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Safety & Health Benefits of Hydrogen Water – Nobel Prize Nominee, Dr. GARTH NICOLSON


Safety & Health Benefits of Hydrogen Water – Nobel Prize Nominee, Dr. GARTH NICOLSON

dissolved hydrogen for PERITONEAL DIALYSIS patients to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity

Abstract

Background

Oxidative stress (OS) related to glucose degradation products such as methylglyoxal is reportedly associated with peritoneal deterioration in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the use of general antioxidant agents is limited due to their harmful effects. This study aimed to clarify the influence of the novel antioxidant molecular hydrogen (H2) on peritoneal OS using albumin redox state as a marker.

Methods

Effluent and blood samples of 6 regular PD patients were obtained during the peritoneal equilibrium test using standard dialysate and hydrogen-enriched dialysate. The redox state of albumin in effluent and blood was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results

Mean proportion of reduced albumin (ƒ(HMA)) in effluent was significantly higher in H2-enriched dialysate (62.31 ± 11.10%) than in standard dialysate (54.70 ± 13.08%). Likewise, serum ƒ(HMA) after administration of hydrogen-enriched dialysate (65.75 ± 7.52%) was significantly higher than that after standard dialysate (62.44 ± 7.66%).

Conclusions

Trans-peritoneal administration of H2 reduces peritoneal and systemic OS.

Background

Peritoneal deterioration is one of the most serious complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy, leading to ultrafiltration failure and the more severe complication of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). As the duration of PD increases, so does the risk of peritoneal deterioration []. More than 40% of patients in Japan who were on PD treatment for longer than 8 years stopped it due to the progression of peritoneal damage []. The pathological mechanisms of peritoneal damage are multi-factorial, but accumulated data have revealed the critical role of glucose degradation end-products (GDPs), i.e., chemically reactive carbonyl compounds. Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the representative toxic GDPs, causing detrimental effects due to its rapid and indiscriminate oxidative nature [], and its production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical, methyl radical, and undetermined carbon-centered radicals []. These used to be present in conventional dialysate, and also enter into the dialysate from uremic plasma []. Bio-compatible low-GDP dialysate is currently available, but a Japanese multicenter nationwide study, the NEXT-PD study [], revealed the occurrence of EPS even with the use of low-GDP solutions [under submission]. This indicates the need for novel therapeutic approaches to suppress possible insults from enhanced oxidative stress (OS) due to uremic oxidants in the peritoneal cavity.

Recently, the novel role of molecular hydrogen (H2) as an antioxidant has been revealed. H2 eliminates the hydroxyl radical in cultured cells and living organisms []. Interestingly, H2 does not influence other ROS, including superoxide, peroxide, and nitric oxide; these ROS play important physiological roles in body []. In humans, the safety of H2 has been tested, particularly in the field of deep diving. In contrast to general drugs, which usually have some harmful effects, no toxicity was found even at high concentrations of H2[]. H2 thus has therapeutic potential for pathological states related to ROS [].

The present study tested the effects of peritoneal dialysate containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen (H2-enriched dialysate) as a novel anti-oxidant among patients treated with PD. As a result, we demonstrated that the use of hydrogen-enriched dialysate could reduce not only peritoneal, but also systemic OS in clinical settings.

Methods

Preparation of hydrogen-enriched dialysate

Hydrogen-enriched dialysate was prepared using MiZ nondestructive hydrogen dissolver (MiZ, Kanagawa, Japan), as reported elsewhere []. When commercial peritoneal dialysate is immersed in H2-enriched water, hydrogen permeates through the container, resulting in the H2 concentration of dialysate gradually increasing in a time-dependent manner (Figure 1). We prepared H2-enriched dialysate using this apparatus by immersing commercial peritoneal dialysate bags for more than 2 hr. Hydrogen-enriched dialysate was then applied as a test solution for peritoneal equilibrium testing.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 2045-9912-3-14-1.jpg

MiZ nondestructive hydrogen dissolver (A) and the hydrogen concentration of peritoneal dialysate in hydrogen-saturated water (B). Hydrogen concentration of dialysate and hydrogen-saturated water around dialysate was measured using a dissolved H2 measurement apparatus DH-35A (DKK-TOA, Tokyo, Japan).

Patients

Six male PD patients were studied (mean age, 55 years; range, 44–71 years; length of PD, 39 ± 17 months; weight, 68.1 ± 16.1 kg; height, 166.2 ± 5.6 cm). The pathology underlying end-stage renal disease was as follows: chronic glomerulonephritis, n = 3; diabetic nephropathy, n = 2; and hypertensive nephropathy, n = 1. Patients with active infection, bleeding, liver dysfunction, collagen disease, systemic vasculitis, cardiovascular accident within 6 months, or malignancy were excluded from this study. Performance status of all patients was class 1 according to American Heart Association criteria []. All patients had been receiving daily continuous ambulatory PD (3–4 bags/day) using neutral low-GDP dextrose solution. The ethics committee of Fukushima Medical University approved this study protocol (Acceptance No. 1362) and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to enrollment.

Protocol

Patients underwent a simplified peritoneal equilibration test (fast PET) using standard dialysate, then underwent fast PET using hydrogen-enriched dialysate 2 weeks later. Fast PET was conducted in accordance with the method of Twardowski []. In brief, peritoneal dialysate (2 L of 2.5% dextrose-dialysate) was intraperitoneally infused with a Tenckhoff catheter, and the entire volume of dialysate was drained from the body after 240 min. The drained effluent was mixed well and 2 mL was collected as an effluent sample. Blood samples were obtained before and after fast PET, then 2 mL of serum was drawn after centrifugation and stored at −80°C for 1–4 weeks until analysis. Samples of serum and effluent collected to measure albumin redox were stored at −80°C for 1–4 weeks until analysis. During fast PET, blood pressure, cardiac pulse, and hydrogen concentration in the breath were measured repeatedly every 60 min. Breath hydrogen concentration was also measured in three cases just after, 15 min after, and 30 min after infusion of H2-enriched dialysate. Breath hydrogen concentration was measured using a biological gas (gas in the oral cavity) H2 measurement apparatus BGA-1000D (Aptec, Kyoto, Japan).

Measurement of albumin redox state

Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein composed of 585 amino acids. The amino residue at position 34 from the N-terminus is a cysteine, containing a mercapto group (SH group). This mercapto group deoxidizes other substances according to the degree of surrounding OS and is itself oxidized. From the perspective of cysteine residues, HSA is a mixture of human mercaptoalbumin (HMA) in which the mercapto group is not oxidized, human non-mercaptoalbumin-1 in which disulfide bond formation is reversibly oxidized mainly by cysteine (HNA-1), and human non-mercaptoalbumin-2 which is strongly oxidized and forms a sulfinic (−SO2H) or sulfonic (−SO3H) group.

The redox state of HSA was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as previously reported []. The HPLC system consisted of an autosampler (AS-8010; Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan; injection volume, 2 μL) and double-plunger pump (CCPM; Tosoh) in conjunction with a system controller (CO-8011; Tosoh). Chromatographs were obtained using a UV6000LP photodiode alley detector (detection area, 200–600 nm with 1-nm step; Thermo Electron, Waltham, MA, USA). A Shodex-Asahipak ES-502N 7C column (10 × 0.76 cm I.D., DEAE-form for ion-exchange HPLC; Showa Denko, Tokyo, Japan; column temperature, 35 ± 0.5°C) was used in this study. Elusion was performed as linear gradient elusion with graded ethanol concentrations (0 to 1 min, 0%; 1 to 50 min, 0 → 10%; 50 to 55 min, 10 → 0%; 55 to 60 min, 0%) for serum in 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.40 M sodium sulfate mixture (pH 4.85) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. De-aeration of the buffer solution was performed by bubbling helium.

HPLC profiles obtained from these procedures were subjected to numerical curve fitting with PeakFit version 4.05 simulation software (SPSS Science, Chicago, IL, USA), and each peak shape was approximated by a Gaussian function. Values for fractions of HMA, HNA-1, and HNA-2 to total HSA were then calculated (ƒ(HMA), ƒ(HNA-1), and ƒ(HNA-2), respectively).

Statistical analysis

Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise stated. StatView version 5.0 statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The significance of collected data was evaluated using a paired t-test or 1-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe’s test as a post-hoc test, as appropriate. For magnitude of correlation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) was used. Differences or correlations were considered significant for values of P < 0.05.

Results

Table 1 shows changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and breath hydrogen concentration during fast PET. Regarding blood pressure and heart rate, no significant difference was seen between standard and H2-enriched dialysate (paired t-test). No significant changes were observed during fast PET in either standard or H2-enriched dialysate (1-factor repeated-measures ANOVA).

Table 1

The changes of blood pressure, cardiac pulse, and breath H2 concentration during fast PET

Standard dialysate H2-enriched dialysate
Blood pressure mmHg




   0 min


130 ± 12 / 79 ± 10


135 ± 13 / 81 ± 10


   60 min


130 ± 11 / 79 ± 5


131 ± 14 / 82 ± 12


   120 min


125 ± 9 / 79 ± 7


134 ± 8 / 80 ± 14


   180 min


123 ± 12 / 75 ± 12


136 ± 5 / 78 ± 12


   240 min


128 ± 9 / 78 ± 7


132 ± 9 / 81 ± 13


Pulse /min




   0 min


81 ± 7


82 ± 12


   60 min


76 ± 6


79 ± 12


   120 min


74 ± 6


78 ± 14


   180 min


77 ± 4


78 ± 17


   240 min


78 ± 7


81 ± 15


Breath H2 ppm




   0 min


4.7 ± 6.6


3.2 ± 2.0


   60 min


1.8 ± 1.3


8.3 ± 7.5*


   120 min


3.0 ± 1.7


8.5 ± 11.0


   180 min


4.2 ± 2.8


5.8 ± 4.8


   240 min 5.5 ± 6.7 7.2 ± 4.6

*; p < 0.05 vs. standard dialysate.

Changes in breath hydrogen concentration in all cases are shown in Table 1 and Figure 2 (A, B). Although no significant changes were observed during fast PET in both standard and H2-enriched dialysate, the hydrogen concentration at 60 min was significantly higher in H2-enriched dialysate than in standard dialysate.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 2045-9912-3-14-2.jpg

Change in breath hydrogen concentration during fast PET. A) Hourly change in PET using standard dialysate. No significant changes were observed. B) Hourly change during PET using H2-enriched dialysate. The hydrogen concentration at 60 min was significantly higher in H2-enriched dialysate than in standard dialysate. C) Breath hydrogen concentrations before, just after, 15 min after, and 30 min after administration of H2-enriched dialysate in three cases. Hydrogen concentrations just after and 15 min after administration were significantly higher than that before administration.

Breath hydrogen concentrations before, just after, 15 min after, and 30 min after administration of H2-enriched dialysate in three cases are shown in Figure 2C. Hydrogen concentrations were significantly higher just after and 15 min after administration (22.7 ± 5.7 and 15.3 ± 3.5 ppm, respectively) than before administration (4.0 ± 1.7 ppm).

Figure 3 shows the redox state of albumin in effluent fluid. The mean proportion of HMA (ƒ(HMA)) was significantly higher in H2-enriched dialysate (62.31 ± 11.10%) than in standard dialysate (54.70 ± 13.08%). In contrast, ƒ(HNA-1) was significantly lower in H2-enriched dialysate (34.26 ± 10.24%) than in standard dialysate (41.36 ± 12.04%). Like ƒ(HNA-1), ƒ(HNA-2) was significantly lower in H2-enriched dialysate (3.43 ± 0.92%) than in standard dialysate (3.94 ± 1.13%). These results suggest that the use of H2-enriched dialysate reduced peritoneal OS. Regarding the result of fast PET (D/P-Cre, drained volume) and effluent creatinine, albumin, interleukin 6 and carbohydrate antigen 125 levels, no differences were evident between standard and H2-enriched dialysate (Table 2).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 2045-9912-3-14-3.jpg

Redox state of albumin in effluent fluid. Mean proportion of reduced albumin (ƒ(HMA)) was significantly higher (A), and that of oxidized albumin (ƒ(HNA-1) (B) and ƒ(HNA-2)) (C) was significantly lower in H2-enriched dialysate than in standard dialysate.

Table 2

The results of serum creatinine value, fast PET and effluent test

Standard dialysate H2-enriched dialysate
Creatinine mg/dL


10.53 ± 2.27


10.03 ± 2.19


Parameter of fast PET




   D/P-Cre


0.71 ± 0.12


0.66 ± 0.11


   Drained volume mL/4 hr


470 ± 184


442 ± 130


Effluent test




   Albumin mg/L


408 ± 175


402 ± 145


   Interleukin-6 pg/mL


6.0 ± 3.3


5.5 ± 2.3


   CA125 U/mL 18.8 ± 8.5 19.5 ± 5.0

Figure 4 shows the redox state of albumin in serum before and after fast PET. The serum ƒ(HMA) level after administration of H2-enriched dialysate (65.75 ± 7.52%) was significantly higher than that after standard dialysate (62.44 ± 7.66%). In contrast, ƒ(HNA-1) after administration of H2-enriched dialysate (31.12 ± 6.73%) was significantly lower than that of standard dialysate (34.73 ± 7.02%). These results suggest that use of H2-enriched dialysate reduced not only peritoneal, but also systemic OS. No significant difference was seen between effluent and serum ƒ(HMA) levels after administration of H2-enriched dialysate (65.31 ± 11.10% and 62.71 ± 7.52%, respectively), while effluent ƒ(HMA) after administration of standard dialysate was significantly lower than serum ƒ(HMA) before administration of standard dialysate (54.70 ± 13.08% and 62.96 ± 8.34%, respectively; P = 0.0339), suggesting that intraperitoneal oxidation of albumin was suppressed by H2-enriched dialysate.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is 2045-9912-3-14-4.jpg

Redox state of albumin in serum before and after fast PET. The mean proportion of reduced albumin (ƒ(HMA)) was significantly higher after fast PET using H2-enriched dialysate than after that using standard dialysate (A). Conversely, the mean proportion of reversibly oxidized albumin (ƒ(HNA-1)) was significantly lower after fast PET using H2-enriched dialysate than that after using standard dialysate (B). No significant changes were found in irreversibly oxidized albumin (ƒ(HNA-2)) in the both groups (C).

Discussion

Several reports have suggested that OS participates in peritoneal deterioration, with findings such as strong cytoplasmic staining of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in peritoneal biopsy specimens of long-term PD patients [], amplified protein kinase C signaling and fibronectin expression due to enhanced ROS in cultured human mesothelial cells []. In terms of the central role of enhanced OS in PD peritoneal damage, Gunal et al. [] showed that oral supplementation with the anti-oxidative agent trimetazidine inhibited morphological and functional deterioration of the peritoneum in a PD rat model. However, regarding suppressing OS, no clinical approaches have been available for PD treatment so far.

The present study aimed to test the therapeutic possibility of using dissolved hydrogen in the dialysate to suppress intra-cavity OS in the clinical setting. This study examined the redox state of albumin as a marker of OS. Since the change in redox state of albumin is a physiological and direct reaction, it is appropriate when evaluating real-time OS and/or detecting rapid changes in OS, as compared to other OS markers such as 8-hydroxy-2′–deoxyguanosine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and F2 isoprotanes, all of which are in vivo by-products during the process of oxidation.

This pilot study of 6 patients clearly demonstrated that single administration of H2-enriched dialysate increased levels of both peritoneal and plasma ƒ(HMA) without any detrimental effects.

Intraperitoneal administration of H2 altered the local redox state, which may indicate the therapeutic potential of delivering H2 directly to the abdominal cavity in respect to the amelioration of peritoneal damage by PD treatment. On the other hand, interestingly, significant increases in serum ƒ(HMA) levels were seen on intraperitoneal administration of H2. Rapid changes in hydrogen concentration of expired gas after the administration of H2-enriched dialysate may mean that molecular hydrogen in dialysate is rapidly distributed to the body to suppress systemic OS. Another possibility is that increased ƒ(HMA) in the cavity may be recruited into systemic circulation through the abdominal lymphatic drainage. The exact mechanisms underlying increased serum ƒ(HMA) need to be addressed in the future.

In addition, the mechanisms of increased ƒ(HMA) and decreased ƒ(HMA1) by H2 have remained unclear in this study. However, molecular hydrogen is known to directly reduce levels of the cytotoxic hydroxyl radical [], through several possible mechanisms, such as regulation of particular metalloproteins by bonding, or metalloprotein-hydrogen interactions []. Whether H2 directly reacts with the mercapto-residue of albumin, or H2 indirectly modifies it, should be clarified in the future.

Satisfactory anti-oxidative capability of drinking H2-enriched water without any detrimental effects has been reported, in both experimental [] and clinical settings, e.g., type II diabetes mellitus [], metabolic syndrome [], myopathies (progressive muscular dystrophy and polymyositis/dermatomyositis) [], and rheumatoid arthritis []. In addition, we also reported the clinical feasibility of applying H2-enriched water as dialysate for hemodialysis treatment [,]. Given these reports and our present findings, H2-enriched peritoneal dialysate could be of interest in clinical trials with respect to peritoneal preservation. Furthermore, therapeutic effects seem plausible in terms of the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients, since low f(HMA) has been a significant risk factor for cardiovascular mortality among patients treated with PD [] and HD [].

In summary, single administration of H2-enriched dialysate reduced peritoneal and systemic OS without any detrimental effects. A longitudinal study is warranted to ensure clinically beneficial effects, such as suppression of peritoneal deterioration and cardiovascular damage.

 

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Link to Publisher's site
. 2013; 3: 14.
Published online 2013 Jul 1. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-14
PMCID: PMC3734057
PMID: 23816239
Transperitoneal administration of dissolved hydrogen for peritoneal dialysis patients: a novel approach to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HT, YH, and WJZ carried out the selections of patients, and the sample collections. HT drafted the manuscript. YM, TT, and SE carried out the measurements of samples. SK, and TW contributed to the study as senior advisers. BS carried out the set-up of equipment system for study. MN organized the study project, and drafted the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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hydrogen water , SPORTS , ANTIOXIDANTS and GUT FLORA

Abstract

Expending a considerable amount of physical energy inevitably leads to fatigue during both training and competition in football. An increasing number of experimental findings have confirmed the relationship between the generation and clearance of free radicals, fatigue, and exercise injury. Recently, hydrogen was identified as a new selective antioxidant with potential beneficial applications in sports. The present study evaluated the effect of 2-month consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the gut flora in juvenile female soccer players from Suzhou. As demonstrated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of stool samples, the consumption of hydrogen-rich water for two months significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α levels; then significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity levels and haemoglobin levels of whole blood. Furthermore, the consumption of hydrogen-rich water improved the diversity and abundance of the gut flora in athletes. All examined indices, including the shannon, sobs, ace, and chao indices, were higher in the control group than those proposed to result from hydrogen-rich water consumption prior to the trial, but these indices were all reversed and were higher than those in the controls after the 2-month intervention. Nevertheless, there were some differences in the gut flora components of these two groups before the trial, whereas there were no significant changes in the gut flora composition during the trial period. Thus, the consumption of hydrogen-rich water for two months might play a role modulating in the gut flora of athletes based on its selective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the Suzhou Sports School (approved number: SSS-EC150903).

Introduction

A number of studies have confirmed that the occurrence of exercise-induced fatigue is closely related to the level of oxidative stress in the body., The lipid peroxidative damage caused by the accumulation of free radicals in the body and the corresponding chain reaction are considered important factors responsible for decreased function of the body.,,

The antioxidant capacity of professional athletes is much higher than that of ordinary people, and athletes develop a greater ability to withstand the accumulation of free radicals and oxidative damage generated in sports. However, there are still many problems regarding protection against and alleviation and removal of the oxidative stress reaction induced by free radical accumulation in the aftermath of exercise and sports. Currently, the effects of antioxidants used in exercise practice vary, and studies have indicated that some of these substances may induce more significant skeletal muscle injury in athletes.,, Therefore, the search for safe and effective selective antioxidants has become an important research endeavour.

The selective antioxidant activity of hydrogen was first reported in 2007 by Ohsawa et al. Thereafter, a significant number of studies confirmed that hydrogen-rich water, prepared by dissolving hydrogen in water, shows selective antioxidant activity. Currently, sports science researchers are paying increasing attention to the selective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects of hydrogen and its regulation of the alkalinizing environment of the body., The beneficial protective effect of hydrogen-rich water has gradually been confirmed in both animal and human experiments.

The human symbiotic gut flora, considered the body’s “second genome”, has significant effects on human health., In recent years, studies have confirmed that imbalance of the intestinal flora is directly related to oxidative stress., The results of human experiments on athletes have shown that a greater exercise intensity results in increased oxidative stress in the body and, thus, a higher incidence of gastrointestinal stress symptoms. Therefore, in the training process, athletes should drink a sufficient amount of selective antioxidant hydrogen-rich water to regulate their gut flora, which might have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract and reduce stress reactions.

Participants and Methods

Participants and grouping

Thirty-eight juvenile female football players from the Suzhou Sports School showing a healthy status and absence of sports injury, without any obvious food preference, and with no significant reported intake of nutritional supplements and antibiotics for 3 months were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n = 10) and the hydrogen-rich water treatment group (n = 28) (Figure 1). Written informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to admission to the protocol, and the study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the Suzhou Sports School (approved number: SSS-EC150903). This study follows the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. During the experiment, the athletes in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group drank hydrogen-rich water in an amount equivalent to the amount of normal water they had previously consumed daily, while athletes in the control group continued to drink standard water in amounts consistent with their previous habits. The experiment lasted for 2 months. The basic information of the subjects is shown in Table 1.

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Trial flow chart.

Table 1

Characteristics of all subjects

Characteristics Control group (n = 10) Hydrogen-rich water treatment group (n = 28)
Age (year) 13.7±1.06 12.18±0.86
Height (cm) 159.1±5.51 149.32±8.69
Body weight (kg) 48.97±4.56 40.15±7.56
Training period (year) 3.4±1.51 1.21±0.6

Note: Data as expressed as the mean ± SD.

Sample collection

During the experiment, the athletes followed their previous dietary and resting regimes and other aspects of their normal daily routine. The training content, exercise intensity, frequency of exercise, and other parameters were consistent with the routine training regimen of the athletes.

Blood sample test

We collected 5 mL samples of venous blood (fasting) from all 38 athletes at a predetermined time in the morning, and 100 μL of whole blood was sampled for the measurement of haematological parameters in a blood cell analyser. The remaining blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 5 minutes. The serum samples were then collected and analysed with an automatic biochemical analysis apparatus to determine hemoglobin (HGB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK). Then, the serum samples were analysed for oxidative response indices (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and inflammatory indices (interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

16S rDNA sequencing analysis of gut flora samples

Faecal flora samples were collected from all 38 athletes according to the specifications for stool sampling and stored at –80°C. The subsequent DNA sample extraction and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis were performed with the assistance of the Novagene Genomics Institute.

Statistical analysis

SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The results were expressed as the mean ± SD. Significant differences between the two groups were analysed with repeated measured one-way analysis of variance, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05.

Results

Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on routine indices of juvenile female football players

Hemoglobin

After 4 weeks, HGB decreased from 134.3 ± 12.95 g/L to 124.00 ± 17.75 g/L in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group decreased from 138.74 ± 9.38 g/L to 129.59 ± 8.57 g/L. After 8 weeks, HGB increased from 124.00 ± 17.75 g/L to 131.6 ± 25.31 g/L in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group increased from 129.59 ± 8.57 g/L to 139.89 ± 7.02 g/L (Figure 2A). The increasing trend and amplitude of HGB were more significant in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group (P = 0.032).

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Changes in HGB, BUN and CK before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption.

Note: (A) The shift of HGB before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (B) The shift of BUN before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (C) The shift of CK before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption. HGB: Hemoglobin; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CK: creatine kinase.

Blood urea nitrogen

After 4 weeks, the level of BUN increased from 4.73 ± 0.88 to 4.83 ± 0.81 mM in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group changed from 5.19 ± 0.85 to 5.17 ± 1.03 mM. After 8 weeks, the level of BUN in the control group continued to increase, from 4.83 ± 0.81 to 5.29 ± 0.97 mM, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group decreased from 5.17 ± 1.03 to 4.42 ± 0.95 mM (Figure 2B). There was a more distinct difference between the two groups (P = 0.887).

Creatine kinase

After 4 weeks, CK in the control group increased from 157.3 ± 17.37 to 171.3 ± 31.96 IU, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group decreased from 149.3 ± 30.43 to 135.85 ± 24.44 IU (Figure 2C). After 8 weeks, CK decreased from 171.3 ± 31.96 to 129.7 ± 30.05 IU in the control group and from 135.85 ± 24.44 to 119.85 ± 29.93 IU in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group (P = 0.061).

Compared with HGB and BUN, CK was more sensitive to changes in the exercise load. These results suggest that the hydrogen-rich water treatment exerted a somewhat effect to enhance the whole blood HGB level of the athletes.

Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on oxidative response indices of juvenile female football players

Malondialdehyde

After 4 weeks, serum MDA decreased from 24.77 ± 7.32 to 16.67 ± 4.19 μM in the control group, while that decreased from 22.39 ± 6.20 to 13.80 ± 3.33 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. After 8 weeks, serum MDA changed from 16.67 ± 4.19 to 15.79 ± 3.07 μM in the control group and from13.80 ± 3.33 to 12.69 ± 1.94 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with significant differences being observed between the two groups (P = 0.000; Figure 3A).

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Changes in MDA, SOD and T-AOC before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption.

Note: (A) The shift of MDA before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (B) The shift of SOD before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (C) The shift of T-AOC before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption. MDA: Malondialdehyde; SOD: superoxide dismutase; T-AOC: total antioxidant capacity.

Superoxide dismutase

After 4 weeks, the serum SOD level increased from 10.14 ± 2.60 to 13.14 ± 2.18 U/mL in the control group and from 11.09 ± 3.17 to 14.07 ± 1.91 U/mL in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. After 8 weeks, the serum SOD level in the control group decreased from 13.14 ± 2.18 to 13.01 ± 1.08 U/mL, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group decreased from 14.07 ± 1.91 to 13.69 ± 2.10 U/mL, with significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.027; Figure 3B).

Total antioxidant capacity

After 4 weeks, serum T-AOC increased from 0.8 ± 0.08 to 1.11 ± 0.17 μM in the control group, while serum T-AOC in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group changed from 0.87 ± 0.11 to 1.17 ± 0.13 μM. After 8 weeks, T-AOC changed from 1.17 ± 0.13 to 0.84 ± 0.09 μM in the control group and from 1.17 ± 0.13 to 0.9 ± 0.13 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.004, Figure 3C).

These results suggest that the hydrogen-rich water treatment exerted an anti-oxidative effect.

Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on inflammatory indices of juvenile female football players

Interleukin-1

After 4 weeks, the level of serum IL-1 in the control group increased from 24.77 ± 7.32 to 32.56 ± 7.61 μM, and that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group increased from 24.79 ± 8.94 to 29.32 ± 7.09 μM. After 8 weeks, the IL-1 level increased from 32.56 ± 7.61 to 42.94 ± 6.24 μM in the control group and from 29.32 ± 7.09 μM to 34.47 ± 6.22 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.002, Figure 4A).

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Changes in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption.

Note: (A) The shift of IL-1 before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (B) The shift of IL-6 before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (C) The shift of TNF-α before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption. IL: Interleukin; TNF-α: tumour necrosis factor alpha.

Interleukin-6

After 4 weeks, the level of serum IL-6 decreased from 19.48 ± 2.16 to 10.53 ± 1.62 ng/L in the control group and from 17.72 ± 2.1 to 8.74 ± 2.57 ng/L in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. After 8 weeks, the level of serum IL-6 in the control group increased from 10.53 ± 1.62 ng/L to 24.88 ± 6.11 ng/L, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group increased from 8.74 ± 2.57 to 12.37 ± 3.2 ng/L, with significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.000, Figure 4B).

Tumour necrosis factor-α

After 4 weeks, serum TNF-α increased from 20.04 ± 7.99 to 60.57 ± 10.09 μM in the control group and increased from 20.44 ± 7.75 to 49.46 ± 11.59 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. After 8 weeks, serum TNF-α increased from 60.57 ± 10.09 to 132.24 ± 10.46 μM in the control group and from 49.46 ± 11.59 to 107.00 ± 13.89 μM in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.000, Figure 4C).

These results suggest that the hydrogen-rich water treatment exerted an anti-inflammatory effect.

Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on gut flora components of juvenile female football players

Classification by phylum

In the samples collected from the athletes after pre-treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the number of Actinobacteria in the control group was higher than that in the treatment group, and the number of Bacteroides in the control group was slightly lower than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. Moreover, the number of Clostridia in the control group was slightly higher than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. However, there were no significant differences in the numbers of these bacterial groups after 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

Classification by class

In samples collected from the athletes after pre-treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the number of Actinobacteria in the control group was higher than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, while the number of Bacteroides in the control group was slightly lower than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, and the numbers of ClostridiaCoriobacteria, and Erysipelotrichia in the control group were higher than those in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in the numbers of these bacterial groups after 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

Classification by order

In samples collected from the athletes after pre-treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the number of Actinobacteria in the control group was higher than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, while the number of Bacteroides in the control group was slightly lower than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, and the numbers of Clostridia and Coriobacteria in the control group were higher than those in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. The number of Erysipelotrichia in the control group was higher than that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, although this difference was not significant. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the numbers of related bacteria after 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

Classification by family

In samples collected from the athletes after pre-treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the numbers of Acidaminococcaceae, Bacteriodaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Desulforibrionaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae were higher than those in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with differences being observed in the number of Bifidobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. There was no difference in the number of Lachnospiraceae between the two groups. The number of Prevotellaceae in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group was higher than that in the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the number of these bacterial groups after 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

Classification by genus

In samples collected from the athletes after pre-treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Oscillibacter in the control group were higher than those in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, with a difference being observed in the number of Bifidobacteriaceae. The number of Prevotella in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group was higher than that in the control group, although this difference was not significant. There were no significant differences in the number of these bacterial groups after 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment.

Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on gut flora diversity and abundance in juvenile female football players

The actual number of operational taxonomic units (sobs) and the ace, chao and shannon indices were determined, and then a dilution curve was drawn. The recorded changes indicated that the sobs, ace, chao and shannon indices of the control group were all higher than those of the hydrogen-rich water treatment group, suggesting that the abundance and diversity of the gut flora in the control group were higher than those in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group.

After 1 month of hydrogen-rich water treatment, the sobs, ace, and chao indices were higher in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group than those in the control group. The trend was slightly reversed, indicating that the abundance of gut flora was higher in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group than in the control group. The shannon index of the treatment group at that time was essentially the same as that in the control group, indicating that treatment with hydrogen-rich water could also enhance the diversity of the gut flora. After 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment, the sobs, ace, chao and shannon indices were much higher than those in the control group (P = 0.479, P = 0.710, P = 0.369, P = 0.369). Indicating that treatment with hydrogen-rich water can enhance the gut flora abundance and diversity of the gut flora (Figure 5).

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Changes in gut flora diversity and abundance before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption.

Note: (A) The shift of sobs before and after hydrogenrich water consumption; (B) The shift of ace index before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (C) The shift of chao index before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption; (D) The shift of shannon index before and after hydrogen-rich water consumption.

Discussion

The existing experimental and clinical studies have shown that animals or humans need only to breathe hydrogen or drink or inject hydrogen-rich water to protect the heart, brain, liver, kidney, lung, and small intestine from ischaemia/reperfusion oxidative injury or inflammatory injury after cardiac organ transplantation.,

The potential biological effects of hydrogen in sports have drawn much attention from researchers in sports science. The beneficial protective effects of hydrogen-rich water on the body have been gradually confirmed in both animal and human experiments. Ostojic summarized the current applications of hydrogen in the field of sports, emphasizing that hydrogen

1) can effectively remove a large number of harmful free radicals generated through movement, thus enhancing the antioxidant capacity;

2) is an effective alkalizing agent in the internal environment that can effectively inhibit blood acidification induced by lactic acid accumulation in sports; and

3) is an important gas signalling molecule that can participate in physiological regulatory processes such as anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-autophagy processes., This regulation does not involve the same signalling pathway as antioxidative stress.

Analysis of the effect of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on routine indices of juvenile female football players

HGB is one of the classic indicators reflecting the level of endurance exercise. The shift of HGB after 4 weeks was caused by increases in the amount or intensity of exercise and seasonal factors during winter training. The HGB level began to gradually increase, suggesting that the athletes had adapted well to the winter training load. The increase in the HGB level was higher overall in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group suggested that long-term hydrogen-rich water treatment could help increase the HGB level.

Urea nitrogen is the final product of protein metabolism. The participation of protein catabolism in the energy supply is enhanced during long-term and high-intensity exercise, thus increasing the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood and urine with increased decomposition of proteins and amino acids. The shift of the BUN level of all 38 athletes increased slightly due to winter training and seasonal factors. After 8 weeks, the decrease in the serum urea nitrogen level and the increase in the HGB level indicated that long-term hydrogen-rich water treatment has beneficial effects on the physiological functions of athletes.

CK is the key enzyme in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells, whose activity directly affects the short-term maximum intensity of the exercise capacity. After a high-intensity muscle load, muscle soreness and serum CK levels are highly and positively correlated. Clarke et al. found that the level of CK in the serum of professional rugby athletes is markedly high. CK is an important index reflecting the exercise load, particularly that suffered by the skeletal muscle. Thus, CK could indirectly reflect the levels of injury and active repair of the skeletal muscle ultrastructure.

After 8 weeks, the level of serum CK in both the control and hydrogen-rich water treatment groups continued to decrease.

Analysis of the effect of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the serum oxidative response of juvenile female football players

Tsubone et al. compared the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant metabolites in the serum of British thoroughbred horses and found that hydrogen-rich water treatment had a beneficial antioxidant effect. Aoki et al. conducted studies on football players and showed that drinking hydrogen-rich water for 1 week could reduce exercise fatigue and lactic acid accumulation after exercise but had no significant effect on the oxidative response index.

Li et al. showed that hydrogen-rich water could significantly prolong the duration of exercise before exhaustion in rats and improve their exercise capacity, indicating a significant anti-fatigue effect.

Zhao and Zhang showed that supplementation of hydrogen-rich water at different times before, during, and after exercise exerted significant protective effects against oxidative stress injury in swimming athletes during high-intensity exercise. This supplementation of hydrogen-rich water can reduce the production of excessive free radicals and enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the antioxidant capacity of the body, thereby promoting physical recovery after high-intensity exercise. Hu and Zhang showed that high-intensity intermittent training increases the concentration of O2 , •OH and H2O2. Hydrogen-rich water can significantly enhance the body’s inhibition of O2  and •OH, showing a higher rate of •OH inhibition, fully reflecting its selective antioxidant effect.

Li et al. found that hydrogen-rich water treatment could effectively reduce oxidative stress injury induced in skeletal muscle by severe exercise while improving the muscle ultrastructure.

Wang et al. reported that hydrogen-rich water treatment could up-regulate the expression of SIRT3, enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduce the inflammatory response after centrifugal exercise.

MDA is one of the classic indicators reflecting the level of lipid peroxidation. After 8 weeks, the difference of serum MDA between the two groups was significant, it suggested that long-term hydrogen-rich water treatment exerts an antioxidant effect.

SOD is one of the classic indicators reflecting the free radical-scavenging antioxidant capacity. The SOD levels of both the control and hydrogen-rich water treatment groups slightly increased after 4 weeks. And the mean serum SOD level of the hydrogen-rich water treatment group was consistent higher than the control group after 8 weeks.

Serum antioxidant substances can be divided into the enzymatic antioxidant system and the non-enzymatic antioxidant system. The enzymatic antioxidant system mainly involves substances such as SOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. The non-enzymatic antioxidant system mainly involves water-soluble substances, such as vitamin C, bilirubin, fat-soluble vitamin E, coenzyme Q, carotenoids, and flavonoid antioxidants. In terms of their function, serum antioxidant substances can be divided into three types: preventive antioxidants; capture-type antioxidants; and repair and regeneration antioxidants. The total antioxidant capacity represents the sum of the above substances and functions.

The observed changes in serum T-AOC suggested that 4 weeks of hydrogen-rich water treatment group indeed improved the free radical-scavenging ability of antioxidants. These results suggest that long-term hydrogen-rich water treatment exerts an antioxidant effect.

Analysis of the effect of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on serum inflammatory indices of juvenile female football players

Inflammatory factors will increase, and inflammation will intensify during exercise due to increases in energy consumption, free radicals, and intensification of oxidative stress. However, there are three anti-inflammatory mechanisms that may be deployed in the course of exercise.

1) Exercise can increase energy consumption, thereby reducing visceral fat volume and alleviating the infiltration of fat into inflammatory lymphocytes.

2) Exercise can effectively increase the production and release of muscle-derived anti-inflammatory cytokines during skeletal muscle contraction; skeletal muscle accounts for 35–45% of the total body weight, and the regulatory effects of this major endocrine organ on human homeostasis cannot be ignored.

3) Exercise can effectively reduce toll-like receptor expression on the membrane surface of monocytes and macrophages, which may lead to a decreased downstream response, including reduced secretion of inflammatory agents, decreased expression of compatibility complexes in major organs, and decreases in co-stimulatory Mecules.,

These three effects can ensure that the levels of inflammatory agent factors in athletes participating in strenuous exercise will not increase and may even decrease. However, the effect of oxidative stress on the body will not be weakened. After 8 weeks of hydrogen-rich water treatment, the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group were lower than those in the control group and with significant differences between the two groups. Compared with the abovementioned changes in the oxidative stress indices, long-term hydrogen-rich water treatment showed a stronger anti-inflammatory effect in addition to an antioxidant effect.

Analysis of the effect of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on gut flora components of juvenile female football players

Analysis of the structural components of the gut flora at different levels of classification in the two groups showed some differences between the two groups at different stages of the experiment. However, there were no significant changes in the structural components of flora between the two groups in terms of the oxidative response and the anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that two months of hydrogen-rich water treatment did not significantly change the structural components of the gut flora of the juvenile female football players. Differences in the composition of the flora between the two groups are an expected result of differences in age, particularly regarding the number of training years.

In 2007, Ohsawa et al. suggested that the selective antioxidant activity of hydrogen-rich water, and particularly its selective elimination of •OH, is superior to that of traditional antioxidants, while its overall antioxidant capacity is much lower than that of traditional antioxidants. Therefore, the effect of 2 months of hydrogen-rich water treatment on the regulation of gut flora was also much lower than that of established supplements such as resveratrol, grape antioxidant dietary fibre, selenium supplements, anthocyanin, and pomegranate peel polyphenols.,,,,,

Analysis of the effect of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on gut flora diversity and abundance in juvenile female football players

As a complex and variable micro-ecological system, the gut flora is constantly undergoing changes in its dynamic equilibrium. The richness and diversity of its components are important indicators of the health of this ecological system. The richness of the gut flora in patients with inflammatory bowel disorder is decreased in elderly and obese individuals. Le Chatelier et al. compared the composition of the gut flora of 123 non-obese and 169 obese Danes and found that the gut flora richness of these two groups differed, as did the number of genes in their gut flora. Individuals with lower gut flora richness were found to exhibit more significant obesity characteristics, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolic disorders as well as more severe inflammatory phenotypes.,

As a strong stressor, long-term and high-intensity professional sports training eventually has a corresponding impact on the gut flora. Clarke et al. found that professional rugby athletes exhibited a more abundant gut flora in their intestines compared with control groups of individuals with a body mass index (BMI) < 25 or BMI > 28. In samples from the professional rugby athletes, the total microorganisms identified came from 22 phyla, 68 families, and 113 genera. In the control group with a BMI < 25, a total of 11 phyla, 33 families, and 65 genera of microorganisms were detected, whereas the microorganisms in the control group with a BMI > 28 came from 9 phyla, 33 families, and 61 genera. The richness and diversity of the gut flora were lowest in obese individuals, while the professional athletes exhibited the highest richness and diversity levels.

Before treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the richness and diversity of the gut flora were higher in the control group (3.4 ± 1.51 years of training) than in the treatment group (1.21 ± 0.6 years of training), and the training period was the main factor leading to this difference. Individuals who had a longer training period exhibited a higher richness and diversity in their gut flora; this trend is consistent with the results of Clarke et al.

After 4 weeks of treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the trend was slightly reversed. The richness and diversity of the gut flora were higher in athletes who had a shorter training period than those who had a longer training period. This finding indicated that drinking hydrogen-rich water for a long period of time may plays an important role in enhancing the richness and diversity of the gut flora. At the same time, the levels of serum MDA, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased in the treatment group, and the SOD, T-AOC level increased. Such changes are closely related to changes in the richness and diversity of the gut flora.

After 8 weeks of treatment with hydrogen-rich water, the richness and diversity of the gut flora were still higher in athletes who had a shorter training period than in control individuals who had a longer training. Additionally, the serum levels of MDA, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased, and the levels of HGB SOD, T-AOC level increased to various degrees in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group. The trend of favourable changes of motor function indices, the oxidative response index, and inflammatory factor indices were almost consistent with the changes in the richness and diversity of the gut flora.

The above results showed that long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water not only exerts certain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects but also enhances the diversity and abundance of the gut flora of the subjects.

Footnotes

Funding: The study was supported by the National Basic Research Project of China (973 Program), No. 2012CB518200 (to ZCG), the General Program of the Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81371232, 81573251 (to ZCG), and the Special Key Programs for Science and Technology of China, No. 2012ZX09102301-016 and 2014ZX09J14107-05B (to ZCG).

Conflicts of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Financial support

The study was supported by The National Basic Research Project of China (973 Program), No. 2012CB518200, the General Program of the Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81371232, 81573251, and the Special Key Programs for Science and Technology of China, No. 2012ZX09102301-016, 2014ZX09J14107-05B.

Institutional review board statement

The institutional review board approval of Suzhou Sports School was obtained for this study.

Declaration of participant consent

The authors certify that they have obtained participant consent forms. In the form, participants have given their consent for their images andother clinical information to be reported in the journal. The participants understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Reporting statement

This study follows the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

Biostatistics statement

The statistical methods of this study were reviewed by the biostatistician of the State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Cognitive and Mental Health Research Center, Beijing, China.

Copyright license agreement

The Copyright License Agreement has been signed by all authors before publication.

Data sharing statement

Datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Plagiarism check

Checked twice by iThenticate.

Peer review

Externally peer reviewed.

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Link to Publisher's site
. 2018 Oct-Dec; 8(4): 135–143.
Published online 2019 Jan 9. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.248263
PMCID: PMC6352569
PMID: 30713665
Effects of the long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the antioxidant activity and the gut flora in female juvenile soccer players from Suzhou, China
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Articles from Medical Gas Research are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications

ionized water – mith or fact

Apa ionizata- Proprietati si Beneficii pentru sanatate demonstrate

Apa ionizata -adevar si/sau  fals .

Introducere

Oricine a fost abordat de cineva ce vinde aparate purificat –  ionizat apa (ionizator cu filtru apa) dorește mai multe informații.

Dar avand in vedere ce reclame pompoase se fac ,cate din acestea sunt si adevarate?

Ca sa va convingeti, dati o cautare pe un motor cautare  gen Google si veti vedea fel de fel de afirmatii ale diversi   promotori de apa ionizata precum : schimbati viata cu apa ionizata, vindeca diabetul si cancerul si “toate bolile”.

Cate din ele sunt adevarate si cate sunt false ?

Internetul este adesea primul lucru la care  oamenii  recurg pentru cercetare, si gasim adesea două extreme: fie oameni care încercearca cu orice pret sa va vanda un aparat de filtrat/purifcat – ionizat apa si il vor ridica in slavi ca fiind solutia magica la toate probleme dvs, fie cei care afirma ca aceastea sunt o fraudă si nu au nici o dovada

Deci,pe cine si ce să crezi cand vine vorba de apa ionizata si aparate purifcat -ionizat apa?

Poate ca cel mai corect si simplu raspuns la prima vedere ar fi sa cautati sa discutati cu CONSUMATORI de apa ionizata( oameni ce folosesc aparate purificat- ionizata apa pentru uz pernsonal si NU vand astfel de produse ) si sa aflati opinia lor, bazata pe experienta lor personala dupa mai multi ani de consum .Acestia nu au interes nici sa  ridice in slavi apa ionizata nici sa o blameze.Cu siguranta acesta este un punct de reper mult mai bun decat vnazatorii sau cei ce neaga total din alte interese.

NOTA AUTORULUI: personal am aflat despre beneficiile apa ionizata intnad in contact cu fosti bolnavi /oameni cu diverse afectiuni care au relatat ca apa ionizata (alcalina si acida) i-au ajutat sa-si depaseasca conditia de sanatate

Totusi, cum fiecare organsim e unic si nu toti suntem construiti la fel deci corpurile noastre nu raspund/reactioneaza  la fel la lucruri identice(deci nici la apa ionizata ),  haideti sa plecam de la ce se cunoaste referitor la apa ionizata si aparate purificat -ionizat apa.

Notiuni precum   apa filtrata / “purificata” minerala – apa minerala FARA contaminanti apa alcalina cu  pH EXTREM de alcalin ,  apa bogata in oxigen activ ,  apa cu  milioane de ioni de hidroxil per pahar si apa ce ofera un puternic ANTIOXIDANT , numit -ORP  , apa structurata cu legături de hidrogen,  apa structurata molecular în grupuri/clustere apa  de 4 – 6  molecule H20 , apa cu  formă  hexagonala( apa fulg de zăpadă -apa Masaru Emoto), apa VIRGINA – apa ” PURA “ (apa a carei  memorie electromagnetica EMF a fost  RESETATA la ZERO) , apa VIE (NUMAI apa ionizata alcalina are această calitate) , apa cu proprietati super conductive ,  apa cu tensiune joasă de suprafață si altele sunt proprietati cunoscute asociate cu apa ionizata , proprietati care fac apa ionizata superioara altor tipuri si surse de apa din zilele noastre, proprietati pe care si  laureatul premiului Nobel, conationalul nostru, Dr Henri Coanda le-a studiat in apele ionizate naturale care apar in vaile nedistruse inca de om: Valea Hunza, Vilcabamba (Euador), Georgia din fosta URSS si alte cateva locuri izolate din lume.

 

DA, corpul uman este 70-80 % apa(deci apa este foarte importanta, mai importanta decat ce mananci si pina nu iti spune cineva ca esti 70-80% apa nu realizezi cat de importanta e apa pentru viata de fapt), DA, apa ionizata de un purificator – aparat apa hidrogenata / ionizator apa de calitate( care are si filtre apa ce elimina toti contaminantii dar lasa o apa pura si minerala si foloseste materiale de calitate precum placi de ionizare apa din platina titan ce necesita putere electrica mica , certificate a nu emite lucruri toxice in apa precum iridium sau nichel (electrozii din otel inox home-made)  si nici platina( precum placile de ionizare apa DIPPED)  ) ajuta/poate ajuta  cu multe  afectiuni si probleme de sanatate, insa de aici si pina la a promova un purificator – ionizator de apa pina la solutia minune pentru toate problemele doar pentru a justifica preturile supraumflate datorate politiclor MLM(sistem piramidal) e drum lung.

Ce este FAPT este ca apa ionizata e folosita in spitale si centre medicale din Japonia, Korea, China si alte tari din Asia ca si tratament adjunvant STANDARD(vorbim ca medicina primara, NU alternativa) cat si pe scara larga –  uz curent de catre oricine de peste 30 ani

  • Știați că 15 % din populația din Japonia, care bea apa alcalina ionizata de la ionizatoare de apa au o speranță de viață de 10 ani , IN PLUS, mai mult decât cei din Statele Unite ale Americii ? Și au băut apa ionizata pentru o medie de doar 12 de ani! Gândiți-vă în cazul în care s-ar fi apucat de băut apa ionizata de la naștere !

Acestea sunt locatiile unde s-au efectuat cele mai multe studii stiintifice si teste clinice cu apa ionizata, lucruri care au inceput sa se petreaca si in tari vestice :

Cateva cuvinte despre cine suntem noi si de unde venim, pentru a intelege de ce vrem sa va prezentam fapte:

EMCO TECH (ex Jupiter Science )- CEL MAI MARE  PRODUCATOR aparate purificat – ionizat apa din LUME

EmoTech (Jupiter Science) este  cel mai mare producător purificatoare – ionizatoare de apa de pe GLOB . ce a vandut purificatoare – ionizatoare apa în întreaga lume mai multe decât orice altă marcă de purificatoare – ionizatoare apa.

Departamentul R&D – Cercetare și Dezvoltare al EmcoTech(Jupiter) din Japonia, cu un personal de peste  20 de cercetatori la nivel de doctorat(pHD), produce cele mai   avansate tehnic, eficiente  PERFORMANTE si  DURABILE  aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa – realizeaza întotdeauna mai mult cu mai puțin(spatiu, putere , etc).

NOI, ALKAVIVA SUNTEM MANDRII SA FIM IMPORTATORUL (DISTRIBUITORUL ) UNIC DIRECT  FABRICA pentru aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa EMCOTECH (JUPITER)

AlkaViva (ex IonWays)

Suntem cea mai veche și experimentata companie  de aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa si accessorii pentru acestea  din SUA.

Purificatoarele- ionizatoare apa AlkaViva(IonWays) au fost vândute pe piața americană de 16 ani!
Mai mult decât toate celelalte mărci purificatoare – ionizatoare apa puse împreună.
Am vândut cu amănuntul aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa în Statele Unite ale Americii, Canada și în aproximativ 30 de țări din întreaga lume (inclusiv Autralia, Noua Zeelandă și Marea Britanie).
Suntem importatori  directi de cele mai bune aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa(fabricate de EmcoTech  ( Jupiter) , importatori  EXCLUSIVI) cat si producatori de tehnologii apa si accesorii pentru acestea: filtre  apa exceptionale, kituri montare aparat purificat/ filtrat – ionizat apa subchiuveta, solutii si prefiltre apa pentru probleme specifice apa, etc. Avem o echipa de experti in apa cu care  oferim suport , garantie si service aparate ionizat- purificat /filtrat apa, si obtinem certifcari si aprobari pentru aceste aparate purificat / filtrat – ionizat apa. 
NU am vandut mereu aceste marci de aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa. Impreuna, noi cei de la AlkaViva am vandut si alte marci aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa considerate de top precum Kangen EnagicTM, Toyo, AlkaBlue, Nexus, KYK, Tyrent, Life Ionizer si multe alte firme aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa auto- promovate ca fiind de TOP(nu vom  include si aparate ieftine calitativ made in China/Taiwan gen Chanson ,etc). Cu toate acestea ,acum suntem TOTI convinsi ca aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa Emco Tech (Jupiter Science) sunt cele mai bune. Pur si simplu cele mai bune aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa disponibile.

BREVETE, PREMII si CERTIFICARI aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa

EmcoTech (Jupiter Science) face aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa in Coreea si Japonia (plăci de ionizare apa din  PLATINA-TITAN JAPONEZE,  NU copii iridiu si otel inox made China sau Taiwan ), din 1982, împreună cu alte companii importante, cum ar fi Samsung , LG, Toyo și Hyundai și deține mai multe brevete, premii si certificari aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa decat toate celelalte branduri.

 
AlkaViva (IonWays) este singura compania aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa en gros pentru a avea fabricatie “verde” , calificata prin Certificatul Sistemului de Management de Mediu ISO 14001:2004
De asemenea, aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa CERTIFICATE ca dispozitive medicale in Japonia, Corea, China și multe alte state.
Cu zeci de certificări, premii, brevete, modele de aparate purificare / filtre – ionizare apa și noi tehnologii, este ușor de înțeles de ce suntem LIDERI GLOBALI aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa .
Compania AlkaViva / EmcoTech reprezinta cel mai vechi si cel mai inalt standard de calitate in domeniul aparate ionizt- purificat( filtrat ) apa din LUME si nu isi permite sa cada in mirajul falselor afirmatii in ceea ce priveste beneficii si proprietati apa ionizata si purificata , riscand sa-si pericliteze renumele mondial, renume care in domeniul sanatate alternativa( “vestica”) nu e tocmai usor de obtinut.
Vrem sa va punem la dispzitie tot ce este necesar pentru ca dvs sa cunoasteti tot ce doriti despre apa ionizata :
Mai întâi vom clarifica terminologie esențială. Două măsurători de apă care sunt utilizate pentru a evalua performanta ionizatoare apa  pH și ORP.
1. Ce este pH-ul?
Este o scară de acid-alcalin care variază de la 0 la 14. neutrul este 7. Mai puțin de 7 este acid și mai mare decât 7 este alcalin. Când măsurăm pH apa  ionizata de fapt  măsuram cantității de ioni de hidrogen prezente în apa ionizata. pH< 7, apa ionizata acid se referă la cantitatea de ioni de hidrogen (H + ) majoritari în apa, în timp ce pH-ul>7 apa ionizata alcalina se referă la compuși majoritari care doresc să se lege cu hidrogenul ( OH-) PH-ul este o funcție exponențială. Un pH de 10 este de zece ori mai alcalin ca un pH de 9 și o sută de ori mai alcalin ca un pH de 8, și așa mai departe.
Limitele stabilite EPA pH apa potabila acceptabile pentru consum  sunt între 6,5 și 8,5.
Nu este indicat a se consuma apa cu pH >10.
Proprietatea de pH apa ionizata-adevar sau mit? Adevar.
Poate fi masurat pHul apa ionizata? Desigur.
Cum paote fi masurat pHul apa ionizata? Utilizand fie un pH metru bine calibrat de un laborator certificat si calificat sa faca astfel de calibrari si masuratori sau, daca doriti sa verificati acasa, metoda ‘babeasca’ dar mai precisa decat un pH metru care nu e calibrat corespunzator este cu picaturile reactive functie de pHul apa ionizata care vin impreuna cu orice aparat ionizat-purificat(filtrat) apa AlkaViva (Jupiter) sau cu hartii turnesol reactive functiede  pH apa ionizata.

2 . Ce este ORP apa ionizata?

Acest acronim vine de la Potential de Reducere Oxidare(ORP)
.
Functie de tipul de ionizare apa ales,apa ionizata poate fi apa oxidativa (apa ionizata acida, cu exces de H+) sau apa antioxidant (apa ionizata alcalina, cu exces de ioni OH-)
Caracterul oxidativ/ antioxidant apa ionizata e dat de sarcina electrica ( deficitul sau excesul de electroni ). De exemplu, electronii liberi in exces din apa ionizata alcalina( abundenta de OH- implica un exces de electroni liberi donori) se vor cupla cu radicalii liberi de oxigen si vor anula astfel daunele de oxidare .
Când o moleculă renunță un electron , molecula este oxidata. Pe partea cealaltă a ecuației, atunci cand o molecula are un electron in exces acesta este redusa.
Proprietatea de ORP (caracter oxidativ sau antioxidativ) apa ionizata-adevar sau mit? Adevar.
Poate fi masurat ORPul apa ionizata? Desigur.
Cum paote fi masurat ORPul apa ionizata?  Numai un ORP metru bine calibrat de un laborator certificat si calificat sa faca astfel de calibrari si masuratori .Nu se recomanda testarea acasa cu ORP metre care nu sunt calibrate exact.De foarte multe ori in practica, citirile cu ORP metre acasa s-au dovedit false(fie arata mai mult sau mai putin dar de purine ori exact) ,
Măsurarea ORP implica simplist măsurarea milivolților din apa  creati de molecule care doresc să ia electroni și de molecule care doresc să doneze electroni.
ORP pozitiv indică potențialul pentru mai multe molecule dornice să ia un electron( H+) decât moleculele dornice de a da un electron(OH-). In tratamentul traditional apa cu clor, măsurarea ORP pozitiv poate indica puterea de oxidare a clorului în apa.
ORP negativ indică faptul că există mai multe molecule dornice să renunțe la un electron și sa devina oxidate decât invers(molecule OH > molecule H+). Aceste molecule sunt antioxidanti, deoarece acestea anuleaza molecula de oxidare, oferindu-le ceea ce doresc – un alt electron.
Este teoretizat ca efectul de sănătate de molecule antioxidante este capacitatea lor de a proteja tesuturile organismului de a fi oxidate, se sacrifica prin renuntarea unui electron la oxidant.
 NOTE:
2.a. Cand vine vorba de pH si ORP apa ionizata alcalina,aparatele purificat / filtrat – ionizat apa AlkaViva (IonWays) / EmcoTech ( Jupiter)  sunt garantate pentru a surclasa orice altă marcă, indiferent de pret aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa sau dimensiuni placi ionizare apa si putere electrica aplicata pe placile de ionizare apa. Aparatele purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa AlkaViva (IonWays) / EmcoTech ( Jupiter)  sunt cele PERORMANTE, FIABILE  si DURABILE  aparate purificat / filtrat – ionizat apa din LUME,asa cum rezulta si din testele laborator stat, guvernamental, certificat EPA SUA cat si din practica.

Aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa AlkaViva (IonWays) / EmcoTech ( Jupiter)  necesită mai puțina putere aplicata pe  plăci electrod de ionizare apa  si placi de ionizare  apa mai compacte, ocupa mai puțin spațiu și sunt garantate pentru a depasi in performante ionizare apa orice alta marca de purificator- aparat apa hidrogenata / ionizator apa, indiferent de preț aparat purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa  .
Alte marci de aparate purificat /filtrat – ionizat apa  de ce nu pot prezenta astfel de teste INDEPENDENTE, CERTIFICATE? 
2.b. NU toate ionizatoarele folosesc DOAR electroliza apa pura.Manualul pentru modelul LeveLuk făcută de Enagic® (apa alcalina se numește apa Kangen®)  prevede folosesc un lichid “amplificator electroliză,” deși nu se specifică ce conține. Enagic® folosește, de asemenea, calciu Acid glicerofosforic pentru a crește concentrația de pH.
Uneori(poate chiar de multe ori) unii dealeri Kangen incearca sa induca in eroare afirmand ca ” apa kangen ” este altceva.Totusi acest articol nu isi propune de dezbata “apa kangen”.Adevar si mit apa kangen aici

2.c. Toate ionizatoarele apa AlkaViva pot produce niveluri impresionante de pH si ORP  insa sunt optimizate special pentru PH si ORP sănătoase și benefice(ORP bun la valori 7<pH<10) – veti observa ca desi TOATE ionizatoarele AlkaViva ating niveluri impresionante de PH si ORP, NU pH si ORP extreme va intereseaza ci apa cu proprietati , pH si OPR cat mai apropiate de apa naturala, asa cum se gaseste spre exemplu si in “valea de longevitate” Vilcabamba , Ecuador  pe care AlkaViva a studiato. Exista 5 locatiii in lume  unde cercetatorii au descoperit astfel de ape cu proprietati unice ,unde oamnii traiesc peste 100 ani cu sanatate exceptionala, NU au cancere, NU au nici …carii . Hunzaland in Muntii Karkorum, Vilcambamba in Ecuador, o vale muntoasa Georgia, Russia, alta  in Mongolia si una in Peru. Toate au culturi si diete diferite si un lucru comun – apa lor are proprietati similare! 2008145_48624 Am fost acolo si am studiat.Daca doriti sa stiti mai multe detalii vizualizati DVDul GRATUIT- completati formularul : [contact-form subject=’Valea DVD’][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comentarii’ type=’textarea’/][/contact-form] Aceasta optimizare este rezultatul a peste 30 ani experiente si cercetari , istorie UNICA, ce ne face LIDERI MONDIALI in domeniul ionizatoare apa   ) care, alaturi de  aprobarile medicale  au facut din aparatele filtrare – ionizare apa AlkaViva si alegerea expertilor internationali in domeniu  precum prof Dr. Robert O. Young , Dr. Ted Baroody , Sang Whang si a multor altor experti si spitale si centre medicale.(a se vedea fila APROBARI 

 
Desigur  pH si ORP sunt indicatori  apa ionizata cei mai cunoscuti,insa nu neaparat cei mai importanti.
După cum a spus lauretul premiului Nobel, Henri Coanda, dupa studii ale apelor intalnite in vai longevitate precum Hunza , apa este benefică atunci când ea are următorii parametri: pH apa 7-9, potențialul redox ORP apa -100mV -700mV,  tensiunea superficială apa 43-45 din/cm și structură hexagonală apa . Există, desigur, alți parametri care trebuie considerati cum ar fi puritate apa,  mineralizare apa , conductivitate apa , vitalitate apa și altele.
In contiunuare dezbatem cateva din cele mai importante(inclusiv pe cele masurate de romanul lauret cu NOBEL, Dr Henri Coanda)
3.De examplu apa alcalina ionizata este apa structurata molecular în grupuri/clustere apa  de 4 pana la 6  molecule H20 .
Rezonanța magnetică nucleară a arătat că aceasta este o treime din dimensiunea moleculara a altor ape , care are grupuri de 10 până la 15 molecule .
Această reducere grup ajuta celulele sa absoarba apa ionizata rapid și eficient pentru ca patrunde si dizolva mai usor, fiind apa redusa in dimensiuni cluster(apa microgrupata)
Demonstratia cea mai simpla a acestui fapt o reprezinta testele cu apa ionizata cu pH > 10 in care uleiul de integreaza in loc sa pluteasca la suprafata, apa ionizata in care fructele si legumele si mancarurile isi lasa chimicalele pe baza de uleiuri, etc
Si acest lucru il veti simti si fizic pe pielea dvs pentru caveti bservacaveti putea bea mai mutla apa-apa nu va “pluti” in stomac.
NOTA: NU se iau medicamente cu apa ionizata alcalina tocmai din acest motiv- se dizolva si se absorb mai rapid
4.Apa alcalina ionizata OXIGENEAZA organismul printr-o creștere a raportului  de oxigen / hidrogen .(abundenta de OH- inseamna un raport mai mare de oxigen raportat la hidrogen fata de cel intalnit in H20) Celelalte ape sunt lipsite de acest beneficiu .Implicatiile acestui lucru sunt multiple pentru sanatate , energie si vitalitate Apa alcalina ionizata oxigeneaza organismul dumneavoastră mai eficient decât orice alt tratament ” oxigen “/terapie ozon  si este usor de administrat si tolerat de organism fata de terapiile ozon ce injecteaza ozon gaz in sange sau alte terapii ozon pe care nu toti le pot tolera sau nu si le permit.
Iarasi,un efect pe care il veti simti pe pielea dvs cand veti avea simptome de raspuns imunitar(simptome de raceala, etc) la trecerea la consum de apa ionizata alcalina.De aceea se recomanda trecerea TREPTATA si NU brusca la apa ionizata alcalina, incepand cu apa  alcalina ionizata foarte putin si crescand gradul de ionizare apa pe masura ce orgasnimul dvs se obijnuieste
5. Apa alcalina ionizata este APA VIE .
Ce este /despre apa vie?
Toti electroni din apă , sunt fie de spin/rotatie la stânga sau la dreapta .  Cu cat mai mare viteza de rotire stânga a electroni cu atat apa este considerata a susține vitalitatea -apa vie . Numai apa ionizată alcalina are această calitate .
PROPRIETATE MASURABILA(REALA)-DA.
Stiati ca aparatele filtrare- ionizare ( alcalinizare ) apa AlkaViva au fost testate in laborator pentru a vdea in ce masura incarca apa de vitalitate(cata forta de viata capata apa odata ce trece prin ele), si cumparate cu alte ape considerate a fi vii, inclusiv cu apa Kangen?
“Apa alkalina vie este privita de un numar de profesionisti sanatate ca fiind cea mai buna apa de baut si este listata ca dispozitiv medical in Japonia pt tratarea bolilor degenerative.”  
Dr Hidemitsu Hayashi Chirurg inima ,  Director al Institutului apa al Japaniei
Acestea de mai sus sunt FAPTE.Exista si proprietati asociate cu apa ionizata ce pot fi contestate (intr-ucat necesita aparatura mai sofisitcata pentru testare) precum
6.Apa ionizata are forma hexagonala- apa “fulg de nea”.
7.Apa alcalina ionizata este  APA  ” VIRGINA “- memorie electromagnetica RESETATA la ZERO .
Tot la ce a fost apa expusa lasă o semnătură de frecvențe electromagnetice sau amprenta electromagnetica(de camp magnetic- EMF).
Frecvențe negative ( exemplu : apa de la robinet reciclate de canalizare ca în majoritatea orașelor mari ) sunt asociate cu boli . Apa ionizata este apa virgina , deoarece memoria camp electromagnetic EMF au fost ” resetata”, deci nu are acele amprente nocive, asociate cu bolile.
8 .FAPT IMPORTANT  insa  este ca sistemele purificat – ionizat apa ar trebui sa ofere o pre-filtrare apa minima pentru îndepărtarea clorului si a altor contaminanti fara a demineraliza apa
TOATE aparatele filtrare – ionizare apa AlkaViva, includ acum GRATUIT exceptionalele si inegalabilele filtre apa UltraWater ,( produs brevetat AlkaViva) ce oferă cea mai bună filtrare apa interna, creata vreodata pentru ionizatoare apa .
Filtrul apa UltraWater filtrează  apa de TOTI contaminantii  cunoscuti (inclusiv cloruri,cloramina , fluoruri, nitrati, nitriti, detergenti, cianuri, chimicale, reziduuri din exploatari miniere si din gaze sist din apa ,etc) cu o precizie uimitoare de de 99.9% si NUMAI DE contaminanti,  lasand mineralele benefice organismului, prezente in mod natural in apa , sa treca de filtru apa(spre deosebire de apa filtrata Osomoza Inversa, apa puridficata, si apa distilata (inclusiv Apa Sarcita in Deuteriu prin distilare vid)  care spala din organism mineralele benefice )
Acuratetea si perfomanta de filtrare apa Ultrawater sunt de asemenea confirmate si certificate de teste laborator guvernamental, independent certificat NELAP EPA SUA. detalii si rezultate teste laborator ULTRAWATER -click aici
Deci veti bea nu doar apa ionizata alcalina, dar si FARA contaminati ( dar NU apa purificata total ), apa ce include DOAR minerale benefice.Apa minerala FARA contaminanti(FARA nitrati, FARA cloruri, FARA fluoruri, FARA pesticide, FARA chimicale, etc)
Tehnologia de filtrare apa UltraWater – pentru îndepărtarea 99,9 % contaminanti  înseamnă că nu numai este apa filtrata de impurități la cele mai ridicat grad posibil , dar este , de asemenea,  precondiționată prin reducerea tensiunii superficiale apa pentru producție maximă de ioni negativi in timpul ionizarii apei .  Nu există nici un substitut pentru  calitatea acestui filtru apa ionizata  . Noul sistem uimitor de filtrare apa UltraWater  înseamna filtrare apa exceptionala  si energizare  .
AlkaViva este SINGURA companie ce fabrica filtre apa pentru ionizatoare de apa  în Statele Unite ale Americii la standardele RNP ,NELAP EPA si foloseste DOAR materiale naturale, inclusiv Tourmalina. Acest lucru înseamnă:

  • reducerea dimensiunii de micro-cluster apa in mod natural
  • alcalinizare apa in mod natural
  • creșterea DO ( oxigen dizolvat )apa in mod natural
  • gust sporit si minimizarea miros apa
  • Energia FIR(Far InfraRed) pe care Turmalina o emite natural produce o rezonanță în organism la aceeași frecvență ca și apa .

Intr-ucat cei mai multi oameni doresc sa bea apa ionizata alcalina din motive de sanatate,  doriti sa beti  nu doar apa ionizata alcalina, dar si apa filtrata FARA contamianti( dar NU apa purificata precum apa filtrata Osomoza Inversa si apa distilata(inclusiv Apa Sarcita in Deuteriu)  care spala din organism mineralele benefice ), ci apa  bogata NUMAI in minerale benefice( FARA contaminanti precum nitrati, cloruri si floruri , chimicale, pesticide si altii intalniti in apa chiuveta) –  apa care sa va DETOXIFICE  FARA sa va  demineralizeze, apa care sa va ajute sa va recapatati sanatatea fiecarei celule, deci filtrarea apei la cel mai inalt nivel NUMAI de contaminanti apa ar trebui sa fie una din principalele caracteristici urmarite la un aparat filtrare – ionizare  apa.

Tehnologia filtrare apa ULTRAWATER  este acum oferita GRATUIT, in PLUS  la filtrele apa ionizata  Biostone Plus 0.1 micron
De ce sa cumparati un aparat apa hidrogenata / ionizator apa care nu ofera o apa curata?
 Apa ionizata alcalina ce contine contaminanti NU e o apa sanatoasa!
Stiati ca, reziduuri nefiltrate (in special clorurile) din apa ce pot ajunge in camera ionizare apa pot capata structura mult mai nociva in urma ionizarii apei nefiltrate corespunzator?
CONTACTATI-NE  pentru o consultatie GRATUITA!
MOTTO AlkaViva:
“Take back your tap water! – Luati inapoi apa de la chiuveta!”

DE CE SA CUMPARATI DE LA NOI, ALKAVIVA:

TOTUL DESPRE aparatele purificare /filtre –  IONIZATOARE APA:

APA ALCALINA IONIZATA, APA VIE SI SANATATEA:

  • Companiile partener cu vechime maxima ,  cele mai de încredere și de succes  in domeniul purificatoare /filtre-  ionizatoarelor de apa din LUME.
  • EMCOTECH(ex Jupiter Science) a produs și a vândut milioane de purificatoare /filtre – ionizatoare de apa la nivel mondial inca din 1981 si este LIDER  MONDIAL ce conduce prin PERFORMANTE ionizare apa ( asa cum rezulta din teste laborator independent, stat, certificat EPA )  ,calitate, fiabilitate si DURABILITATE(prin sistemele brevetate auto-curatare  placi ionizare apa testate si dovedite in timp) , 
  • Deține cele mai multe PREMII,CERTIFICARI, BREVETE si RECUNOASTERI OFICIALE INTERNATIONALE si are CELE MAI mici RATE DEFECTARE si RETURNARE din industria purificatoare / filtre – ionizatoare apa ( sub 1% )  
  • Singurele purificatoare / filtre – ionizatoare de apa cu certificari CE (Europeana), CSA și UL și certificări “dispozitiv medical” (Japonia Coreea si multe alte state);
  • tehnologie 100% japoneza (NU China, Taiwan) , placi ionizare apa 100% platina-titan (NU iridium, NU otel inox)
  • ALKAVIVA(ex IonWays importatorul)are mai multa experienta  decât TOATE celelalte mărci impreună(>16 ani)  si completeaza cu CELE MAI BUNE si SANATOASE FILTRE APA EXISTENTE  (filtrare apa certificata laborator de 99.9 din TOTI contaminantii apa, FARA demineralizare)oferite acum CADOU IN PLUS la filtrele standard ,SPECIALISTI APA CALIFICATI (care sa va ajute cu rezolvare problemelor apei dvs specifice GRATUIT), SUPORT  CLIENTI si SERVICE IONIZATOARE APA IREPROSABILE (evaluare maxima A+ cu BBB) si GARANTIE IONIZATOR APA MAXIMA
  • Garanție pe viață SUA, 5 -10 ani EU
  • Peste 30 ani experienta a expertilor nostri in apa si consultații GRATUITE apa pentru a determina cea mai bună soluție pt dvs.
  • Cea mai bună gamă de aparate purificatoare / filtre-ionizatoare  apa pentru toate nevoile si BUGETELE
  • PRETURI PURIFICATOR / FILTRU – IONIZATOR APA DECENTE identice cu cele intalnite si la partenerii AlkaVIva de peste ocean
  • Partener oficial AlkaViva (nu doar  importator EmcoTech) implicit TOATE avantajele de mai sus si CERTITUDINEA ca VOM FI PREZENTI pentru SUPORT, SERVICE, PIESE DE SCHIMB si FILTRE APA pt IONIZATOARE APA mult timp dupa ce alte companii  au venit si plecat.

30zilefcgri  buton-afla-mai-multe-eliberare

ce inseamna ionizare apa – ce este apa ionizata alcalina  pH, ORP  proprietati si beneficii unice apa ionizata apa ionizata si scepticii

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water ionizers guide Atunci cand achizitionati un aparat purificare / filtru – aparat apa hidrogenata / ionizator apa , asigurati-va  sa alegeti in cunostiinta de cauza unul adecvat nevoilor dvs personale. Va rugam sa luati in considerare urmatoarele informatii INAINTE  de a face o astfel de achizitie importanta si de multe ori, costisitoare:

DVD + EBOOK: apa ionizata allcalina ALKAVIVA si apa din VALEA LONGEVITATII VILCAMBA, ECUADOR 2008145_48624 SECRETUL VITALITATII,  ENERGIEI si LONGEVITATII  CARTEA ELECTRONICA (EBOOK) DESPRE APA IONIZATA ALCALINA si  ECHILIBRUL ACID ALCALIN water-therapy-structured-water COMPARATIE APA IZVOR, APA POTABILA CHIUVETA, APA FILTRATA OSMOZA INVERSA, APA DISTILATA si APA SARACITA IN DEUTERIU SI APA IONIZATA ALCALIN – APA VIE
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Acest articol este destinat exclusiv pentru scopuri educaționale. Acesta nu este menit să fie folosit ca un ghid pentru diagnosticul, tratamentul, vindecarea sau prevenirea oricărei boli Cei care au nevoie de îndrumare cu privire la orice problema de sanatate ar trebui sa solicite ajutorul unui practician calificat, licențiat profesionist de îngrijire a sănătății. Unul ar trebui să caute, de asemenea, consiliere profesională înainte de a continua cu orice modificări ale sănătății sau program dietetic

water ionizers / purifiers FAQo

Water ionizers & ionized water FAQ

Answers to  frequently asked questions about water ionizers/water purifiers  and water ionization technologies.

My new AlkaViva water ionizer has residual water in it. Is it used? Every NEW AlkaViva water ionizer is extensively tested by the manufacturer(EmcoTech/Jupiter water ionizers) to ensure proper operation before they are shipped to the AlkaViva warehouse. Therefore, there may be residual water drops coming from the bottom hose connectors. Not to worry, your NEW AlkaViva water ionizer/water purifier is not used.

What’s the best way to store alkaline ionized water?

“How can I store ionized water from my water ionizer? What kind of container should I use?” Whether you want to take your water to work or out to play, or whether you just want to chill your alkaline water in the fridge before you drink it, there are some things you should know. 1. ionized water from an water ionizer is best if consumed directly from the water ionizer immediately after producing it.  Ionized water has a high electron charge, which gives it its antioxidant qualities. Time, heat and light can cause the water to lose its charge, and therefore lose the unique properties & benefits of alkaline ionized water. Yes, you’ll still have clean, filtered and mineralized water… but you also want to be able to retain the low negative ORP that is one of the primary reasons for owning a water ionizer in the first place. I always use the analogy of fresh fruits & vegetables wich are best consumed right after they are picked otherwise they lose many valuable healthy benefits . Well, the same goes for ionized water. The same can be said about ionized water. When alkaline water comes out of a water ionizer it contains a negative ORP (an abundance of free, unbound electrons).  When stored in a container the ionized water will begin the process of losing its antioxidant quality as it “normalizes” with its surroundings.  How long that process takes to complete is based on the material and construction of the container that the ionized water is in. The antioxidant power in alkaline ionized water can decline in as little as 24 hours without proper storage, and pH levels would fall in about three days. Stored properly, alkaline ionized water can maintain high potency for about a week.

How To Store Your Ionized alkaline Water \

Glass Glass is always the preferred method of storing alkaline ionized water.

  • If using a glass container, try to use a UV protected glass, which is usually a dark color.
  • Fill storage container up to the top, thus limiting the alkaline ionized water’s exposure to air.
  • Store the container in a cool, dimly lit location. Avoid exposing the ionized alkalien water to heat and sunlight.
  • Drink stored alkaline ionized water within 72 hours for optimal quality and freshness.

Stainless Steel Regular stainless steel bottles are great for keep ionized alkaline water clean, as there is no “leaching” of dangerous chemicals from the container. But, the alkaline ionized water will quickly lose its antioxidant properties as the metal of the container is a conductor of electricity.  Therefore, if you are going to use a stainless steel container, be sure that it is a double-walled vacuum sealed bottle, as those types of bottles will slow down the ORP equalization rate.  Using these types of a bottles not only help to maintain the antioxidant properties of the alkaline ionized water, but are an excellent way to keep the water nice and cold during hot weather.

Plastic containers Plastic should be used as a last resort.for storing alkaline ionized water.  The only plastic bottles you should ever use should be made from certified BPA-free plastic.  Even when using this type of bottle, you are not guaranteed that your bottle will not leach other types of chemicals into your drinking alkaline ionized water.  Therefore, I would stay away from plastic bottles, if at all possible.

Keep Your ionized alkaline Water Refrigerated Refrigeration or freezing helps maintain the potency of alkaline ionized water. The alkaline ionized water should be put in a sealed container, and chilled immediately after it is made.  Also, if you enjoy putting ice in your water I would suggest getting yourself some stainless steel ice trays, and then make ice using your water ionizer water.  You don’t want to use ice that is made from your refrigerator’s ice-maker, as it is likely full of toxins that won’t be removed by the refrigerator filter, including fluoride.

Ionized water Right From The Water Ionizer Is Best There’s nothing more refreshing than a glass of healthy alkaline ionized water. Gotten fresh from a home water ionizer, alkaline ionized water has high negative ORP and a higher pH than plain water.

Drinking alkaline water straight from the water ionizer is always best because the beneficial qualities of the alkaline ionized water remain intact. This is the reason why ionized water cannot be sold as stored , the same reason why miracle waters from Hunza or Vilcabamba cannot be stored & sold. We know – we went to Vilcabamba, Ecuador to meet with the people in the Valley of Longevity and tested their water. If interested, please ask for our FREE DVD on this trip contact us or leave your mail address( we will not share it with anyone)  [contact-form subject=’Valley DVD’][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comments(optional)’ type=’textarea’/][/contact-form]

Do water ionizers also  remove water contaminants , including fluoride?

This question should be about the water filters used  inside the water ionizers/purifiers. Water ionizers, by themselves, don’t really remove anything from the water. A water ionizer is an electronic device that ionizes water through water electrolysis into ionized  water stremas (alkaline and acidic ).

The question should be regarding water ionizers that include water filters inside them such as AlkaViva water ionizer(manufactured by Jupiter/EmcoTech). AlkaViva’s best water ionizers even include 2 water filters inside the water ionizer/water purifier to filter/remove all the potential contaminants in your water before water is ionized , so that you will enjoy not only ionized alkaline, antioxidant water, but clean yet mineral water as well.Only AlkaViva water ionizers such as AlkaViva Jupiter Athena JS 205 water ionizer & AlkaViva Vesta GL 988 water ionizer include 2 water filters inside the water ionizer /water purifier system. One of these 2 water filters can be a UltraWater Fluoride /Arsenic Shield – a water filter specially designed to remove Fluoride & Arsenic. Our quality Jupiter water ionizers also have water prefilters to prefilter the water before water is ionized. It should be noted that most water filters inside a water ionizer do NOT remove fluoride, because lab testing has shown that fluoride contained in the incoming water happens to “stick” to the acid water stream, and the concentration in the alkaline drinking water side is lessened.  The fluoride is attracted to the positive charge of the acid water, and will be partially eliminated.  But, when we are speaking of fluoride, “partially” is not good enough.  We want to be able to eliminate as much of the fluoride as possible .Why-read more about fluoride in water-click here

What is Ionized Acid Water Acid ionized water can be characterized by the following:

  1. having a pH range between 2.0ph and  lower than 7.0ph
  2. having an ORP of +800 to +1200
  3. having a hypochlorous acid component from 1-30 mg/l
  4. being micro-clustered
  5. being loaded with H+ (hydrogen ions), which acts as an oxidizer

There are 2 types of acid water; mild and strong. ‘Mild’ acid water is used for the skin, hair and nails while ‘strong’ acid water is used for cleaning and sterilizing. Uses Of Ionized Acid Water

How To Get The MOST Acidic ionized Water From Your water Ionizer? Although most water ionizers allow you to choose “acid” ionized water , which would then come out of the top stainless steel hose, there is a way to get the most acidic water from your water ionizer (the lowest pH). Set your water ionizer to the highest “alkaline” ionized water  setting that it will produce.  Then, slow the water flow rate down (either on the faucet or on an onboard flow-control valve, if you have one) to the slowest the water can come out while the water ionizer remains powered on. On most water ionizers with water flow sensors, if you slow the flow rate down too much, the water ionizer will shut itself off – so make sure it is slow, but enough that the main power stays on.  Then, collect the acidic water from the acid hose coming from the bottom of the water ionizer in a (glass) recipeint. Doing it this way will give you the most powerful acid water that your water ionizer can make. The results will vary from water ionizer to water ionizer, depending on the strength of the water ionization unit.

How can I tell what contaminants & other things are my tap water? There is a lot that we can learn about our water just by the way it looks, tastes, and smells. If you are concerned about the quality of your water it is always best to have it professionally tested(contact us of interested in professional water testing ), but we can also discover much about it at home. When using a water ionizer many things in our water can be condensed into higher, more noticeable levels. If you are on a public treated water system you can always ask for a consumer confidence report, or CCR. These are done annually to insure the public of drinking water safety. The easiest way to obtain these reports is to call your local water authority and ask for the most recent CCR.You can also ask them if they are using chloramines as a disinfectant. Chloramines are fairly new in the treatment of water systems in most areas, and may not show up on the report. Chloramines are definitely unwanted, and require a different type of water filtration than the standard chlorine water fitration methods. Although it is a great idea to look at your CCR, you can always take it one step further and have the water at your home tested locally. Keep in mind that the water reports provided are shown in averages and may not reflect exactly what is coming in to your home, so , if you are really interested in what;s in your tap water. it would be a good idea to test the water coming right from your tap If you are on a well water system it is important to test your water before running a water ionizer, as well water is generally untreated and can contain contaminants not present in treated water systems. Testing the water in your well can protect your health, as well as the life of your water ionizer. To obtain a water report you can call your local health authority and express concerns for your drinking water. They will usually have a place locally to do the necessary testing. The test you want to ask for is called “A Routine Domestic Panel,” and doesn’t usually cost an arm and a leg. Water reports will list a bunch of numbers that can be a little confusing, but once you learn to read the report you’ll be able to see exactly what’s in your water. The important numbers to look at will be the levels recorded – this is the amount found in your water – and the MCL, or Max Contaminate Level. In comparing these two sets of numbers you can judge if the levels are safe or should be addressed before using your new water ionizer. If the levels recorded for your water are lower than, or close to, the MCL levels you may want to consider water pre-filtration. You would also want to consider water  pre-filtration anytime you have specific concerns especially in areas with very hard water.Of course, you can always use our AlkaViva Reverse Osmosis System For Water Ionizers to remove the most common water contaminant concerns. We will be covering some basic at-home tests for testing drinking water contaminants, what they are, where they come from and how we can remove them.  There are many things the following tests can tell us, but certainly not everything. For example there is no good way to test at home fluoride, bacteria, arsenic, and many other drinking water contaminants without a professional water test(contact us if interested in a professional water testing). For the contaminates that we CAN test for at home, all you will need is your faucet and a clear glass.

The Way That Water Tastes Chlorine or chemical taste This taste is usually caused by normal chlorination, or an abundance of chemicals in either treated municipal water systems, or chlorinated wells. This is normally removed by your water ionizer internal water filter, but if this is not enough to remove the unpleasant and possibly harmful carcinogens we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

Metallic taste A metallic taste is usually caused by manganese, or other heavy metals. These can be present in well water systems, and older homes with metal pipes. To remove these heavy metals we recommend our UltraWater ionized water filter

Water no longer tastes as sweet as it used to This is caused by the lack of iron present in your source water. Some folks complain that there water no longer taste as sweet as it used to. This is caused by the removal of iron. Although iron is a harmful heavy metal, it adds a pleasant sweet taste to the water. Often, after changing to non metallic pipes or adding a heavy metals pre-filter, the lack of sweetness can be present. Usually after a week or two, it is no longer noticeable.

Water tastes fishy, or earthy The fishy, or earthy taste is generally caused by harmless organic matter and is usually associated with surface water supplies. To remove this we recommend that you regularly change your internal water ionizer filter.

The Way That Water Smells Detergent, or soapy smell Sometimes a septic odor. This is usually an indication that you need to hire a plumber, or call your city water authority. This is caused by the leaking of a sewer system into your water supply, and should be addressed as soon as possible.

Water tastes fishy, or earthy The fishy or earthy smell, again, is generally caused by harmless organic matter and is usually associated with surface water supplies. To remove this we recommend that you regularly change your internal water ionizer filter.

Rotten egg smell from the tap Dissolved hydrogen sulfide gas in the source water, or raw sulfur deposits in a well water situation. Sulfur deposits are naturally occurring, and common in some areas. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide comes as a result of organic matter decomposing in a raw water situation, such as plant matter in a well (think of tree roots). This gas reacts in a water ionizer and can become much more noticeable after ionization, and is condensed into the alkaline stream. To remove this gas we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

Rotten egg odor from hot water only Rotten egg odor from the hot water only is caused by sulfates reacting with magnesium anode rod in your hot water system, which will react to create hydrogen sulfide gas and cause this odor to only be present when using hot water. To remove the rotten egg smell you need to have a plumber replace the anode rod with one made of aluminum.

Chlorine or chemical smell This odor is usually caused normal chlorination, or an abundance of chemicals in either treated municipal water systems, or chlorinated wells. This is normally removed by your water ionizer internal filter, but if this is not enough to remove the unpleasant and possibly harmful carcinogens we recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter

The Way That Water Looks White stains on cookware and in glasses This is a sign of high alkalinity, which is exactly what we do with our ionizers. Completely harmless and nothing to worry about, but not aesthetically pleasing. An easy way to remove this is too soak in a solution of white vinegar and water. Be sure to rinse all the vinegar off before using.

Suspended stuff in your glass This is caused by sediment. It is common in well water using pumps, and in older homes and neighbor hoods. This can easily removed by your water ionizers internal sediment filter(with ionizers such as AlkaViva Jupiter Athena JS205 water ionizer or AlkaViva Vesta GL 988 water ionizer), or with our External Sediment and Bacteria Reduction Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Green stains on sinks and fixtures Green stains in your sink or on other household fixtures is caused by acidic water with a pH of 6.8 or lower reacting with brass and copper pipes and fittings. Your best bet is to hire a plumber to update these to a more modern system.

Red or yellowish water If water is clear when first poured but turns yellowish or reddish after 24 hours of standing time, there is un-dissolved iron in your water. If it is yellow or reddish when at first poured but clears up after 24 hours then there is dissolved iron in your source water. Iron is a big concern with water ionizers as it can directly cause damage to your ionizer’s electrolysis system. In either case we would recommend using our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Black tint to water A black tint to water that clears up after 24 hours of standing is usually dissolved manganese. This is easily removed with our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested) Blacking, pitting, and tarnishing of metal sinks, pipes, and utensils. The blackening, pitting, and tarnishing of metal sinks, pipes, and utensils is caused by chlorides and sulfates (salts) or hydrogen sulfide gas. Both are removed using our UltraWater ionized water filter or with an External water prefilter Cartridge.(contact us if interested)

Milky water If your water looks milky after ionization don’t worry, this is caused by the ionization process and is a sign of both the high alkalinity and the micro clustering. Micro clustering creates air pockets that can make water look milky. The increase in alkaline minerals can also cause this effect. This list in no way can replace the results of full water work up done in a laboratory environment, but can help to troubleshoot quickly and at no cost. All of the external pre-filters that we provide require a pre-filter housing, and these housings can be run in sequence if there is more than one concern.

Do I have hard or soft water? What’s the difference?

Contact us to find out EXACTLY how hard your water is

Original article by snyderhealth.com

The Untold Truth about water memory What the Bleep Water

The Untold Truth about water memory &  Dr Masaru’s Emoto “What the Bleep Water”

About feelings (love, contentment), prayer and … water memory, ionized water, water crystals as they were captured by Dr Masaru Emoto and the movie “What The Bleep”.

Ian Blair Hamilton
Director, IonLife Australia


The amazing film, “What the Bleep” awakened countless thousands of ordinary people to the possibility of a quantum existence; the realization that things may be happening simultaneously on many planes of existence, encompassing all possible outcomes. It was an extraordinary film from a daring and visionary director and producer.

water crystalOne of the most outstanding images in the film were the subway pictures of Dr Masaru Emoto`s magnified water crystals, because they appeared to assume perfect ice-crystal-like form when exposed to positive thoughts of love and compassion. The inference was obvious; that the expression of love and compassion can alter reality at an atomic level.

Anyone who has read Deepak Chopra`s books would already be familiar with this concept. He describes it as the point where energy becomes matter. In my years in India I found a teaching from the Kashmir Shaivites, the predecessors of Buddhism, called the Spanda Karikas.

In the Spanda Karikas, reality as we see it was described as a continual `flashing forth` or energy in the form of God. If we were to slow down this continual and repetitive `flashing forth` of what we might call slides of reality, we might see that not only do they manifest on this plane, but on all others at once, and that it is merely our attachment to this plane that causes us to experience where we live. Heady stuff indeed, especially when you consider that this theory is almost identical to the core lessons of “What the Bleep”, espoused by some of the more daring scientific minds of our time.

The Spanda Karikas were laid down by yogis sitting in meditation, yogis who had never seen a car, much less a nuclear reactor, the internet or microscopic photos of water crystals. In such basic circumstances, their brilliance of perception and insights into the holographic nature of existence, seems to me to be all that greater than someone who today has the support of the greatest array of available data and research in the history of civilization.

So when I see the wonderful concepts in !What The Bleep! I remind myself of the old Yogis sitting alone in a cave in the Himalayas who had already worked these things out!

Back to the Bleep Water. Dr Masaru Emoto has now conducted thousands of experiments on water from many places and has found that in many cases, water seems to assume a beautiful crystalline structure when prayed over, or even when it has had words like `Love` stuck to a bottle. This is indeed a wonderful idea, but there is a danger in extrapolating Mister Emoto`s findings to include waters that have not been prayed over or emotional affected.

The argument goes like this:
Mister Emoto`s water samples, when prayed over, assume a beautiful crystalline form. Therefore waters with beautiful crystalline form are beneficial waters. But what about the trillions of snowflakes that fall gently from the sky, each with a perfect and unique crystalline form? How were these water crystals able to assume this amazing form and yet not be prayed over?
To take it a little further, if for instance, a magnetic field could restructure water into a perfect crystalline structure, should we therefore assume it was more beneficial, or had the energy of Love imprinted in it?.

It`s clear that many of us would dearly love to believe that if we had crystalline formed water, we may experience more love in our life, or any of the other wonderful emotions and effects Mister Emoto used to create his specimens. But just as clearly, water with crystalline structure isn`t necessarily imbued with any of these attributes.
So what does cause a water to restructure into this crystalline format?

Well, without getting too technical, it all depends on the negative charge in the water. This means that the water holds enough negative hydrogen ions to restructure itself into an eight-sided matrix rather than the smaller matrix of ordinary H2O. That`s all! This occurs as rain precipitates from clouds in the form of snow, (in the right atmospheric magnetic field) and in many modern water filters. In fact you can create your own Emoto water with three of the new Neodymium magnets – the sort used in hard drives. Just strap them around your ordinary fifty dollar water filter and they will create a magnetic field through which your water will pass, restructuring itself as it goes. You can do it even more simply. Tape two of these magnets opposite each other on your water pipe under the sink. The magnetic field they create in the water flowing through the pipe will create the same `Emoto` effect. Total cost: $20 at the most. There are plenty of Neodymium magnet suppliers on the net.

Of course seeing this crystalline structure is much harder than getting the effect. It requires Mister Emoto`s special water freezing process to be able to see a sample of your water in this form. This requires you to send it to Japan plus rather a larger outlay for the testing. However there is a way to see whether your water is what I`d call Emoto water, and it doesn`t take a trip to Japan.

The reason the water changes its crystalline form is the abundance of negative hydrogen ions in the water. These are ordinary hydrogen atoms that have become negatively charged as a result of the magnetic field. Because of this charge, they force the oxygen in the water to bond in a bigger structure or matrix. It is this structure you see in Mister Emoto`s beautiful pictures. So if you have lots of hydroxyl ions in your water, you can be sure that your water would, if you could see it, be like Mister Emoto`s water.

How do you find this out? You use an instrument called an ORP (Oxidation or Reduction Potential meter) If you are really keen you can buy one for about $100. This meter measures the positive or negative charge in a liquid. The presence of a strong negative charge indicates the presence of a large number of Hydroxyl ions; hence, you have Emoto water.

Ordinary tap water, measured by an ORP meter, will be around +250 millivolts. Some water filters with Tourmaline in their filters, or Neodymium magnets in the filter, will reduce this to close to zero. (Tourmaline has many names including some proprietary Japanese ones, but it is used because it has the ability to emit Far InfraRed energy, which has the same effect as a magnetic field in the restructuring and negative charging of the water.)
This makes the water nicer to drink, but is it better for you? Yes it is. The hydroxyl ion is often referred to as the primal antioxidant. It is what is `caged` in foods that are known as antioxidant foods. So having Hydroxyl ions in your water, no matter how they are created, is fundamentally good.

So if a little is good, is more better? Of course. The wonderful thing about antioxidants is that scientists say that you will take up what your body needs. You won`t overdose. Of course, if your body is heavily positively charged from exposure to other electrical fields such as mobile phones, computer monitors, TV`s etc, it will need more negatively charged Hydroxyl ions. We are, as author Ray Bradbury said, `The Body Electric` and every chemical reaction that happens inside of us is a fundamental electrical one. So in today`s world, we often feel lethargic because we have far too few negative ions in our body. So how do we get more negative ions?

Interestingly, in the experiments I have done, a magnet strapped to the outside of a water filter has consistently performed better in Hydroxyl ion production that some very expensive imported water filters that claim to create restructured water. By measuring and tabulating the results of various combinations of magnets and water filters, I found that few magnetic or tourmaline-only systems brought the tap water lower than zero in millivolts. Practically, what this means is that it is certainly better than tap water, but it still isn`t contributing a net negative charge to your body.

The only way I could get a reading of negative millivolts, which indicated a net negative charge in the water, and far greater volumes of Hydroxyl ions, was by the use of an electronically controlled magnetic field induced in a purpose-built chamber in a standard Jupiter Science Water Ionizer. The computer-controlled magnetic field was strong enough to separate out the positive ions into a separate stream of water. In this way, I received water that was had far, far more negative ions than any other method. To give you an idea, if tap water was +250mv, the best reading of negative charge I saw on a magnetic or Tourmaline water filter system was +50mv, whereas the electronic water ionizer consistently produced water with readings as low as -400mv. In ideal conditions this reading can be over -800mv.

It isn`t necessary to get all technical here. You can simply look at the differences and work it out yourself. The lower the ORP meter reading, the better the Emoto effect. Pity we can`t see it, Maybe Mister Emoto will create a home crystal maker.

In the meantime, if you want crystalline structured water like Mister Emoto`s, buy a couple of magnets and strap them to your cold water pipe. If you want lots of negative ions, buy a water ionizer from IonLife.

ionized water – Therapeutic Water

ionized water Therapeutic Water

Much of what you will read about water(i.e: from bottled water ,reverse osmosis filtered water to kangen water, alkaline water, structured water,live water, ionized water, etc)  on the web and in other places is marketing hype.What is the truth ?

Here is an article by

By Dr. James Lembeck

A great deal has been written about the subject of therapeutic water over the past twenty or so years. The reason for this is that the technology to treat, filter and produce drinkable water has changed considerably. The old theories regarding what is considered to be acceptable drinking water, no longer…hold water.

Much of what you will read about water on the web and in other places is marketing hype. In many cases this information is based on myths that are perpetuated by those who are either selling something and are uneducated, or have just not done their research. This is a problem and only confuses the public more than they already are. The bottom line is that water is probably the most therapeutic substance on the planet; you just have to be able to weed through all the hype to find out what has been proven.

What is the answer to this long standing problem regarding the dissemination of inaccurate information? First we have to define what is truly meant by the term `therapeutic water`. There really is no easy answer to this question because it is such a broad term. But suffice it to say that the water you drink from the tap is not therapeutic, but other forms to varying degrees are.

It would require an entirely different article to go into ALL the different `types` of water treatment products that are being offered on the market today, and how beneficial, or not beneficial they are. For example, there are products that make distilled water, reverse osmosis water, softened water, alkalized water, structured water and several others. All of these methods of treating water to alter it, and therefore affect the way the body assimilates and uses the water to varying degrees. Some are better than others, while those that are `no good`…are really NO GOOD.

One of the best ways (although there are several ways to accomplish this task) to treat and restructure water is via electrolysis. What is that and how does it work? Well, first we have to look at what water is (H2O), and then we can look at what the manipulation of water by electrolysis (making negative ions) can do, and how it can change your life.

Water is a very simple molecule; it is so simple that all of us take its presence in our lives for granted. What it all comes down to is that water is made up of charged particles of hydrogen and oxygen. This is a very basic substance, but when taken in and used in the appropriate manner, it can help us to maintain our health far beyond what is thought to be possible by main stream medicine today. We will not go into the finer details here as to the exact mechanism of action by which alkalized/ionized water is made using electrolysis. So if you want to get more detail regarding this process, please check out the Site Map on this web site for more information.

The manipulation of water (Ionized = increasing the negative ions/alkalized = making water more alkaline) can be done in a number of ways. It can be done chemically, electrically and by the use of earth based materials known as minerals.

NOTE: Please keep in mind that the bottled water that you buy at any store, is NOT therapeutic in any way shape or form (other than possibly providing some hydration). Bottled waters look and taste like water; however they can also be classified as `dead`…what does this mean? Well, to show how `active/therapeutic` water is (or alive it is) you would need an ORP (oxygen reduction potential) meter and a pH meter, both of which most people don`t typically carry around with them. But if they did have these tools, they would show them that `dead water` has a much higher positive charge (+200 to +300) than the highly negative (high ORP) therapeutically (-200 to -700) ionized water does. High ORP water contains a much higher free negative electrical charge than bottled, distilled or tap water. With the right equipment the high ORP water can also be manipulated to either decrease or increase its pH.

Some of the researched benefits of drinking ionized/alkalized water are:
1. It may help to normalize insulin and body weight
2. It may help to maintain proper cholesterol levels
3. It can help to normalize your blood pressure
4. It can help to reduce systemic acidity
5. It can help to maintain proper electrolyte activity
6. It may have anti-aging qualities
7. It helps to promote an increase in energy levels
8. It has been shown to increase bone density
9. It can help to regulate digestive health, and increase immune function
10. It can increase hydration levels
11. Some research has been done that shows it may have anti-carcinogenic qualities
12. Alkaline ionized water can be effective in reducing constipation and diarrhea, and can help to treat skin disorders

Regular `bottled water` in many cases has been found to contain water that is really no different than what you get from the TAP. There are a few exceptions to this rule, but for some reason (great marketing) the general public gets the impression that drinking bottled water is somehow better for you. There really isn`t enough room here to go into all the bad points regarding what can be found in `bottled water` (contaminants and other chemicals such as BPA, and estrogenic plastic polymers just to name a few). So how do you get around these issues? Do you have to spend thousands of dollars to buy a beautiful home based electrolysis unit? Thankfully this isn`t the case, and now you can get filtered high ORP and alkaline water that is fully portable and is also affordable. The best place that such a portable unit is available right now that has been tested is http://www.ionizers.org/portable-ionizer.html. It is called the

ALKAVIVA PHD PITCHER ULTRAWATER TECHNOLOGY (replaces AOK Alkalizer). This is also a great travel friend for those who already have a water ionizer.

As stated, there isn`t enough space here in this article to cover all of the benefits and the mechanisms of action that electrically modified and alkalized water offers-click here. And although some companies sell chemically alkalized water, it is not a recommended format because of the chemicals they use to accomplish this (alkalizing water is only half the equation). So we will concentrate on the mineral based modified water here in this article.

Cleaner Filtration

How does the pHD UltraWater pitcher compare with leading pitchers that use basic old-style carbon water filters?

There is no comparison.

The pHD UltraWater pitcher changes oxidizing, chemical-laden tap water into the cleanest, mineral-rich alkaline, best tasting water available from a pitcher. We have independent, EPA certified laboratory testing to prove it. Our testing confirms that up to 99.9% of pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, chlorine, chloramines, fluoride, and other chemicals are removed from your tap water.

Uncompromising filtration results. Safety you can count on.water filter test results

CLEAN

The ONLY domestic water filter to remove lead, arsenic, fluoride, and other harmful contaminants with 99.9% accuracy.Does NOT remove natural ,healthy minerals present in water

SAFE

The ONLY water ionizer filter to be tested in an US EPA / NELAP Certified Independent Laboratory to government standards.

COMPARE TO distileed water ,Reverse Osmosis (RO) or bottled water

RESEARCHED

The ONLY water ionizer filter created using WQA certified water specialists, engineers & doctors.

HEALTHY

Created  with doctors & does NOT remove natural,healthy minerals from water(i.e.:like Reverse Osmosis and others) .

Opportunity.

Create an income stream by helping others enjoy CLEAN & HEALTHY water.

NATURAL

100% chemical FREE, all-natural and sustainable media.

GREEN

Reduce plastic waste by up to 95%.

Ethical. 

Say NO to bottled water forever.

COMPARE TO distilled water ,Reverse Osmosis (RO) or bottled water

tap

Cleaner     Greener     Healthier     Smarter
UltraWater_logo

###

Built upon almost two years of research and development, AlkaViva’s exclusive and patented new UltraWater technology provides an environmentally sustainable way to create the cleanest and healthiest water available, any time any place. UltraWater technology will reduce virtually all contaminants in tap water to non-detectable levels. These include :

while allowing the healthy minerals to pass through.

FREE EBOOK -WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER

[contact-form subject=’in water’][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comments’ type=’textarea’/][/contact-form]

 

Once cleaned, the healthful properties of the water are enhanced through natural alkalization and ionization.

The AlkaViva UltraWater filter has taken our years of experience, knowledge, and expertise and combined technologies in a proprietary process to provide the ultimate protection from drinking water contaminants.

The UltraWater uses the highest quality medias available and then transforms them into solid forms to literally block contamination from passing through and ending up in your glass. This creates a greater contact time with the water and removes much higher percentages of contamination than traditional loose media beds. The UltraWater Filter offers superior removal of chlorine, chloramines, disinfectant byproducts, VOC’s, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals such as mercury, lead, nickel and iron (most to non-detectable levels in laboratory testing – UltraWaterResults). In addition it greatly improves taste and odor giving you a great tasting and clean glass of water.

AlkaViva is proud to offer you the opportunity to take back your tap and use the most advanced ionizer filter available in our industry.

Only AlkaViva offers UltraWater Technology that removes most contaminants to nondetectable levels.

 

Now you and your family can have the cleanest, healthiest and best tasting water free from dangerous chemicals.

All in an affordable pitcher.

Health Enhancing Properties

Water from the pHD UltraWater pitcher has up to 1000 times more acid neutralizing power than tap or bottled water, and more antioxidant potential than any food, juice or pill. Plus, it’s a delicious way to stay hydrated and help balance your pH. You do not get these benefits with other pitchers. With the pHD UltraWater pitcher you get both the cleanest and healthiest water available in a pitcher. Period. Why drink anything less?

It also contains minerals in it such as Tourmaline which is also known as `Electronic Stone`, and is mined in Israel, Brazil and China. The reason it is called the Electronic Stone is because when it is exposed to water it begins the process of electrolysis, and it generates negative ions. The production of negative ions `ionizes` waters molecular clusters and decreases their size. One of the reasons that water is so poorly utilized by the body is because of the fact that the molecules in water have a tendency to `cluster` or stick together; this is because of the fact that they carry positive and negative charges that attract each other. The ionization process reduces the size of the clusters, and makes water as a whole more bioavailable.

 

Alkalized and ionized water is one of the most therapeutic agents that you can consume. Water is the basis of all life; it is in many cases the deciding factor between a healthy life and one that is filled with illness and pain. The great part is, now you can take it with you where ever you go!

Dr. James Lembeck has been a consultant to the nutrition industry for over twenty five years; he owns a product development and design company (Colorado Therapeutic Enterprises LLC). He has authored well over seven hundred published articles during this time period, as well contributing material for books now in print. You can find a wealth of additional health, herbal and nutrition information on his web site: http://www.health-compendium.com.

Top quality electric water ionizers, proven to outperform and outlast any other brand regardless of price  for your chiropractic office or health clinic or for public in general without any health claims see our offer water ionizers for your public & business -click here.

References:
1. `Science and Technology of Functional Water` (part) by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruffito Tsuge, edited by Water Science Institute, 1999, pp.109-116.

2. `Basics and Effective Use of Alkaline Ionized Water` by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruhito Tsuge, edited by Tetsuji Hc kudou, 25th General Assembly of Japan Medical Congress `Functional Water in Medical Treatment”, Administration Offices, 1999, pp. 10- 11.

3. Ye J, Li Y, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Komatsu T, Kashiwagi T, Teruya K, Nishikawa R, Kawahara T, Osada K, Toh K, Abe M, Tian H, Kabayama S, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y, Shirahata S. Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis, Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2008 Jan; 31(1):19-26.

AlkaViva Ionized Water Cristals under the Microscope of Dr Masaru Emoto

 

 

AlkaViva Ionized Water Cristals under the Microscope of Dr Masaru Emoto

Have you ever asked yorself what is structured water,  hexagonal shape water,  “snowflake” water , how it is made and what is the link with…human  emotions?

Details(including images & videos ) below.

We’re pleased to announce the testing of AlkaViva(ex Ionways) / EmcoTech (ex Jupiter) Water Ionizers by Dr Masaru Emoto!

Dr. Emoto tested alkaline ionized water from a EmcoTech (Jupiter) water ionizer – results below. The EmcoTech Ultra Delphi uses the exact same water cell technology as in the unit that was tested.

emoto-photo M. Emoto, Doctor of Alternative Medicine, was introduced in the 1990’s to microclustered water (ionized water) and to the technology of Magnetic Resonance Analysis. He then began a quest to uncover the mysteries of water. Renowned internationally, Emoto has published several volumes of Messages from Water, containing photographs of water crystals. His work has also been featured in the film What the Bleep…”

embedyt]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_dmYT83ZKY &feature=youtu.be&rel=0&autoplay=0&autohide=1&width=300$height=300[/embedyt] 

 Experiments consist of exposing water to different words, pictures or music; then freezing and examining the aesthetics of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography.

“We have observed various kinds of water crystals in our laboratory and have found that water containing minerals and in a healthy balance tends to turn out well-ordered hexagonal crystals. Energetically speaking, we believe that water needs to have good Hado to create a beautiful crystal. “

 

 

The images of AlkaViva ionized water on this page were taken by Mr. Emoto April 12, 2007. They show Tokyo tap water before and after being passed through a Jupiter Orion ionizer.

“Deepen your understanding and interest toward water when you see the photographs that are reported here.” (Dr.M. Emoto )

BEFORE (Tap Water)
AFTER (ionized water from Orion Ionizer)
TokyoTapWater crystalsmall

Client: ION LIFE
alkaline ionized Water Sample: Jupiter Orion Water Ionizer
Photography Conditions: -25 degrees
Freeze Time: 4 hrs
Observation Temperature: -3 degrees
Apparatus: Olympus Optical Microscope

orion-crystal3

The water ionizer that created this crystal has been advanced to a newer model and the same more advanced water ionization technology is found in AlkaViva Ultra-Delphi water ionizer

Authenticity

 

Mr. Emoto has added watermarks to the crystal pictures created and authorized by his laboratory at I.H.M. If you are in doubt about whether a water crystal picture is authentic, ask the vendor of a water system that displays advertising or a website with water crystal photographs for their watermark and letter of authorization from Mr Emoto. Unfortunately there are many imitators, often very actively displaying unauthorized crystal photos. Also, ask if the model you are interested in has been tested by Mr. Emoto, and what is the authorization number. The I.H.M authorization number for these images is ihm0705090676.

 

This is the first time Dr. Emoto has tested alkaline, ionized water from a water ionizer.

From the Hado Institute:

“Water is one of the most indispensable substances for the life of human beings. Let’s think about the water inside our body. Generally, it is said that about 90% or more of the embryonic body is water. Regarding an infant, about 80% of its body is water and an adult 70%. As we grow older, the percentage of water in our body decreases.”

orion-crystal3

fujiwara-crystal

Crystal from Polluted Dam, Japan

The fact that Distilled Water  is not like rain water has also been shown by Dr. Emoto using Magnetic Resonance Analysis (see image above). While rain water contains oxygen and minerals and crystallizes into snow flakes, distilled water has no crystalline structure and becomes highly acidic once exposed to air.

“It is not enough to take in a necessary quantity of water inside the body, but we should take the quality of water into consideration. For instance, the district where a lot of long life people live is blessed with high quality from natural resources. In other words, it is becoming common sense that there are a lot of correlations between the health and the quality of water which we drink every day.

Today, even if the water that we drink or use does not contain any detrimental ingredient, the quality of water is not always satisfactory. It is becoming clear that the formation of water crystals reflects the quality of the water. I would be pleased if you would deepen your understanding and interest toward water when you see the photographs that are reported here.”

Masaru Emoto
President of I.H.M. General Institute,

What is water ionization?

What is water ionization?

What are the benefits and unique properties of  ionized  alkaline water is and ionized water from an AlkaViva water ionizer  superior to  any other types of water nowadays ?

is Ionized alkaline Water important for health and wellbeing or it is just a myth ?  is there any evidence in this regard ? are there scientific studies , clinical trials on ionized alkaline water and molecular hydrogen water  ? What do the doctors and experts have to say about ionized alkaline water and molecular hydrogen water ? What is the truth about ionized water and molecular hydrogen water ?

what is water ionization?

Every breath we take, every move we make…so goes the song.

Yet every move we make does depend on every breath we take and every drink (or meal) we take, because our movement is fueled by energy that we store in the body. We receive our energy from the triune sources of air, food and water.

Energy doesn’t just ‘drop’ out of the air, food or water that we ingest. In its usual form it is not chemically available. It can’t always be called upon to support every move we make because it is not always ready for chemical reaction.

For any chemical reaction to occur there needs to be two molecules involved, and each of these molecules must have something to ‘trade’, in the form of compatible atoms that are either positively or negatively charged. Positively charged molecules (and the atoms within them) will easily and naturally unite with negatively charged molecules of equivalent and compatible charge.

Put simply, all of your body functions rely on the energy released from the unity of the ‘charge’ of the molecules in it and the opposite ‘charge’ in food water or air that enters it.

So what is an ion?

An ion is any atom that has a positive or a negative charge. A positively charged ion will seek a negatively charged one to unite with, have a glorious ‘coupling’ and then turn into something totally new and available

So why do we rave on so much about negative ions? Because the result of every move you move (a net spending of energy) is a positively charged body. The molecules in your body are left holding a positive charge. They are unavailable for future ‘couplings’ unless we get a new batch of attractive and giving negative ions in quickly.

As we hear so often these days, things aren’t what they used to be. The air is different. Putting it very frankly and unscientifically, it’s full of crud. Positively charged crud. Nothing ever ‘goes away’ on our little green planet and every exhaust, every chimney plume, every cowfart, stays within our thin and fragile ionosphere. It stays in the air we gulp as we run along the beach, it stays in the water we drink, and it stays in the food we eat. And all of it this pollution is useless for energy production within the body.

The air we breath in our garden, only 500 meters from the beach, contains only around 150 negative ions/cc/sec. but it also contains around 700 positive ions. This means that even as we lay on the beach doing absolutely nothing, our bodies are getting short-shifted by 2000 (required) plus 700 positive less 150 negative ions = 2550 ions/cc/second.

Because the environment can no longer supply our basics, our bodies have to negatively ionize the air, water and food that enters our bodies just to get bareminimum ionization needs, and lying there in the sun, they are working non-stop just to supply enough available energy for us to get up off the sand and walk to the car!

Did we always have to do this?

No. We have managed to take our beautiful planet from garden paradise to techno trash in less than a century, and we have done one helluva ‘good’ job. Where once clear air and spring or glacial water gave us all the negative ions we needed, today the same basics actually rob our bodies of energy.

Like the idea of drinking pure rainwater?

Don’t. It robs you of electrons. It is also acidic, having combined with CO2 and pollutants as it falls from the clouds, and so it only contributes to the acidic state of your body.

Want to go to the beach and reinvigorate on pure ocean air?

That air just blew all the way from a Brazilian chemical factory and now it’s your turn to breath it in.

So we are suffocating in our air, drying up in our water, and toxifying as we eat our clean supermarket food.

In a radical state, radical action is required – and we are indeed in a radical state of personal bodily survival. We have lost the negative ions, the life energy we need to even breathe freely.

It’s not hard to understand how we age the way we do. Suddenly we are old and we wonder how it happened. Yet it’s been happening for years because every day our wonderful, amazing bodies have been slugging it out and losing the battle to keep aging at bay. Instead of performing daily housekeeping functions, it is flat out ionizing water food and air to make it energetically available for energy storage.

In 1838, deHufeland wrote in The Art of Prolonging the Life of Man,

” A careful study of the phenomena of the vital force in the organized world leads us to recognize in it the following properties ands laws:the vital force is the most subtle, most penetrating, most invisible agent we have known until now in nature; in this respect it surpasses even light, electricity and magnetism, with which in other respects it seems to have the greatest analogy…We find a striking analogy between the vital force and magnetism. The life force can exist in a free and latent state, and in this respect has a close analogy to heat and electricity.”

More recently, French Scientist Dr J. Belot said,

“When we consider organic life in the light of biophysics, we find that electrical phenomena are at the root of all cellular life and we conclude that the end of everything is an electrical charge.”

In March 1968, 36 years ago, Le Monde reported that the presence of negative ions or ionization facilitates oxygen absorption, aids elimination of CO2 in the alveoli of the lungs, yet positive ions have precisely the opposite effect. Gases, dust, chemical fumes, all enter the body as positive ions, trapping the tiny negative ions in their large absorbent form, rendering your air technically ‘dead’.

When we read the work of Dr Otto Warburg, Nobel Scientist, we begin to understand the absolute importance not only of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, but the utter importance for our longevity of their entry into the body in negatively charged form. We also begin to see the extent of the effect of common-use substances. A plastic seat (I am sitting on one now!) will accelerate mental fatigue, as will plastic wall coverings. Objects covered in polyethylene produce fields of between 5 and 10,000 volts/meter. In a space enclosed by polyethylene the rate can skyrocket to 100,000 volts/meter. Certain synthetic clothes are strong enough to set up a field that repels all negative ions in your immediate vicinity! Go stand on a mountain; it won’t help much if you’re wearing your favorite synthetic ski jacket!

Without adequate negative ions, we are literally working ourselves to death and we don’t even realize it. Yet the technology now exists to replace the body’s load, to support the immune system, and to promote not just a long life, but a strong, vital life.

With water ionization, you are now able to derive huge quantities of negatively charged ions as Hydroxyl ions in a microclustered form that will flow between cell walls and react with acid wastes that are causing energy loss, lethargy and a predisposition to many illnesses

Furthermore you are able to obtain an incredible antioxidant and antiinflamtory agent called molecular hydrogen H2

What are water ionizers & purifiers and how do they work?

Please read introduction in ionized water and molecular hydrogen water and water ionizers /molecular hydrogen generators here