countertop units that produce molecular hydrogen H2 water do not address the tap water contamination issue. Their water filters remove or reduce chlorine and some other contaminants (but not all).

One countertop filter stands out in regard to its water filtration capability. The Elita CT700 from AlkaViva not only makes diatomic molecular hydrogen water but also creates very clean, alkaline, ionized water. The Elita CT700 from AlkaViva incorporates proprietary USA-made UltraWater filtration technology. Independent, USA EPA, certified laboratory testing confirms that up to 99.9% of virtually all tap water contaminants (a total of 172 were tested) are removed with the UltraWater filtration technology.

No other non-electric ionizer has been tested for so many contaminants or tested using independent EPA testing methology.

What is significant about any non-electric countertop water ionizers is that they will give filtered, alkaline pH and ionized water on-demand. Equally significant is that they will NOT necessarily produce significant levels of  molecular hydrogen H2 on-demand. This is because the amount of molecular hydrogen  H2 water produced depends on how long the water stays in the water filter between uses. Reason is magnesium in these water filters requires a certain amount of contact time with water before it can transform into molecular hydrogen H2. Once you have poured a continuous stream of water or completed a few start and stops, from filling glasses or containers, the molecular hydrogen H2 water production falls off significantly. The level of molecular hydrogen H2 will ALWAYS be highest when the non electric water ionizer has been sitting for a period of time so that the water in it and magnesium can react – the longer the better – just like a stick.

Molecular Hydrogen producing  magnesium Tablets and Powders

Another way of producing molecular hydrogen H2 water is from metallic magnesium in the form of tablets or powders. There are a number of these products on the market today. Some are formulated to dissolve in water, producing the molecular hydrogen H2 reaction in a container before you consume the molecular hydrogen water . Others are formulated to be ingested – with the molecular hydrogen H2 being produced in the stomach. Since these products consist mainly of a special form of magnesium – a mineral that most of us are lacking in the diet – it’s normally both safe and beneficial to ingest.

The preferred method to make molecular hydrogen water is to use a tablet that dissolves in water. Why? Molecular hydrogen H2 saturation levels can easily be tested and documented. Using Molecular Hydrogen H2 reagent drops, you can measure the amount of molecular hydrogen H2 produced.4 Testing is impossible when tablets or powders are ingested. Also, the beneficial research results that have been achieved from ingesting molecular hydrogen H2 have mainly come from studies where subjects consumed dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 in water.

Tablets create molecular hydrogen H2 water in approximately 20 minutes. Drop the tablet into an airtight bottle of water, and you’ll see the molecular hydrogen  gas bubbles immediately form, infusing it with the powerful health properties of molecular hydrogen  H2. In fact, such tablets currently produce the most potent concentration of molecular hydrogen  H2  water. Everyone is different when it comes to taste, and some people report that various versions of the molecular hydrogen H2 generating tablets if magnesium have an unpleasant taste. You can add lemon juice or other flavoring without affecting the molecular hydrogen H2 concentration.

While it is true that molecular hydrogen  H2 producing tablets dissolved in water can make very high levels of molecular hydrogen H2 saturation, it is equally true that inconsistent performance is a real problem. Molecular hydrogen is the smallest element occupying the first position on the periodic table. Molecular hydrogen is similarly the smallest molecule – and it’s a gas. molecular hydrogen  wants to escape and will if not prepared in the right type of container. If the container is not completely airtight, filled all the way to the top, capped tightly and then allowed to sit for the correct amount of time, you will have wildly inconsistent results. If the preparation is botched it is entirely possible to have no molecular hydrogen  H2 in the water.

AlkaViva’s H2Viva is a molecular hydrogen H2 tablet product that you dissolve in water and that has been verified to produce a consistent saturation level up to twice the amount or more than that of a new hydrogen stick and will do so in half the time. These are stronger, faster, more consistent and convenient – working any place you have drinking water and a container.

Tablets are an effective way to get good molecular hydrogen  saturation – IF you have done everything correctly. There is no doubt they are an excellent way to get the benefits of molecular hydrogen H2 when you are traveling. Overall they are easy to use, very affordable, portable, and – if used properly – consistently produce a high saturation of molecular hydrogen  H2 water.

But what about water filtration? This is why at least a NON electric water ionizer with a great UltraWater filter could come in handy

Magnesium Sticks

The idea that you could generate molecular hydrogen  H2 in water from metallic magnesium reacting with water was first introduced in the late 1990’s. Magnesium sticks have been marketed since the early 2000s. You purchase the magnesium stick, drop it into a bottle filled with water and cap it. molecular hydrogen  H2 is produced when water comes into contact with a reactive form of magnesium metal in the stick. The chemical reaction is:

Mg + 2H2O —> Mg(OH)2 + H2

After waiting a while, and if you’ve done everything correctly, you will have molecular hydrogen  H2  dissolved in water. One issue with the sticks is they do not filter the water. Many manufacturers recommend they be used with bottled water only. At a minimum, you should be using properly filtered water.

Also, while they will produce varying levels of molecular hydrogen  H2 saturation when new, molecular hydrogen water generating sticks are not as convenient as an electric water ionizer. You have to wait for the chemical reaction to take place in a limited amount of water. Worse, there is no consistency in how long it takes to create the molecular hydrogen  H2. Plus there is no data on how long a magnesium stick is capable of producing significant amounts of molecular hydrogen  H2. The bottom line is that they work – with some important caveats.

Summary

The explosion in published research, covering every organ and over 150 disease models, continues to demonstrate positive impacts on health and wellbeing with no contraindications of diatomic molecular hydrogen( water). With all these choices of ways to take advantage of the benefits of consuming molecular hydrogen (water), there is no reason not to! It seems clear to us, at least for now, that electric water ionizers are the most proven, easiest and most consistent way to get your daily molecular hydrogen water 

Join the molecular hydrogen  H2  water revolution and optimize your health and well-being! Experience more energy and mental clarity plus improve your athletic performance by giving your body the ability to naturally thrive. You have the best products to choose from at AlkaViva – we’ll help you find the right one for your budget and lifestyle!

 

 

1.) ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. and WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.

2.) SHIRAHATA, S. A. N. E. T. A. K. A. (2002). Reduced water for prevention of diseases. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 12, 25-30.

3.) SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T. and TERUYA, K. (2012). Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends in Food Science and Technology 23, 124-131.

4.) TOMOKI SEO, RYOSUKE KUROKAWA AND BUNPEI SATO (2012) A convenient method for determining the concentration of hydrogen in water: use of methylene blue with colloidal platinum. Medical Gas Research 2012, 2:1

The Diatomic Molecular Hydrogen H2 Infusion Advantage of a water ionizer

The Diatomic Molecular Hydrogen  H2 Infusion Advantage of a water ionizer

What makes AlkaViva H2 water ionizers a very Smart Choice?!

alkaviva h2 water ionizers
alkaviva h2 water ionizers

 

AlkaViva Vesta H2 water ionizer & purifier certifications
AlkaViva  H2 water ionizer & purifier certifications
Water ionizer performance used to be entirely focused on pH/ORP and the electrodes.  
 
The market focus for water ionizers is now on diatomic molecular hydrogen H2 water infusion/generation  performance.
The water cell – the heart and engine of the water ionizer – has two components: electrodes and (ion exchange) membranes.
Diatomic molecular hydrogen- H2 water Infusion Technology is based on the fact that water ionization cell membranes are as critical as the electrodes.
AlkaViva water ionization cell membranes are made in-house(NOT from outside sources) and are ultrasonically pressed, rather than bonded with chemicals. This provides you with a distinctly superior water ionization cell membrane that is designed to work specifically with AlkaViva SMART DESIGN electrodes, giving unmatched water ionization performance.
When you put together AlkaViva advanced SmartDesign electrodes to AlkaViva ultrasonically pressed  water ionization cell membranes, the result is a great level of diatomic molecular hydrogen H2 dizolved in water
 Technology and better diatomic molecular hydrogen  H2 performance(meaning more molecular hydrogen H2 dizolved in ionized alkaline water). This is especially so at the better tasting lower levels of pH(7 up to 10)
Diatomic molecular hydrogen H2 infusion/generation Test Results for AlkaViva H2 water ionizers and purifiers  >>> Click here.

Benefits of Diatomic molecular Hydrogen H2

Molecular Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element making it easy to absorb by your body. Over 500 studies show that biatomic molecular hydrogen or Hhas a therapeutic benefit in 140 health conditions and disease models.

beneficii apa hidrogenata
benefits of molecular hydrogen water

H2_diatomicHydrogenWaterbenefits1

 
 
  • Increase in Energy – Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the fuel that powers your live human cells during physical activity. Drinking diatomic molecular  hydrogen H2 infused UltraWater helps maintain the high ATP production needed during exercise – providing optimal strength, endurance and recovery.
  • Reduced Lactic acid (Muscle Fatigue, Cachexia in cancer patients)  – When you exercise, your lactic acid increases. Same happens if you are a cancer patient and eat sugar. Lactic acid buildup leads to fatigue, muscle damage, decreased endurance, reduced performance, and poor training results and even cachexia in cancer . Peer-reviewed research on athletes shows that diatomic molecular hydrogen decreases lactic acid levels.
  • Improves your Hydration – When diatomic molecular hydrogen H2 molecules combine with and neutralize damaging oxygen radicals, they are transformed into water (H2O) – increasing your cellular hydration. The water ionization also creates a light, silky-smooth tasting water that is easy to drink(ionized water  penetrates cells better).
  • Incredible Antioxidant Power – Exercise requires more oxygen than most activities. Increases in oxygen can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions and eventually cell damage. Oxidation is literally the aging process while antioxidants prevent or slow down the oxidative damage. Most antioxidants neutralize free bad radicals, but they can also neutralize the good ones that your body needs. Molecular hydrogen selectively targets only the damaging oxygen radicals, leaving behind the good radicals. This makes it a superior antioxidant.

Alkaline Ionized Water ( pH, ORP ) and Diatomic Hydrogen Water

Alkaline Ionized Water , pH, ORP and Diatomic Hydrogen Water

 

The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a pH of around 9.5 is probably the most important thing to consider when choosing a water ionizer.

Alkaline ionized water(AIO) or Electrolisys Reduced Water (ERW) is most efficiently produced by using an electric water ionizer. Alkaline ionized water (also molecular hydrogen water) is marketed by many names. Until recently this water was commonly referred to scientifically as Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW).

Now, scientists are often referring to it as Molecular Hydrogen Water. This is because research (especially in the past 10 years) has shown that the dissolved molecular hydrogen gas (H2), present in water created by electric water ionizers, is what is mainly responsible for its many benefits. Perhaps the most accurate name is electrolytically-produced, hydrogen-enriched, alkaline water.

Why  molecular hydrogen H2 (water)
is good for  your health regimen?

 H2 molecular hydrogen (water) is the Master Antioxidant
Molecular hydrogen is the smallest element and lightest molecule so it easily diffuses into subcellular compartments scavenging dangerous oxygen radicals and so protects DNA and RNA from oxidative stress.

 H2  Molecular hydrogen  Activates your Body’s own Powerful Enzymes
Molecular hydrogen H2 triggers the activation of additional antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and other cell-protective proteins.

Research Suggests Therapeutic Benefit of Molecular hydrogen in Over 130 Disease Models
Over 500 peer-reviewed scientific articles indicate this fact. Drinking H2-Molecular hydrogen saturated water produced the vast majority of the benefits observed.

 H2 Molecular hydrogen Can Favorably Alter Cell Metabolism, Signaling and Gene Expression
Research suggests that Molecular hydrogen H2 could improve cell signaling functions and provide anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-apoptotic (anti-cell death) effects.

H2Viva – the most powerful and proven molecular hydrogen.

The Benefits of Molecular hydrogen (water)

Due to the large amount of research, over the past ten years, on the effects of Molecular hydrogen H2 in water, we now know that the hydroxide ion (OH-) is NOT responsible for most of the positive effects observed when drinking alkaline ionized water. The active antioxidant in ionized water is dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2).

In 2010, a review article, published in “Free Radical Research” stated; “It is not an overestimate to say that hydrogen’s impact on therapeutic and preventative medicine could be enormous in the future”. Since that article was published there have been over 200 peer-reviewed articles published, that focus on about 80 different diseases models, and that conclude that molecular hydrogen (water) appears to have a beneficial effect.

Great news for AlkaViva water ionizers customers:

We have tested (using Reno city water as our source) ionized alkaline water from 2 AlkaViva water ionizers, the Vesta GL 988 water ionizer & purifier and Athena JS 205 water ionizer & purifier. Both consistently on demand produced molecular hydrogen H2 concentrations of around .6 ppm at a 9.5 pH. Higher levels can be also achieved by slowing dowm the water flow etc. This is higher than test results obtained from any other water ionizer.

We are also happy to announce we now have a new series of water ionizers with hydrogen infusion technology that include the latest innnovations  .

compare BEST water ionizers
compare BEST water ionizers

As you can see , the new AlkaViva H2 water ionizers can produce as much molecular hydrogen in alkaline ionized water as 1.6 ppm( up to saturation point!!!)

We compared the new AlkaViva water purifiers (2 filters) – ionizers  with  Hydrogen Infusion Technology H2. the water purifiers-ionizers(Melody II H2, Athena H2, Vesta H2) , water purifiers -ionizers with Double Reverse AutoCleanse System for electrode / water ionization plates  DARC2, water purifiers – ionizers with SMPS power source and AutoAdjust technology  (that  dynamically & real time varies the power applied to the electrodes according to the varying mineral content of the filtered water that enters the water ionization cell), water purifiers-ionisers with  SmartDesign electrodes (low power, small in size but energy effective),water  purifiers – ionizers with 2 water filters (a water prefilter  and water filter) , and water purifiers –  ionizers with the most recent AlkaViva technology: infusion of hydrogen  H2

AlkaViva H2 hydrogen infusion water ionizers compared(Melody H2, Athena H2, Vesta H2)

Water containing dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 neutralizes only the free radicals that are directly toxic to cells and do not have a biologically important cell signaling role. Therefore alkaline, ionized water, with a good saturation of hydrogen molecules. appears to be an ideal choice of antioxidant.

The reason why the right brand of electric water  ionizer is the most efficient way of producing H2 (hydrogen water) is because it produces, every time, consistent amounts of molecular hydrogen in the ionized alkaline water.

Non-electric water ionizers rely on magnesium in their water filters to make the molecular hydrogen water and the water filters need to remain emersed in water for a good while to get the levels of dissolved molecular hydrogen  Hthey advertise. They are therefore more like batch units that will give no molecular hydrogen H2 if used for more than a liter or two of alkalized ionized water at once.

Taking the benefits one step further, AlkaViva water ionizers are the only water ionizers to give more than basic water filtration of the input water. AlkaViva water filters are the only ones that are USA made with results certified by an independent EPA laboratory-see results for AlkaViva UltraWater filters here. Failure to clean input water from contaminants means that certain heavy metals, pharmaceuticals etc present in your drinking water can also be made more bio-available once water is ionized.

 

 

Background on (electric) Water Ionizers

In 1965 the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (JMHLW) approved (electric) water ionizers as a medical substance generator which could help with gastrointestinal symptoms under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. Currently Japanese companies still get certified through the JMHLW. In Korea, the Korean FDA certifies water ionizers sold or manufactured in that country.

There have been numerous peer reviewed article published in the past 15 years on the wide-ranging benefits from drinking alkaline, ionized water from an electric water ionizer. In that time there has been no reports of any negative effects.

Water ionizers have been sold in Asia for about 35 years and it is estimated that about 1 in 8 households in Japan and 1 in 12 households in South Korea use an electric water ionizer. Electric water ionizers have proven over this period to be safe and efficient devices for delivering enhanced water(clean , alkalized & alkaline, mineral, antioxidant,  hydrogen rich etc).

AlkaViva is the exclusive western Agent for Jupiter Science/ Emco Tech & BionTech water ionizers. These are the largest manufacturers of electric water ionizers in Asia that supply water ionizers  to companies such as Samsung, Toyo, LG and Hyundai.

HOW ELECTRIC WATER IONIZERS WORK

Electric water ionizers produce alkaline ionized  water containing dissolved molecular hydrogen at the cathode (the negative electrode) and acidic ionized water at the anode (the positive electrode). 

Each electric water ionizer contains a water/electrolisys  cell with water ionization plates/electrodes. A small electrical current is applied to these water ionization plates/electrodes. Membranes are placed between the electrodes to keep the acid and alkaline ionized water streams from mixing.

Only electric water ionizers are capable of consistently producing alkaline ionized water on demand that contains significant amounts of dissolved molecular hydrogen.(H2) enriched water.

 

How water ionizer works

 

Figure 2. Schematic of how an electric water ionizer works. Tap water is filtered, a salt solution may be added for strong alkaline and acidic waters, electrolysis is performed and the various ionized waters(acidic & alkaline) are produced.

Electrolysis in a electric water ionizer requires conductive minerals/electrolites  to be present. In theory you can produce hydrogen molecules (H2 water) using pure water()  but that would require a lot more wattage per area of water ionization plates/electrodes than the small amount needed in an electric water ionizer. But this is not good for water ionization plates/electrodes  That is why AlkaViva sells a remineralizing water filter for use with almost pure water, such as that produced using a reverse osmosis water filtration unit. It is also beneficial to drink mineral rich water.

Four basic types of water are produced by an electric water ionizer (different brands produce variations on each type):
” Mildly alkaline ionized water for drinking
” Mildly acidic ionized water for topical use
” Strong alkaline ionized  water for cleaning
” Strong acidic ionized water for cleaning

Alkaline drinking water (from an electric water  ionizer) typically has a pH of 8 – 10 and a Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) of -50 to -750 mV and a molecular hydrogen (H2) level of about .5 ppm. The higher/stronger the -ORP the higher the H2 but there is a level of PH above which the water may taste unpleasant and is not recommended – or necessary. Also, ionized alkaline water with PH>10 is not safe to drink for a long time

Acidic ionized water typically has a pH of 4 – 6 and a ORP of +350 – +750 mV. There is no molecular  H2 produced in the acidic ionized water and this acid ionized water is not used for drinking but has many other purposes . It is possible to create a sterilizing 2.5 – 3 pH acidic water  solution but this is not recommended as it can, over time, degrade the surface of the water ionizing plates/electrodes.

 

How Hydrogen Water is Created – using a Water Ionizer

The process of producing alkaline and acidic water is relatively simple (as well as dissolved molecular hidrogen in water):  The H+ ions (acid) are attracted to the negatively charged cathode where they are converted to molecular hydrogen (H2) according to the equation: 2e- + 2H+ –> H2. Because pH is the concentration of the H+ ions, and the amount of H+ ions are being decreased (converted to H2) the pH increases thus making the water alkaline.  (Note: pH is logarithmic, so a decrease in H+ concentration is an increase in pH.)

At the other electrode, the hydroxide (OH) ions are attracted to the positive anode where they are oxidized to form H+ ions. Because pH is a measurement of the concentration of H+ ions, and the amount of H+ ions is being increased, the pH decreases thus making the water acidic.  (Note: pH is logarithmic, so an increase in H+concentration is a decrease in pH.

 

At the anode, (acidic ionized water side) the H+ ions, or more accurately H30+ (hydronium) ions, are produced.

At the cathode, an equal concentration of base (hydroxide ions or OH-) is produced.

If the two are combined, there is no change in the pH of the water.

The OH- ion is attracted to the positive electrode (anode) where they are oxidized to form oxygen gas (O2) and hydrogen ions (H+). The OH- ion (hydroxide) is neither an antioxidant or an oxidizing agent. The hydroxide ion is not a reactive molecule – it contains stable paired electrons.

The hydroxide ion is a BASE, but it is not a biological antioxidant.

The H+ ion is then attracted to the negative electrode (cathode -alkaline ionized water side) and is reduced to a hydrogen atom which immediately reacts with another H+ to form H2 – molecular hydrogen gas.

The decrease in H+ ions  results in a more alkaline water pH . Since there are more H+ ions (as hydronium ions) at the anode, the pH is acidic.

In other words, as you increase the pH, the H3O concentration decreases by the same amount that the OH- concentration increases. A 1-fold pH increase or decrease is a 10-fold change in the H3O+ concentration; changing the pH by 3 results in a 1,000-fold change in the H30+ concentration.

The actual diatomic molecular hydrogen produced and the pH and ORP vary due to the water ionizer used and the mineral content of the source water.

The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a pH of around 9.5 is probably the most important thing to consider when choosing a water ionizer.

ORP

In ionized water ORP reflects the difference between the presence of dissolved molecular hydrogen H2and the concentration of H+. It measures the capacity of a solution to either release or accept electrons from chemical reactions. Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is GAINING electrons to become stable .

You can create a negative ORP by decreasing H+ (raising the pH) and/or increasing the dissolved molecular hydrogen concentration. You can make the ORP positive by increasing the H+ concentration (lowering the pH) and/or decreasing the dissolved molecular hydrogen concentration. Ideally it is best not to drink water with a positive ORP because it causes the body to reduce it at the expense of consuming electrical energy from the cell membrane. Tap water and most bottled waters have a positive ORP.

Having a negative ORP does NOT make ionized alkaline water an antioxidant.

The concentration of H2 is the determining factor of antioxidant power of alkaline ionized water .

Negative ORP is a general indicator of the presence of dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 (the actual antioxidant in alkaline ionized water) but it does not accurately measure the concentration. Because  water’s pH plays a large role in ORP, you can have one glass of ionized alkaline water with an ORP of -800 mV and another with an ORP of -400 mV but because of the differences in pH the second glass can have more molecular hydrogen than the first.

Also once the pH is above 9.5, ORP is an invalid measurement of H2.

The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a pH of 9.5 is the most important thing to consider when choosing a water ionizer.

A negative Oxidation-Reduction Potential (-ORP) is indicative of the presence of molecular hydrogen, but it is NOT a measurement of the concentration.

The Importance of ORP

  • A high positive ORP (+ORP) kills pathogens by stealing electrons from the bacteria’s DNA, cell membranes and proteins.
  • The high ORP (+ORP) of electrolyzed oxidizing acidic ionized water makes it an effective way to kill bacteria and viruses.
  • Oxygen has a high ORP and can damage DNA and proteins.
  • Molecular hydrogen (H2) has a very low ORP (-ORP) and is thus a reducing agent or antioxidant.
  • Chlorine is added to tap water to kill bacteria because it has a high positive ORP.
  • The ORP of the internal environment of a healthy person is always on the reductive side (negative). Human saliva and mother’s milk has an ORP of -70 mv, with some redox couples below -350 mV.
  • Drinking water with a positive ORP causes the body to reduce it at the expense of consuming electrical energy from human cell membranes. Tap water, bottled water, rain water, RO water, have a positive ORP; most between 200-400 mV and as high as 500-600 mV.
  • Optimal drinking water has a negative ORP. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the ORP of drinking water not exceed 60 mV.
  • Freshly made fruit and vegetable juice have an ORP of around -50 mV.

Other Ways of Creating Diatomic Hydrogen Enriched Water

You can breath molecular hydrogen H2 gas, you can inject molecular hydrogen H2 rich saline or use it as eye drops, you can bathe in it, you can put it on your skin, you can increase the production of molecular hydrogen H2 by intestinal bacteria … OR you can create molecular hydrogen H2-rich water created by an electric  water ionizer or from hydrogen-producing tablets of magnesium .

Which method of producing molecular hydrogen in water is best?

Early research suggests that the most effective – and easiest approach is to drink  molecular hydrogen H2-rich water.

molecular hydrogen  (H2) water can be produced using electrolysis, dissolving tablets or dissolving molecular hydrogen H2 gas into water

Magensium tablets that dissolve in water are a convenient way to produce molecular hydrogen H2 rich water. Using the right form of magnesium mixed with other ingredients, a reaction takes place with water to produce dissolved hydrogen gas.[Mg + 2 H20 >>> H2 + 2OH-]. This is the most common method used by scientific researchers for human and animal studies.

This method can achieve high concentrations of molecular hydrogen that is further enhanced when electrically ionized alkaline water is also used. This method produces by far the highest concentration of molecular hydrogen H2 and is a great way to supplement the usage of clean, alkaline, ionized water taken during the rest of the day.

Magnesium tablets that are taken internally without being dissolved in water may also be effective (one published study) but these tablets are hard to dissolve, even in a buffered acid solution.

It may take several hours to release all the molecular hydrogen gas, and this is similar to molecular hydrogen gas produced by gut bacteria.

ATTENTION! There is on the market a non-electric water ionizer unit that claims to be capable of creating high levels of hydrogen water using water flow through (like an electric water ionizer) but in reality after about a liter of water flows through the production of molecular hydrogen H2 drops dramatically because the magnesium does not have enough time to soak and react with the water.

Follow-up

To discover more about AlkaViva’s hydrogen generating, electric water ionizers please click on following links:

 

 

water ionizers / purifiers FAQo

Water ionizers & ionized water FAQ

Answers to  frequently asked questions about water ionizers/water purifiers  and water ionization technologies.

My new AlkaViva water ionizer has residual water in it. Is it used? Every NEW AlkaViva water ionizer is extensively tested by the manufacturer(EmcoTech/Jupiter water ionizers) to ensure proper operation before they are shipped to the AlkaViva warehouse. Therefore, there may be residual water drops coming from the bottom hose connectors. Not to worry, your NEW AlkaViva water ionizer/water purifier is not used.

What’s the best way to store alkaline ionized water?

“How can I store ionized water from my water ionizer? What kind of container should I use?” Whether you want to take your water to work or out to play, or whether you just want to chill your alkaline water in the fridge before you drink it, there are some things you should know. 1. ionized water from an water ionizer is best if consumed directly from the water ionizer immediately after producing it.  Ionized water has a high electron charge, which gives it its antioxidant qualities. Time, heat and light can cause the water to lose its charge, and therefore lose the unique properties & benefits of alkaline ionized water. Yes, you’ll still have clean, filtered and mineralized water… but you also want to be able to retain the low negative ORP that is one of the primary reasons for owning a water ionizer in the first place. I always use the analogy of fresh fruits & vegetables wich are best consumed right after they are picked otherwise they lose many valuable healthy benefits . Well, the same goes for ionized water. The same can be said about ionized water. When alkaline water comes out of a water ionizer it contains a negative ORP (an abundance of free, unbound electrons).  When stored in a container the ionized water will begin the process of losing its antioxidant quality as it “normalizes” with its surroundings.  How long that process takes to complete is based on the material and construction of the container that the ionized water is in. The antioxidant power in alkaline ionized water can decline in as little as 24 hours without proper storage, and pH levels would fall in about three days. Stored properly, alkaline ionized water can maintain high potency for about a week.

How To Store Your Ionized alkaline Water \

Glass Glass is always the preferred method of storing alkaline ionized water.

  • If using a glass container, try to use a UV protected glass, which is usually a dark color.
  • Fill storage container up to the top, thus limiting the alkaline ionized water’s exposure to air.
  • Store the container in a cool, dimly lit location. Avoid exposing the ionized alkalien water to heat and sunlight.
  • Drink stored alkaline ionized water within 72 hours for optimal quality and freshness.

Stainless Steel Regular stainless steel bottles are great for keep ionized alkaline water clean, as there is no “leaching” of dangerous chemicals from the container. But, the alkaline ionized water will quickly lose its antioxidant properties as the metal of the container is a conductor of electricity.  Therefore, if you are going to use a stainless steel container, be sure that it is a double-walled vacuum sealed bottle, as those types of bottles will slow down the ORP equalization rate.  Using these types of a bottles not only help to maintain the antioxidant properties of the alkaline ionized water, but are an excellent way to keep the water nice and cold during hot weather.

Plastic containers Plastic should be used as a last resort.for storing alkaline ionized water.  The only plastic bottles you should ever use should be made from certified BPA-free plastic.  Even when using this type of bottle, you are not guaranteed that your bottle will not leach other types of chemicals into your drinking alkaline ionized water.  Therefore, I would stay away from plastic bottles, if at all possible.

Keep Your ionized alkaline Water Refrigerated Refrigeration or freezing helps maintain the potency of alkaline ionized water. The alkaline ionized water should be put in a sealed container, and chilled immediately after it is made.  Also, if you enjoy putting ice in your water I would suggest getting yourself some stainless steel ice trays, and then make ice using your water ionizer water.  You don’t want to use ice that is made from your refrigerator’s ice-maker, as it is likely full of toxins that won’t be removed by the refrigerator filter, including fluoride.

Ionized water Right From The Water Ionizer Is Best There’s nothing more refreshing than a glass of healthy alkaline ionized water. Gotten fresh from a home water ionizer, alkaline ionized water has high negative ORP and a higher pH than plain water.

Drinking alkaline water straight from the water ionizer is always best because the beneficial qualities of the alkaline ionized water remain intact. This is the reason why ionized water cannot be sold as stored , the same reason why miracle waters from Hunza or Vilcabamba cannot be stored & sold. We know – we went to Vilcabamba, Ecuador to meet with the people in the Valley of Longevity and tested their water. If interested, please ask for our FREE DVD on this trip contact us or leave your mail address( we will not share it with anyone)  [contact-form subject=’Valley DVD’][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comments(optional)’ type=’textarea’/][/contact-form]

Do water ionizers also  remove water contaminants , including fluoride?

This question should be about the water filters used  inside the water ionizers/purifiers. Water ionizers, by themselves, don’t really remove anything from the water. A water ionizer is an electronic device that ionizes water through water electrolysis into ionized  water stremas (alkaline and acidic ).

The question should be regarding water ionizers that include water filters inside them such as AlkaViva water ionizer(manufactured by Jupiter/EmcoTech). AlkaViva’s best water ionizers even include 2 water filters inside the water ionizer/water purifier to filter/remove all the potential contaminants in your water before water is ionized , so that you will enjoy not only ionized alkaline, antioxidant water, but clean yet mineral water as well.Only AlkaViva water ionizers such as AlkaViva Jupiter Athena JS 205 water ionizer & AlkaViva Vesta GL 988 water ionizer include 2 water filters inside the water ionizer /water purifier system. One of these 2 water filters can be a UltraWater Fluoride /Arsenic Shield – a water filter specially designed to remove Fluoride & Arsenic. Our quality Jupiter water ionizers also have water prefilters to prefilter the water before water is ionized. It should be noted that most water filters inside a water ionizer do NOT remove fluoride, because lab testing has shown that fluoride contained in the incoming water happens to “stick” to the acid water stream, and the concentration in the alkaline drinking water side is lessened.  The fluoride is attracted to the positive charge of the acid water, and will be partially eliminated.  But, when we are speaking of fluoride, “partially” is not good enough.  We want to be able to eliminate as much of the fluoride as possible .Why-read more about fluoride in water-click here

What is Ionized Acid Water Acid ionized water can be characterized by the following:

  1. having a pH range between 2.0ph and  lower than 7.0ph
  2. having an ORP of +800 to +1200
  3. having a hypochlorous acid component from 1-30 mg/l
  4. being micro-clustered
  5. being loaded with H+ (hydrogen ions), which acts as an oxidizer

There are 2 types of acid water; mild and strong. ‘Mild’ acid water is used for the skin, hair and nails while ‘strong’ acid water is used for cleaning and sterilizing. Uses Of Ionized Acid Water

How To Get The MOST Acidic ionized Water From Your water Ionizer? Although most water ionizers allow you to choose “acid” ionized water , which would then come out of the top stainless steel hose, there is a way to get the most acidic water from your water ionizer (the lowest pH). Set your water ionizer to the highest “alkaline” ionized water  setting that it will produce.  Then, slow the water flow rate down (either on the faucet or on an onboard flow-control valve, if you have one) to the slowest the water can come out while the water ionizer remains powered on. On most water ionizers with water flow sensors, if you slow the flow rate down too much, the water ionizer will shut itself off – so make sure it is slow, but enough that the main power stays on.  Then, collect the acidic water from the acid hose coming from the bottom of the water ionizer in a (glass) recipeint. Doing it this way will give you the most powerful acid water that your water ionizer can make. The results will vary from water ionizer to water ionizer, depending on the strength of the water ionization unit.

How can I tell what contaminants & other things are my tap water? There is a lot that we can learn about our water just by the way it looks, tastes, and smells. If you are concerned about the quality of your water it is always best to have it professionally tested(contact us of interested in professional water testing ), but we can also discover much about it at home. When using a water ionizer many things in our water can be condensed into higher, more noticeable levels. If you are on a public treated water system you can always ask for a consumer confidence report, or CCR. These are done annually to insure the public of drinking water safety. The easiest way to obtain these reports is to call your local water authority and ask for the most recent CCR.You can also ask them if they are using chloramines as a disinfectant. Chloramines are fairly new in the treatment of water systems in most areas, and may not show up on the report. Chloramines are definitely unwanted, and require a different type of water filtration than the standard chlorine water fitration methods. Although it is a great idea to look at your CCR, you can always take it one step further and have the water at your home tested locally. Keep in mind that the water reports provided are shown in averages and may not reflect exactly what is coming in to your home, so , if you are really interested in what;s in your tap water. it would be a good idea to test the water coming right from your tap If you are on a well water system it is important to test your water before running a water ionizer, as well water is generally untreated and can contain contaminants not present in treated water systems. Testing the water in your well can protect your health, as well as the life of your water ionizer. To obtain a water report you can call your local health authority and express concerns for your drinking water. They will usually have a place locally to do the necessary testing. The test you want to ask for is called “A Routine Domestic Panel,” and doesn’t usually cost an arm and a leg. Water reports will list a bunch of numbers that can be a little confusing, but once you learn to read the report you’ll be able to see exactly what’s in your water. The important numbers to look at will be the levels recorded – this is the amount found in your water – and the MCL, or Max Contaminate Level. In comparing these two sets of numbers you can judge if the levels are safe or should be addressed before using your new water ionizer. If the levels recorded for your water are lower than, or close to, the MCL levels you may want to consider water pre-filtration. You would also want to consider water  pre-filtration anytime you have specific concerns especially in areas with very hard water.Of course, you can always use our AlkaViva Reverse Osmosis System For Water Ionizers to remove the most common water contaminant concerns. We will be covering some basic at-home tests for testing drinking water contaminants, what they are, where they come from and how we can remove them.  There are many things the following tests can tell us, but certainly not everything. For example there is no good way to test at home fluoride, bacteria, arsenic, and many other drinking water contaminants without a professional water test(contact us if interested in a professional water testing). For the contaminates that we CAN test for at home, all you will need is your faucet and a clear glass.

The Way That Water Tastes Chlorine or chemical taste This taste is usually caused by normal chlorination, or an abundance of chemicals in either treated municipal water systems, or chlorinated wells. This is normally removed by your water ionizer internal water filter, but if this is not enough to remove the unpleasant and possibly harmful carcinogens we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

Metallic taste A metallic taste is usually caused by manganese, or other heavy metals. These can be present in well water systems, and older homes with metal pipes. To remove these heavy metals we recommend our UltraWater ionized water filter

Water no longer tastes as sweet as it used to This is caused by the lack of iron present in your source water. Some folks complain that there water no longer taste as sweet as it used to. This is caused by the removal of iron. Although iron is a harmful heavy metal, it adds a pleasant sweet taste to the water. Often, after changing to non metallic pipes or adding a heavy metals pre-filter, the lack of sweetness can be present. Usually after a week or two, it is no longer noticeable.

Water tastes fishy, or earthy The fishy, or earthy taste is generally caused by harmless organic matter and is usually associated with surface water supplies. To remove this we recommend that you regularly change your internal water ionizer filter.

The Way That Water Smells Detergent, or soapy smell Sometimes a septic odor. This is usually an indication that you need to hire a plumber, or call your city water authority. This is caused by the leaking of a sewer system into your water supply, and should be addressed as soon as possible.

Water tastes fishy, or earthy The fishy or earthy smell, again, is generally caused by harmless organic matter and is usually associated with surface water supplies. To remove this we recommend that you regularly change your internal water ionizer filter.

Rotten egg smell from the tap Dissolved hydrogen sulfide gas in the source water, or raw sulfur deposits in a well water situation. Sulfur deposits are naturally occurring, and common in some areas. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide comes as a result of organic matter decomposing in a raw water situation, such as plant matter in a well (think of tree roots). This gas reacts in a water ionizer and can become much more noticeable after ionization, and is condensed into the alkaline stream. To remove this gas we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

Rotten egg odor from hot water only Rotten egg odor from the hot water only is caused by sulfates reacting with magnesium anode rod in your hot water system, which will react to create hydrogen sulfide gas and cause this odor to only be present when using hot water. To remove the rotten egg smell you need to have a plumber replace the anode rod with one made of aluminum.

Chlorine or chemical smell This odor is usually caused normal chlorination, or an abundance of chemicals in either treated municipal water systems, or chlorinated wells. This is normally removed by your water ionizer internal filter, but if this is not enough to remove the unpleasant and possibly harmful carcinogens we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

The Way That Water Looks White stains on cookware and in glasses This is a sign of high alkalinity, which is exactly what we do with our ionizers. Completely harmless and nothing to worry about, but not aesthetically pleasing. An easy way to remove this is too soak in a solution of white vinegar and water. Be sure to rinse all the vinegar off before using.

Suspended stuff in your glass This is caused by sediment. It is common in well water using pumps, and in older homes and neighbor hoods. This can easily removed by your water ionizers internal sediment filter(with ionizers such as AlkaViva Jupiter Athena JS205 water ionizer or AlkaViva Vesta GL 988 water ionizer), or with our External Sediment and Bacteria Reduction Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Green stains on sinks and fixtures Green stains in your sink or on other household fixtures is caused by acidic water with a pH of 6.8 or lower reacting with brass and copper pipes and fittings. Your best bet is to hire a plumber to update these to a more modern system.

Red or yellowish water If water is clear when first poured but turns yellowish or reddish after 24 hours of standing time, there is un-dissolved iron in your water. If it is yellow or reddish when at first poured but clears up after 24 hours then there is dissolved iron in your source water. Iron is a big concern with water ionizers as it can directly cause damage to your ionizer’s electrolysis system. In either case we would recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Black tint to water A black tint to water that clears up after 24 hours of standing is usually dissolved manganese. This is easily removed with our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested) Blacking, pitting, and tarnishing of metal sinks, pipes, and utensils. The blackening, pitting, and tarnishing of metal sinks, pipes, and utensils is caused by chlorides and sulfates (salts) or hydrogen sulfide gas. Both are removed using our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Milky water If your water looks milky after ionization don’t worry, this is caused by the ionization process and is a sign of both the high alkalinity and the micro clustering. Micro clustering creates air pockets that can make water look milky. The increase in alkaline minerals can also cause this effect. This list in no way can replace the results of full water work up done in a laboratory environment, but can help to troubleshoot quickly and at no cost. All of the external pre-filters that we provide require a pre-filter housing, and these housings can be run in sequence if there is more than one concern.

Do I have hard or soft water? What’s the difference?

Contact us to find out EXACTLY how hard your water is

Original article by snyderhealth.com

Uses Of Ionized Acid Water

Uses Of Ionized Acid Water

Skin & Hair

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used To lessen the appearance of lines and wrinkles on the face. Speeds up skin renewal process.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used As a skin toner.
  3. Acid Ionized Water is used To lessen the appearance of age spots.
  4. Acid Ionized Water is used  For dry skin patches or rough skin.
  5. Acid Ionized Water is used  Carry a bottle around and use as a hand sanitizer.  It will not dry the hands out.
  6. Acid Ionized Water is used To replace expensive skin moisturizers and creams.
  7. Acid Ionized Water is used As a hair conditioner.
  8. Acid Ionized Water is used For skin rashes or baby diaper rash.
  9. Acid Ionized Water is used To prevent shaving bumps.
  10. Acid Ionized Water is used As an aftershave.
  11. Acid Ionized Water is used For poison ivy and other plant rashes.
  12. Acid Ionized Water is used On skin for Eczema. Spritz three times a day and let air dry.
  13. Acid Ionized Water is used On skin for Psoriasis.
  14. Acid Ionized Water is used On skin for Rosacea.
  15. Acid Ionized Water is used For dandruff. Use as a final rinse.
  16. Acid Ionized Water is used For acne of every type.  Spritz on after washing and let air dry.
  17. Acid Ionized Water is used To lessen the appearance of scars.
  18. Acid Ionized Water is used To spray in shoes to disinfect and deodorize.
  19. Acid Ionized Water is used In place of deodorant
  20. Acid Ionized Water is used Pour into bath water to soften skin.
  21. Acid Ionized Water is used Spritz on face for a refreshing pick me up.
  22. Acid Ionized Water is used As a soak for sore rough feet.
  23. Acid Ionized Water is used For Athletes Foot.
  24. Acid Ionized Water is used For jock itch.
  25. Acid Ionized Water is used For female yeast infections and other female issues.
  26. Acid Ionized Water is used For toe fungus.
  27. Acid Ionized Water is used For ingrown toenails.

Acid Ionized Water is used for Food Preparation

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used  To kill bacteria on fruits and vegetables by using the mist or dipping.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used Use in meat and dairy product facilities as a sterilizing and cleaning agent.

Acid Ionized Water is used as Internal Disinfectant

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used As a mouthwash and gargle.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used  As a toothpaste.
  3. Acid Ionized Water is used  For pink eye.
  4. Acid Ionized Water is used  For ear infections.
  5. Acid Ionized Water is used For infected tooth or gums.
  6. Acid Ionized Water is used As a gargle for a sore throat.
  7. Acid Ionized Water is used  As an enema.
  8. Acid Ionized Water is used To treat bad breath.

Acid Ionized Water is used  as First Aid & Sterilizer

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used For burns.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used For minor cuts and scrapes.
  3. Acid Ionized Water is used To promote faster healing of cuts and wounds.
  4. Acid Ionized Water is used To stop bleeding in minor cuts.
  5. Acid Ionized Water is used Use on boils.
  6. Acid Ionized Water is used In doctor’s and dentist’s offices for cleaning and antibacterial.
  7. Acid Ionized Water is used In clinical applications to sterilize surgical instruments.

Acid Ionized Water is used for Cleaning Purposes

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used To sanitize bathrooms and kitchen counters.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used On cutting boards.
  3. Acid Ionized Water is used To spray directly in refrigerator for foul odors.
  4. Acid Ionized Water is used To spray on carpets and rubber bathtub mats.
  5. Acid Ionized Water is used As a streak free glass and mirror cleaner.
  6. Acid Ionized Water is used For cleaning wood floors (a light mist is all that is needed).
  7. Acid Ionized Water is used To clean dirt and grime all over the house (removes fingerprints from drywall), etc.
  8. Acid Ionized Water is used To sanitize the interior of your washer and dryer.
  9. Acid Ionized Water is used On household sponges to extend their life and prevent foul odors.
  10. Acid Ionized Water is used To spray into laundry baskets to kill mold and fungi.
  11. Acid Ionized Water is used To disinfect human and pet bedding.
  12. Acid Ionized Water is used For auto glass.
  13. Acid Ionized Water is used For chrome polishing.
  14. Acid Ionized Water is used To sanitize phones.
  15. Acid Ionized Water is used To sanitize computer keyboards (light spritz).
  16. Acid Ionized Water is used To disinfect doorknobs and handles.
  17. Acid Ionized Water is used For deodorizing.

Acid Ionized Water is used for Pets

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used In cat litter boxes to kill odors and bacteria.
  2. Acid Ionized Water is used On animal’s skin for any kind of skin issue.
  3. Acid Ionized Water is used Spray in bird cages.  The water will not hurt the bird.

Acid Ionized Water is used  for Bug Control

  1. Acid Ionized Water is used to Spray on ant trails to deter them.
  2. Acid Ionized Water Kills many types of spiders and insects.

The best part about using acid ionized water for your skin and as a cleaner is that you can now get rid of all those potentially dangerous chemicals lying around the house!

Why buy AlkaViva water ionizers, filters @ accesorries-click here

water ionizers -user troubleshooting

Water ionizers Trouble shooting

Please check out the following water ionizers troubleshooting suggestions before calling for repairing an water ionizer.

Symptom  Possible cause   Resolution 
The display panel of the water ionizer does not light up. Is the power cord plugged in correctly to an active outlet?  *Plug the power cord in properly.
Switch does not work. * Is the power plug connected to the outlet properly? * Is the fuse on the back of the water ionizer blown? * Plug the power cord in properly. * Check the fuse on the back of the water ionizer and replace it if necessary.
 Water does not flow out or the water ionizer unit has stopped functioning. * Is the source water valve line closed? * Is the source water line properly connected to the water ionizer? * Is the white water  hose bent? * Is the input water pressure too low? * Is the main water supply turned on or is the line frozen? * Is the water  filter clogged? * Running the acidic water on Acidic Level 3 for 10+ mins. through the water ionizer? * Turn the water supply valve on. * Be sure the water supply hose is connected properly. * Be sure the water line is not bent. * Replace the water filter. * If the water ionizer unit is leaking, turn off the water supply valve and contact customer service. * Replace the water filter. * Turn off the water  ionizer at the power switch for 5-10 minutes to allow for a reset period then turn the water ionizer back on.
Water is leaking from one water hose at the attachment to the water ionizer. * Check to see if the water  hose is disconnected from the water ionizer   Connect the hose snugly to the attachment to the water ionizer.
 The ionized or filtered  water has a strange odor or tastes bad. * Has the water ionizer been unused for a long time? * Has the drain water hose been immersed in water?  * Let acidic ionized water flow through the water ionizer & filters for 3minutes or more. If the water does not improve, replace the water filter. * Remove the drain hose from water
Even though the filter has been replaced, the filter life indicator still shows no-life. * Did you reset the water filter counter?  * Reset the water filter by pressing the filter replacement button \
There is a strange noise coming from the water ionizer. * Unknown. * Switch off and stop using the water ionizer and contact customer service.

Calcium in ionized water When filling your cup with alkaline water, white flakes are seen floating in the cup. * This large quantity of mineral flakes in the water may occur right after a filter change or first use of the water ionizer. There is no problem with drinking this water as it is mostly calcium which is not harmful to consume. When high alkaline water is left in a container, the water will form a white film around the edges or on the bottom. The substance is CaCO2 – bonded calcium, which falls to the bottom of the container. If you prefer to not have this white substance in your water, adjust the pH to a lower level which will reduce the possibility of calcium bonding. Calcium flakes form by bonding with hydrogen which is abundant in alkaline water. The presence of calcium is a sign that the water ionizer is functioning properly. If you would like to clean calcium out of any container, put a spoonful of vinegar in the container and fill it with water. Vinegar will dissolve the calcium. Leave the water in the container for 1 hour and shake the water out.   FEEL FREE TO CONTACT US FOR ANY HELP: +40758638401 Kindest Regards!   AlkaViva Team

Ionized water uses(alkaline, neutral, acidic)

Ionized water uses(Alkaline, neutral, acidic)

Cleaning and washing  with Alkaline ionized Water withouth chemical soaps and detergents, rinsing, embalming,  beauty  and Disinfection with acidic ionized water without chemicals.

A WATER IONIZER PRODUCES THREE KINDS OF WATER:

    • Alkaline Water (many levels of alkalinity, from about 7.5 to about 11 pH. Alkaline water is harder than any other water to store in such a way as to keep the pH/ORP qualities. Therefore An entire page to show you exactly how to store alkaline ionized water well. 
    • Filtered Water (not ionized, usually neutral pH (it will have the same pH as your source water). For babies and toddlers it’s best to use filtered water which is neither alkaline nor acidic. pH range 7-8. Also, when you are taking medication filtered water is best.
    • Acid ionized water: If you set your ionizer on and acidic-level, alkaline ionized water [which is drinkable by the way] will come out the bottom hose, Otherwise, acid water comes out of the bottom hose or spout when you are pouring alkaline ionized water. Acidic water stores very well. You can keep it in an open container, tub, etc. and it will remain the same acidity as when you poured it.

ALKALINE IONIZED WATER USES:

  • Drinking alkaline ionized water: At 8.5 pH to 9.5 or 10 pH alkaline ionized water is the perfect drinking water. It will help to neutralize the acidity of the body and slightly alkalize the body. Alkalizing the body will help to ward off infections, cancer and other invaders to the naturally healthy state of the body. Alkaline ionized water also assists in the safe removal of toxins from the body. In addition to the health-benefits of alkalizing your body, the negative ORP [oxidation reduction potential] of alkaline ionized water will provide the body with lots of easily absorbable antioxidants. Anti-oxidants are important in order to prevent free-radical damage that would otherwise be caused by oxidation within the body. Directions: Start drinking at about an 8.5 pH and slowly work your way up to 9.5 pH. For best results, don’t rush it.
  • Natural vitamins & alkaline ionized water: Feel free to drink whatever level of ionized water you are drinking with taking your vitamins. Microclustered, ionized alkaline water will assist in the best and fastest absorption of vitamins into your body.
  • Illness: If you’re new to ionized water and get ill, reduce your level of pH until you are feeling back to normal. Drink extra water at the reduced level, though, to help flush whatever it is from your system. If you become ill when you are a veteran [of at least several months] at drinking ionized water, and you haven’t recently changed anything regarding the pH level of your ionized water, then I suggest simply drinking more ionized water at the level which you have become comfortable drinking. This will help flush whatever it is out of your system faster.Read more –alkaline ionized water & health -click
  • Cleaning & Laundry using alkaline ionized water: At the highest levels of alkalinity [10.5 – 11.5 pH] the ionized water will emulsify oils. This is great for soaking non-organic vegetables in, because soaking in it will help to naturally remove the oily pesticides from the outer layer of the vegetable. It also has another great use as a stain-remover. I have personally had success with completely removing chocolate, blood, blue-berry stain, peanut butter, pet-stains and other stains from clothing, carpets, tile-grout, and furniture over the years. Here are some other ideas for using the highest alkaline for cleaning [we’ll cover the lowest acid-water later]:
    • You can pour a bowl of the high alkaline and a second one of acidic water… for cleaning fine washables [like stockings, silk skarf, etc.]. When you do this I suggest to let it soak for several minutes in the high alkaline, then agitate and wring-out the garments. Follow this up with a soak in the low acid water, which will act as a germicidal, softener [removing any residual alkaline minerals], and freshen it up.
    • You can pour 2 – 4 gallons of high alkaline in with your laundry and not need to use detergent.
    • You can use high alkaline for cleaning greasy areas, like floors, stoves and countertops.

WHEN TO USE JUST  FILTERED WATER

  • Medications: A neutral 7.0 – 8.0 pH filtered water is perfect for taking medications. For 20-30 min. before and after taking medications it is suggested to only drink filtered water. The chemical make-up of medications and the predicted rate of absorption into the body can be altered by consuming microclustered, ionized water with them. Rather than take a chance of messing up your doctor’s plans, it’s better to just take the safe route described here.
  • Infants & Todlers: A neutral pH is perfect for babies. Give babies and todlers “filtered” water, not ionized, until they are about 2 years old. After that, you can slowly introduce them to ionized water [i.e., over the next 2 – 3 years use level 1, then do the same for level 2, etc.]. At about 9 or 10, a child can drink the same level as an adult.

ACIDIC IONIZED  WATER [OXIDATIVE IONIZED WATER]

  • Skin and Hair & acid ionized water: Acidic water at the 3 – 4 pH-level is perfect for neutralizing the skin and hair [which should be about 5.5 pH, but because of alkaline soaps and shampoos you use, the skin and hair are usually found to be way off-balanced]. Acid water is used as a… [See more on this page: https://www.alkalinewaterplus.com/beauty-tips ]
  • Acid ionized water as Skin Toner and Conditioner: Your acid mantle [outermost layer] of your skin is your body’s first line of defense against bacterial, fungal or viral infections. It is important to maintain this acid mantle at about a 5.5 pH. However, because of the nature of soaps [soaps are typically a high alkaline pH in order to emulsify and flush away oils] the acid mantle is often left at too high of a pH after bathing or showering. The consequences of this is a breakdown of the acid mantle, drying out of the skin, and roughness caused by a build-up of alkaline minerals left on the skin. Rinsing with acid water helps to remove the residual alkaline minerals and restore your skin to its perfect 5.5 ph-level.
  • Hair Rinse with acid ionized water: Shampoo is most often found at a high alkaline pH. A high pH solution applied to your hair will open up the hair cuticles [the cuticle is the outermost hair-layer surrounding each hair shaft], and expose it to becoming dry and damaged. It is most beneficial to the health and beauty of your hair to close the hair cuticle . The cuticle opens with a high pH and closes with a low pH. When you rinse with water at a pH of about 3.0 to 4.0, this low pH water combines with the high pH of your newly washed hair and restores it to its ideal pH of about 5.5. Beauty Secret: Hair that has tightly closed cuticles has a smoothe, shiny, silky look to it and doesn’t split at the ends.
  • Acid ionized water as Natural, Healthy Coolant: Acidic water can be placed in a spray bottle and brought with you to sports or other outdoor events in hot weather. When you set your bottle to mist, this has an air-conditioning effect of cooling off your body. It’s healthier for you to use acid water at about a 5.5 pH in your mister, rather than regular tap water, because the goal of misting is to cool yourself, not change the pH of your skin. The proper pH of skin is about 5.5 pH.
  • Acid ionized water as Natural Laundry Softener: Add acid water to your final rinse cycle of any load of laundry. This removes residual alkaline minerals from the clothing, brightens up the colors, and softens the laundry naturally, without the use of chemicals.
  • Acid ionized water for plants: Acid water at the pH levels of 5 – 7 pH is great for watering plants. Plants love the purified micro clustered water, and they also love the water to be slightly acidic. Flowering plants tend to like lower acidity than green shade-plants.
  • Acid ionized water as Antimicrobial/Germicidal Water: To kill germs it is best to use acid water at the pH level of 2.5 – 4. The lower the pH the faster the germs are killed, but even at a 4 pH, if you soak something for about a minute it will kill the germs on it. Laboratory testing has proven that exposure to acidic water at a 2.5 pH and lower kills germs on contact.

Alkaline ionized water on long & short terms – RULES and WARNINGS of use / consumption & storage / bottling

Alkaline ionized water on long & short terms – RULES and WARNINGS of use / consumption & storage / bottling

How to Use/Drink Alkaline Ionized  Water

The ideal pH level of alkaline ionized water for long term human consumption is between 8.5 and 9.5 (and no greater than 10.0) with the ideal ORP value around -250mV to -350mV (and in no way significantly greater than -400mV).

Warnings :

1. long term consumption of alkaline water with a pH >10

PH values significantly higher than 10 are unfit for human consumption as indicated by the World Health Organization and the Environmental Protection Agency. In fact water with high PH values such as 11 is found in ammonia solution and a PH value of 13 is the PH value found in household bleach!

For more details & uses of higly alkaline ionized water for cleaning & stain removal read this article- clic

For long term drinking of ionized alkaline water, a max of 9.5 pH is a good number but more importantly it is good to get a low –ORP (less than -300 is ideal).  Trouble is that -ORP is not easy to measure and usually the devices used are inaccurate. Also good for most people to start on low level for first few days or until they feel they can easily go up to a higher level.  If someone is very sick and even a low level feels too much then they can always mix low level ionized water with just filtered water from ionizer.
I do not like meat but understand also that some people are helped by having a  diet that also includes meat.  But regardless and in all cases more healthy fruits, vegetables, greens and enough good water are always good.

2. long-term rules/concerns of alkaline ionized water consumption:

Don’t do any alkaline water drinking with meals containing meat or dairy, and watch your body whenever you are introducing a dietary change just for good measure.

Do not drink it while taking medications [natural vitamins are fine though].

In Japan and Korea,  population has been drinking ionized water for over 30 years…some even longer. Many hospitals in both Japan and Korea use water ionizers for both its alkalizing/anti-oxidizing properties for drinking and for its acid properties in healing skin sores. Even high-classed hotels have water ionizers in every room.

15% of the population of Japan that drink ionized alkaline water from water ionizers have a 10 plus year longer life expectancy than those in the United States? And they have been drinking the ionized water for an average of only 12 years! Just think if they would have started drinking ionized water from birth!

In those countries their way of life and healing is more holistic than ours. The undeniable benefits of alkaline ionized water have been experienced over a very long time in both Korea and Japan, and with ever-growing popularity and scientific validation, water ionizers are finally becoming more well-known and used in the US.

Innumerable tests have been done on mice, rats, chickens, etc., and in almost every instance there were good results noted and no negative results have ever been able to be replicated. There have been no substantiated incidents of negative long-term effects of people drinking ionized water.

Read whole article about long term effects of ionized alkaline water -click here

Storing & bottling ionized alkaline water

When you produce alkaline ionized water the antioxidant hydroxyl ions (ORP) are fleeting in nature and will only last a maximum of 18 to 24 hours. For this reason it is best to drink the water immediately upon leaving the machine or within 6 hours time. Bottling or storing the water will not prolong the life of the hydroxyl ions and in fact you should only store what water you will be drinking during that same day. The best container to store your alkaline ionized water in is a dark glass container that is sealed and kept in a cold dark location such as your refrigerator. Exposure to oxygen in the air and light will speed up the process of decay leading to a faster loss of its antioxidant proprieties.

Due to the fleeting nature of the antioxidant hydroxyl ions bottling or storing alkaline ionized water is in no way capable of preserving the therapeutic antioxidant effects of the water. For this reason purchasing bottled alkaline water is not as beneficial as drinking the alkaline ionized water when it is fresh from the machine or in 6 hours time of its creation. Notice that when you purchase bottled water it is called “alkaline water” and not “alkaline ionized water” because of the fact that all of the hydroxyl ions have decayed. The water cannot legally be sold and called “alkaline ionized water” because all of the antioxidant hydroxyl ions have evaporated, it must now be sold strictly as “alkaline water”.

When you purchase “alkaline water” you may still get water with a higher pH (the higher PH value will remain for several months while the ORP value will dissipate completely within 24 hours) but it won’t have the same antioxidant properties as water that is fresh from the machine since the majority if not all of the ORP has evaporated from the water.

To receive the most therapeutic effects from your water ionizer be sure to drink your alkaline ionized water when it is fresh from the machine or within at most 6 hours time. If you have to take the water with you to work or on the road bottle it in a dark glass container and try to keep it sealed while placing it in a dark cold location.

Win valuable prizes as an affiliate or by recomending AlkaViva water ionizers

Win valuable prizes  as an affiliate or by recomending AlkaViva water ionizers

 

Satisfied customers and those interested in the products and services offered by us (AlkaViva) are invited to the affiliate program.
Briefly, for each water ionizer sold as a result of your recommendation as a satisfied customer or as a result of accessing the link placed on your website to our website (http://water-ionizers.info) you WIN :

  • 1 internal water ionizer filter UltraWater FREE (86 EUR) if a person buys a water ionizer from us as a result of your recommendation / advice / advice / words as a satisfied customer or as a purchase made by a customer coming directly from your affiliate link.
  • 2 FREE UltraWater water filters (172 EUR) for a water ionizer model with  2 internal  water filters.
  • Or other products offered by us, AlkaViva international ,at your choice , that are equivalent in value to the UltraWater filters  value  won, (eg UltraWater  pHD cups for naturally alcaline ionized water,    other filters water ( Biostone Plus 0.1 micron (alkaline ionized water filter) , Biostone HOLLOW 0.01 micron alkaline ionized water filter for bacteria , viruses, finhi, etc,   remineralizing water filter, calcium inserts, scale guard inserts , hard water protection filters such as EOS or Spartan,  etc.) , worth 86 eur or 172 eur worth, depending on the water ionizer model purchased by the  person you made the recommendation to ).

Those interested in joining our affiliate program & placing backLINKS to our website, please contact us at: cristigologan@gmail.com , subject AlkaViva AFFILIATE

uwwin

 

 

The Untold Truth about water memory What the Bleep Water

The Untold Truth about water memory &  Dr Masaru’s Emoto “What the Bleep Water”

About feelings (love, contentment), prayer and … water memory, ionized water, water crystals as they were captured by Dr Masaru Emoto and the movie “What The Bleep”.

Ian Blair Hamilton
Director, IonLife Australia


The amazing film, “What the Bleep” awakened countless thousands of ordinary people to the possibility of a quantum existence; the realization that things may be happening simultaneously on many planes of existence, encompassing all possible outcomes. It was an extraordinary film from a daring and visionary director and producer.

water crystalOne of the most outstanding images in the film were the subway pictures of Dr Masaru Emoto`s magnified water crystals, because they appeared to assume perfect ice-crystal-like form when exposed to positive thoughts of love and compassion. The inference was obvious; that the expression of love and compassion can alter reality at an atomic level.

Anyone who has read Deepak Chopra`s books would already be familiar with this concept. He describes it as the point where energy becomes matter. In my years in India I found a teaching from the Kashmir Shaivites, the predecessors of Buddhism, called the Spanda Karikas.

In the Spanda Karikas, reality as we see it was described as a continual `flashing forth` or energy in the form of God. If we were to slow down this continual and repetitive `flashing forth` of what we might call slides of reality, we might see that not only do they manifest on this plane, but on all others at once, and that it is merely our attachment to this plane that causes us to experience where we live. Heady stuff indeed, especially when you consider that this theory is almost identical to the core lessons of “What the Bleep”, espoused by some of the more daring scientific minds of our time.

The Spanda Karikas were laid down by yogis sitting in meditation, yogis who had never seen a car, much less a nuclear reactor, the internet or microscopic photos of water crystals. In such basic circumstances, their brilliance of perception and insights into the holographic nature of existence, seems to me to be all that greater than someone who today has the support of the greatest array of available data and research in the history of civilization.

So when I see the wonderful concepts in !What The Bleep! I remind myself of the old Yogis sitting alone in a cave in the Himalayas who had already worked these things out!

Back to the Bleep Water. Dr Masaru Emoto has now conducted thousands of experiments on water from many places and has found that in many cases, water seems to assume a beautiful crystalline structure when prayed over, or even when it has had words like `Love` stuck to a bottle. This is indeed a wonderful idea, but there is a danger in extrapolating Mister Emoto`s findings to include waters that have not been prayed over or emotional affected.

The argument goes like this:
Mister Emoto`s water samples, when prayed over, assume a beautiful crystalline form. Therefore waters with beautiful crystalline form are beneficial waters. But what about the trillions of snowflakes that fall gently from the sky, each with a perfect and unique crystalline form? How were these water crystals able to assume this amazing form and yet not be prayed over?
To take it a little further, if for instance, a magnetic field could restructure water into a perfect crystalline structure, should we therefore assume it was more beneficial, or had the energy of Love imprinted in it?.

It`s clear that many of us would dearly love to believe that if we had crystalline formed water, we may experience more love in our life, or any of the other wonderful emotions and effects Mister Emoto used to create his specimens. But just as clearly, water with crystalline structure isn`t necessarily imbued with any of these attributes.
So what does cause a water to restructure into this crystalline format?

Well, without getting too technical, it all depends on the negative charge in the water. This means that the water holds enough negative hydrogen ions to restructure itself into an eight-sided matrix rather than the smaller matrix of ordinary H2O. That`s all! This occurs as rain precipitates from clouds in the form of snow, (in the right atmospheric magnetic field) and in many modern water filters. In fact you can create your own Emoto water with three of the new Neodymium magnets – the sort used in hard drives. Just strap them around your ordinary fifty dollar water filter and they will create a magnetic field through which your water will pass, restructuring itself as it goes. You can do it even more simply. Tape two of these magnets opposite each other on your water pipe under the sink. The magnetic field they create in the water flowing through the pipe will create the same `Emoto` effect. Total cost: $20 at the most. There are plenty of Neodymium magnet suppliers on the net.

Of course seeing this crystalline structure is much harder than getting the effect. It requires Mister Emoto`s special water freezing process to be able to see a sample of your water in this form. This requires you to send it to Japan plus rather a larger outlay for the testing. However there is a way to see whether your water is what I`d call Emoto water, and it doesn`t take a trip to Japan.

The reason the water changes its crystalline form is the abundance of negative hydrogen ions in the water. These are ordinary hydrogen atoms that have become negatively charged as a result of the magnetic field. Because of this charge, they force the oxygen in the water to bond in a bigger structure or matrix. It is this structure you see in Mister Emoto`s beautiful pictures. So if you have lots of hydroxyl ions in your water, you can be sure that your water would, if you could see it, be like Mister Emoto`s water.

How do you find this out? You use an instrument called an ORP (Oxidation or Reduction Potential meter) If you are really keen you can buy one for about $100. This meter measures the positive or negative charge in a liquid. The presence of a strong negative charge indicates the presence of a large number of Hydroxyl ions; hence, you have Emoto water.

Ordinary tap water, measured by an ORP meter, will be around +250 millivolts. Some water filters with Tourmaline in their filters, or Neodymium magnets in the filter, will reduce this to close to zero. (Tourmaline has many names including some proprietary Japanese ones, but it is used because it has the ability to emit Far InfraRed energy, which has the same effect as a magnetic field in the restructuring and negative charging of the water.)
This makes the water nicer to drink, but is it better for you? Yes it is. The hydroxyl ion is often referred to as the primal antioxidant. It is what is `caged` in foods that are known as antioxidant foods. So having Hydroxyl ions in your water, no matter how they are created, is fundamentally good.

So if a little is good, is more better? Of course. The wonderful thing about antioxidants is that scientists say that you will take up what your body needs. You won`t overdose. Of course, if your body is heavily positively charged from exposure to other electrical fields such as mobile phones, computer monitors, TV`s etc, it will need more negatively charged Hydroxyl ions. We are, as author Ray Bradbury said, `The Body Electric` and every chemical reaction that happens inside of us is a fundamental electrical one. So in today`s world, we often feel lethargic because we have far too few negative ions in our body. So how do we get more negative ions?

Interestingly, in the experiments I have done, a magnet strapped to the outside of a water filter has consistently performed better in Hydroxyl ion production that some very expensive imported water filters that claim to create restructured water. By measuring and tabulating the results of various combinations of magnets and water filters, I found that few magnetic or tourmaline-only systems brought the tap water lower than zero in millivolts. Practically, what this means is that it is certainly better than tap water, but it still isn`t contributing a net negative charge to your body.

The only way I could get a reading of negative millivolts, which indicated a net negative charge in the water, and far greater volumes of Hydroxyl ions, was by the use of an electronically controlled magnetic field induced in a purpose-built chamber in a standard Jupiter Science Water Ionizer. The computer-controlled magnetic field was strong enough to separate out the positive ions into a separate stream of water. In this way, I received water that was had far, far more negative ions than any other method. To give you an idea, if tap water was +250mv, the best reading of negative charge I saw on a magnetic or Tourmaline water filter system was +50mv, whereas the electronic water ionizer consistently produced water with readings as low as -400mv. In ideal conditions this reading can be over -800mv.

It isn`t necessary to get all technical here. You can simply look at the differences and work it out yourself. The lower the ORP meter reading, the better the Emoto effect. Pity we can`t see it, Maybe Mister Emoto will create a home crystal maker.

In the meantime, if you want crystalline structured water like Mister Emoto`s, buy a couple of magnets and strap them to your cold water pipe. If you want lots of negative ions, buy a water ionizer from IonLife.

ionized water – Therapeutic Water

ionized water Therapeutic Water

Much of what you will read about water(i.e: from bottled water ,reverse osmosis filtered water to kangen water, alkaline water, structured water,live water, ionized water, etc)  on the web and in other places is marketing hype.What is the truth ?

Here is an article by

By Dr. James Lembeck

A great deal has been written about the subject of therapeutic water over the past twenty or so years. The reason for this is that the technology to treat, filter and produce drinkable water has changed considerably. The old theories regarding what is considered to be acceptable drinking water, no longer…hold water.

Much of what you will read about water on the web and in other places is marketing hype. In many cases this information is based on myths that are perpetuated by those who are either selling something and are uneducated, or have just not done their research. This is a problem and only confuses the public more than they already are. The bottom line is that water is probably the most therapeutic substance on the planet; you just have to be able to weed through all the hype to find out what has been proven.

What is the answer to this long standing problem regarding the dissemination of inaccurate information? First we have to define what is truly meant by the term `therapeutic water`. There really is no easy answer to this question because it is such a broad term. But suffice it to say that the water you drink from the tap is not therapeutic, but other forms to varying degrees are.

It would require an entirely different article to go into ALL the different `types` of water treatment products that are being offered on the market today, and how beneficial, or not beneficial they are. For example, there are products that make distilled water, reverse osmosis water, softened water, alkalized water, structured water and several others. All of these methods of treating water to alter it, and therefore affect the way the body assimilates and uses the water to varying degrees. Some are better than others, while those that are `no good`…are really NO GOOD.

One of the best ways (although there are several ways to accomplish this task) to treat and restructure water is via electrolysis. What is that and how does it work? Well, first we have to look at what water is (H2O), and then we can look at what the manipulation of water by electrolysis (making negative ions) can do, and how it can change your life.

Water is a very simple molecule; it is so simple that all of us take its presence in our lives for granted. What it all comes down to is that water is made up of charged particles of hydrogen and oxygen. This is a very basic substance, but when taken in and used in the appropriate manner, it can help us to maintain our health far beyond what is thought to be possible by main stream medicine today. We will not go into the finer details here as to the exact mechanism of action by which alkalized/ionized water is made using electrolysis. So if you want to get more detail regarding this process, please check out the Site Map on this web site for more information.

The manipulation of water (Ionized = increasing the negative ions/alkalized = making water more alkaline) can be done in a number of ways. It can be done chemically, electrically and by the use of earth based materials known as minerals.

NOTE: Please keep in mind that the bottled water that you buy at any store, is NOT therapeutic in any way shape or form (other than possibly providing some hydration). Bottled waters look and taste like water; however they can also be classified as `dead`…what does this mean? Well, to show how `active/therapeutic` water is (or alive it is) you would need an ORP (oxygen reduction potential) meter and a pH meter, both of which most people don`t typically carry around with them. But if they did have these tools, they would show them that `dead water` has a much higher positive charge (+200 to +300) than the highly negative (high ORP) therapeutically (-200 to -700) ionized water does. High ORP water contains a much higher free negative electrical charge than bottled, distilled or tap water. With the right equipment the high ORP water can also be manipulated to either decrease or increase its pH.

Some of the researched benefits of drinking ionized/alkalized water are:
1. It may help to normalize insulin and body weight
2. It may help to maintain proper cholesterol levels
3. It can help to normalize your blood pressure
4. It can help to reduce systemic acidity
5. It can help to maintain proper electrolyte activity
6. It may have anti-ag