Category Archives: water ionizers info

AlkaViva EmcoTech/Jupiter alkaline ionized water as cancer treatment -clinical case , integrative oncology

AlkaViva EmcoTech/Jupiter alkaline ionized water as cancer treatment -clinical case , integrative oncology


The present article describes the ongoing (partial) remission of a female patient (41 years old) from estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative metastatic breast cancer in response to a combination treatment directed towards the revitalization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (oxidative phosphorylation), the suppression of NF-kappaB as a factor triggering the inflammatory response, and chemotherapy with capecitabine. The reduction of tumor mass was evidenced by a continuing decline of CA15-3 and CEA tumor marker serum levels and 18FDG-PET-CT plus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. It is concluded that such combination treatment might be a useful option for treating already formed metastases and for providing protection against the formation of metastases in ER positive breast cancer. The findings need to be corroborated by clinical trials. Whether similar results can be expected for other malignant tumor phenotypes relying on glycolysis as the main energy source remains to be elucidated.

1. Introduction

Since Richard Nixon declared war on cancer about 30 years ago, much efforts have been made in order to overcome this dreadful disease. Enormous financial resources have been invested in cancer research in the last three decades, yet most metastasized solid malignant tumors are still considered incurable. Chemotherapy has been shown to be a potent (long lasting) treatment option against only a few solid cancers including testis cancer. The overall contribution of curative and adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy was assessed to be 2.3% in Australia and 2.1% in the United States of America with a five-year survival in adults based on data for 1998 []. Under chemotherapy, cancer cells can gradually develop drug resistance that is acquired, for instance, by overexpression of transporter proteins (e.g., those belonging to the ATP-binding cassette type) [,] and fractionation of the cancerous stem cells [] (which are less sensitive to exposure to cytostatics than more differentiated cancer cells), plus AKT [,] and NF-kappaB [,] overexpression as a compensatory response to administered cytotoxic drugs. Likewise, induced hypoxia may act as protective shield against tumor eradication by chemotherapeutics and radiation due to alterations of gene expression profiles related to hypoxia, which result in the inhibition of apoptosis [].

On the other hand, a plethora of “alternative” cancer therapies have been developed and applied in the past. Here, we report on a combination treatment, including chemotherapy, bisphosphonates, and complementary measures, aiming at the normalization of the cellular metabolism, vascular angiogenesis, cell life cycle, and cell proliferation activity.

2. Experimental

2.1. Chemicals/Dietary Supplements

Super Ubiquinol CoQ10, Life Extension, article nr. 01426, USA:

Vitamin B2, tablets, 10 mg, Jenapharm®, Mibe GmbH, Germany

Vitamin B3, capsules, 54 mg, Allpharm, Germany, PZN 6605862

5-Loxin®capsules, 75 mg, (std. for acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), minimum 30% on dry basis), Life Extension, article nr. 00939, USA,

Linseed oil, Linosan Leinöl, Heirler Cenovis GmbH, D-78303 Radolfzell, Germany

Bio-Kefir, Andechser Natur, 1,5% fat, containing L(+) dextrorotatory lactic acid, Andechser Molkerei Scheitz GmbH, D-82346 Andechs, Germany,

Bio-Yoghurt, Andechser Natur, 0,1% fat, containing L. acidophilus and B. bifidus, Andechser Molkerei Scheitz GmbH, D-82346 Andechs, Germany,

Flaxseed, freshly ground

EPA/DHA: Mega EPA/DHA, capsules, Life Extension, article nr. 00625

Sodium selenite, Selenase®200 XXL, 200 μg selenium, biosyn Arzneimittel GmbH, D-70734 Fellbach, Germany

L-Carnitine: Multinorm® L-Carnitin aktiv, 250 mg L-carnitin plus 3 μg Vitamin B12, Sankt Pirmin® Naturprodukte GmbH, D-55218 Ingelheim, Germany

L-Carnitine, 300 mg capsules: Altapharma, Germany

Zinc, Unizink® 50, 50 mg zinc-bis(hydrogen-DL-aspartat), Kohler Pharma GmbH, D-64665 Alsbach-Hähnlein, Germany, PZN-3441621

Ibandronat Bondronat®, 6 mg/6 mL concentrate, Roche Pharma AG, D-79639 Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany

Capecitabine, Xeloda®, Roche Pharma AG, D-79639 Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany

Drinking water ion exchanger and filter, pHresh, EMCO TECH Co. Ltd., Korea

Vitamin D and vitamin A were sporadically taken.

2.2. Procedure

The mentioned chemicals/dietary supplements have been taken as follows:

Alkalized drinking water was prepared ad lib by using water ion exchanger and filter. The filtered water was boiled prior to use.

Capecitabine was taken orally at 3.65 g Xeloda®/70 kg body weight per day. Two weeks of treatment were followed by one week of therapy pause per cycle.

“Budwig diet”: the following items were mixed for preparing a full batch using a blender: 1 kg Bio-Yoghurt, 0.1% fat, 0.25 kg Bio-Kefir, 1.5% fat, 6 table spoons of linseed oil, 4 table spoons of linseed, to be freshly milled: A part of this full batch may be prepared daily (the daily dose per person was about 250 grams).

Taken together around noon: 400 mg of Ubiquinol CoQ10 (4 capsules à 100 mg), 10 mg vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), 50 mg vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Taken three times daily: 2 softgels of MEGA EPA/DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid), including 720 mg of EPA and 480 mg of DHA per 2 capsules.

One capsule of 5-Loxin®, one dose of Multinorm® L-Carnitin aktiv (taken only during chemotherapy pause; during the chemotherapy 300 mg pure L-carnitine not containing vitamin B12 was ingested), one tablet of Unizink® 50, and one tablet of Selenase®200 XXL were taken daily. EPA/DHA are COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, the heart and vascular functions should be checked by a physician on a regular basis (it has been found that members of synthetic COX-2 inhibitors have been found to increase thrombosis, stroke, and heart attack risk under certain conditions). Moreover, Q10/B2/B3 were not taken in combination with radiation (the antioxidant Q10 potentially quenches the oxidative damage caused by radiation). EPA and DHA have potentially blood thinning effect.

3. Results

3.1. Applied Methodology and Methods

It has been hypothesized by the author that a multi-factorial approach towards breast cancer treatment would result in a synergetic response and reduced likelihood of development of resistance to treatment. Accordingly, it was sought to combine complementary, non-antagonistic treatments, which have the theoretical potential to suppress tumorigenesis and proliferation, with a “conventional” treatment. The envisaged therapy modules were Budwig diet and normalization of the fatty acid dietary balance, alkaline therapy, suppression of the inflammatory signaling chain, revitalization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, bone protection against osteoclast-effected resorption by bisphosphonates and AKBA, and finally chemotherapy in the form of the prodrug capecitabine as 5-fluorouracil precursor []. The latter has been the recommended treatment by the medical tumor board in charge.

The described efforts have concretely been undertaken for suppressing refractory breast cancer stage IV in a female patient (body mass index 24–26, 41 years old), having developed a ductal carcinoma in situ in 2007. After biopsy revealed an estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor negative breast cancer, followed by surgical resection of the invaded sentinel lymph nodes, a neoadjuvant chemotherapy (four cycles Epirubicin/Cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of Taxotere®) was applied. However, the tumor showed little response (the tumor regression grade according to Sinn was only 1). Thus, the first and second axillary lymph node levels were resected in the following, and the affected breast was ablated. No suspicious tumor marker levels have been observed after ablation. The resection area was furthermore treated with radiation (gamma rays). The post-operational therapy included firstly tamoxifen, clodronate (a bisphosphonate), and a GNRH analogue (Enantone-Gyn®).

However, in September 2008, the patient – alerted by pain in the spinal cord – underwent MRI imaging, which revealed multiple bone metastases, including in the spinal cord.

As a consequence, the medication was altered as follows by the medical board in charge: Letrozol (aromatase inhibitor, 2.5 mg/d) and Ibandronat (6 mg intravenous infusion per month) as bisphosphonate. However, the disease progressed and a staging (18FDG-PET-CT and MRI) in March 2009 revealed the formation of various liver metastases. Therefore, the medication was changed to capecitabine chemotherapy instead of anti-hormonal therapy, accompanied by continuation of administration of Ibandronat.

Together with this therapy change, the author recommended the complimentary ingestion of the following substances: “Budwig diet” (linseed oil, flaxseed, and yoghurt), EPA/DHA concentrate in the form of distilled fish oil, ubiquinol (Q10 in reduced form), and vitamins B2 and B3, later on also 5-Loxin®(AKBA). See above for further dosage and substance specifications.

3.2. Results

After about three months (June 2009) of continued intake of the above mentioned substances (besides 5-Loxin®), PET-CT showed no metabolic activity of the liver metastases any longer and reduced activity of the bone metastases under 18F-deoxyglucose as tracer in the PET. Concurrently, a decline of the tumor markers’ (CA 15-3 and CEA) serum concentration was observed.

At this time, as a further element, 5-Loxin® (AKBA) was introduced into the supplementation scheme for the reasons mentioned.

Nine months later, the MRI showed that three out of six initial liver metastases could no longer be imaged, and that the largest lesion had decreased from about 15 mm to about 7 mm. A further small liver metastasis remained unchanged in size. This situation is depicted in Figure 1. Again, no metabolic activity in 18FDG-PET-CT was detected for any of the liver metastases.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is cancers-03-01454f1.jpg

Diffusion-weighted MRI of the liver showing two metastases in the right lobe in (a) June 2009, and (b) February 2010. One metastasis (arrow) decreased from 15 mm in diameter to 7 mm, while the other remained unchanged (courtesy of Prof. Dr. E. Rummeny, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Technical University of Munich, Germany).

Moreover, the PET-CT (18F-deoxyglucose as PET tracer) showed, in addition, a reduction of the size and metabolic activity of bone metastases, accompanied by re-calcification of the lesions. The response to treatment correlated with markedly decreased tumor marker serum levels, with CEA concentration being close to the significance threshold of 4 ng/mL. The development of the tumor marker levels over time is displayed in Table 1 below. The decline of tumor marker concentrations has been found to correlate with cancer remission in clinical studies on breast cancer patients [,]. In addition, the initial concentration of CEA has been associated with the clinical disease outcome in breast cancer patients.

Table 1.

Development of the CEA and CA 15-3 serum concentrations over time; cut-off values were 4 ng/mL for CEA and 27 U/mL for CA15-3.

Date/Months after Therapy Start CA 15-3 (U/mL) Excess over Cut-off Value [%] CEA (ng/mL) Excess over Cut-off Value [%]
29 June 2009/3 49.3 82.6 31.4 684
13 September 2009/7 46.2 71.1 8.4 110
11 January 2010/10 37 37.0 4.1 2.5
19 April 2010/13 38.3 41.9 3.6 -10.8
12 July 2010/16 35.7 32.3 4.1 1.5

The latest 18FDG-PET-CT of August 2010 showed ongoing sclerosis of at least some of the bone lesions and stable disease.

4. Discussion and Conclusions

A plethora of complementary cancer treatments have been reported. Firstly, the intake of polysaccharides and proteoglucans, such as mushroom and yeast glucans [  ,  ], mistletoe lectins [,] and nerium oleander extracts, the latter also in combination with sutherlandia frutescens extracts [,], have been described. The activation of the immune system against cancer cells has been ascribed to all of these compounds.

Another approach employed against the proliferation of cancer is alkaline therapy, which addresses the cellular acid-base balance. It has been found that extracellular/interstitial cancer tissue is more acidic than healthy tissue due to excessive production of lactic acid stemming from the glycolysis of glucose []. Otto Warburg already suggested in the last century that (as a consequence of hypoxia often encountered in tumor tissues) cancer cells undergo excessive glycolysis instead of relying on the energetically by far more effective oxidative phosphorylation [,], a fact which could recently also be verified by biopsy analysis in breast cancer patients, revealing a marked decrease in β-F1-ATPase/HSP60 expression ratio during disease progression []. Lately, it has been suggested that the initiation of glycolysis could be triggered by AKT activation during tumor development [] and that the resulting acidification of the extra-cellular cancer tissue brings about survival advantages for cancer cells [,]. It has been found recently that T-cell development is markedly suppressed in acidified cancer tissue []. Alternative alkaline therapies applied for cancer treatment included the intake of sodium bicarbonate [], cesium chloride [], or alkaline diet, which is based on fruit and vegetables having high potassium content. A further approach was the ingestion of alkaline drinking water obtained from ion exchangers.

Another avenue towards cancer suppression has been established by the supplementation of (essential) polyunsaturated fatty acids, aiming at re-establishing cellular membrane functionality [] and fluidity []. In addition, the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to have a direct bearing on gene expression level by e.g., deactivation of NF-kappaB and AKT by EPA and DHA in a mouse model []. Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, for instance. by suppression of NF-KappaB and cyclooxygenases [], or caused by the reduction of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis via arachidonic acid due to a shift in the omega-6 fatty acid/omega-3 FA level towards omega-3 species (omega-6 fatty acids form the pool for the endogenous biosynthesis of E2 prostaglandin) [,].

In addition, a direct positive correlation between cytotoxic drug efficacy and DHA level in breast adipose tissue of patients has been observed [  ]. Also, recent clinical studies suggested that EPA/DHA supplementation may suppress cancer-related cachexia []. Whereas severe side effects have been reported for the prolonged administration of some synthetic COX-II inhibitors, including increased thrombosis, stroke, and heart attack risk, to our best knowledge no comparably grave effects have been reported for the prolonged intake of EPA/DHA (e.g. in the form of fish oil) in clinical studies. The side effects of fish oil therapy, including blood thinning, have recently been discussed, e.g., by Farooqui et al.[].

Likewise, Johanna Budwig established a cancer diet (the so-called “Budwig diet”), which includes inter alia the daily intake of linseed oil as a potent source of alpha-linolenic acid as essential omega-3 fatty acid []. Anecdotal cases of complete cancer remissions after continued Budwig diet have been reported []. To our best knowledge, no randomized clinical trials exploring the efficacy of the Budwig diet have been launched to date. The consequence of a continued Budwig diet is said to be an optimization of the dietary balance of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids and reconstitution of physiologically intact cellular membrane composition by enhanced administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids as a substitute for peroxidized and saturated fatty acids in cellular membranes, thus increasing membrane fluidity. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that polyunsaturated fatty acids may act as oxygen carriers []. The present-day Western diet results in an adverse ratio of about 15:1 of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids, whereas a ratio of about 1:1 has been reported as paleolithic reference value for humans []. As a consequence, the endogenous high level of omega-6 fatty acids in humans fosters the increased biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid from e.g., linoleic acid. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that cottage cheese, quark or yoghurt as second constituent of the Budwig diet refills the pool of sulfhydryl amino acids (which are essential for glutathione biosynthesis).

Warburg considered the glycolytic switch as being a final event in cancer formation, accompanied by irreversible genetic changes and the inactivation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cells, giving rise to their dedifferentiation []. However, recent studies suggest that this may not be the case: Dichloroacetate has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, thereby suppressing, as other agents, the glycolytic switch and thus fostering oxidative phosphorylation [,,]. As a consequence of such an apparent normalization of the cellular energy production, cancer remissions in animal trials and anecdotal reports of healing of malignant tumors in human patients have been reported lately [].

Moreover, investigations involving the administration of coenzyme Q10 directed towards the revitalization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggest that, indeed, the inhibition of the respiratory chain (Q10 is present in various complexes thereof) can be reversed or at least be halted: Folkers et al. reported that breast cancer patients taking 90 mg per day Q10 stayed in a state of constant disease, and did not develop new metastases. No patient in the group died, although about 20% (6/32) deaths were statistically expected in the observation period. When the dose of Q10 was augmented to 390 mg daily, five patients who already showed remission under 90 mg of Q10 per day went into apparently complete remission, including the eradication of liver metastases [,]. Cases of complete remission in response to high doses of Q10 for other cancer types, such as small cell bronchogenic carcinoma, have also been published by Folkers et al.[].

Likewise, Sachdanandam et al. recently reported on tumor control and remission caused by a combination treatment by coenzyme Q10, vitamins B2 and B3 (all of which are essential for the cellular energy generation) and tamoxifen in animal trials []. As a result, markedly lower levels of lipid peroxidation and cachexia over the tumor-induced non-treated control group was observed. Orienting clinical trials of Premkumar et al., involving 84 breast cancer patients, affirmed the anti-tumor action of said agent combination []. Inter alia, a decrease of the plasma concentration of urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) by about 50% was observed, and the level of adhesion factors such as E-selectin and pro-angiogenic proteinase MMP-9 were found to be drastically decreased after only 90 days of treatment. Moreover, significantly reduced tumor marker levels (CA-15-3 and CEA) have been measured after 90 days of coenzyme Q10, vitamins B2 and B3 plus tamoxifen combination treatment []. UPA expression level was determined as correlating with the clinical outcome of breast cancer, and UPA inhibition has therefore been made the target of extensive research [].

Another approach addressing the stabilization of the course of breast cancer is the administration of bisphosphonates [] such as ibandronate, which stabilize the bone matrix and thus impede osteoclast-mediated bone lysis. In addition, certain bisphosphonates, such as the latter compound, have been shown to possess direct anti-tumor action in vitro and in vivo [,].

Finally, a further route towards the suppression of cancers is the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (a gene transcription promoter involved in the inflammatory chain and in a tumor’s capability to invade, metastasize and evade apoptosis) []. NF-kappaB stimulates the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes [,], also in breast cancer []. Consequently, a number of approaches have been divulged lately which are concerned with inhibition of this factor. The different compounds, which hinder the activation of NF-kappaB, are e.g., EPA (see above), and 11-keto-17-hydroxy boswellic acid (AKBA) [], a compound which has been shown to abrogate the osteoclastogenesis by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in vitro. AKBA was also shown to hinder the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase [], which plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory leucotrienes. Remarkably, it has been shown that NF-kappaB inhibitors effectively inhibited MCF-7 breast cancer stem-like cells [].

In the present case, refractory breast cancer, which had not or has poorly responded to initial chemo- and anti-hormonal therapy, showed drastic and ongoing response to a combination treatment including capecitabine and complementary treatment components; the latter include NF-kappaB blockers, and other inhibitors of the inflammatory chain, respiratory chain stimulants, plus alkaline therapy. The rationale for employing these agents has been explained in the preceding paragraphs. No resistance to the therapy was observed after 17 months, and the decrease of tumor marker levels correlated with imaging results. The obtained results are significant in view of the initial heavy disease progress and lack of relevant response to all preceding therapies.

The incremental contributions of each individual treatment element remain unclear. However, it is hypothesized that a synergetic action of the measures takes place. These have been selected by theoretical considerations in order to avoid potential antagonistic interferences, which could annihilate action. It should also be noted that concerns about the simultaneous intake of chemotherapeutics and antioxidants have been raised in the literature, especially in the context of cytostatics that have free radical formation as their believed primary mechanism of action. To our best knowledge, the primary mechanism of action of capecitabine, however, is not via free radicals but DNA synthesis and thymidylate synthase inhibition []. No antagonistic interaction with the remaining measures “base therapy” (addressing the immune suppression observed in the acidic tumor environment due to the purported suppression of T-cell development in the acidic tissue adjacent to tumors) and bone stabilization by bisphosphonates has been expected. On the contrary, the reported suppression of NF-kappaB expression by e.g. AKBA should reduce the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, which is triggered by the transcription factor NF-kappaB [].

Whether all measures contribute to the observed results remains speculative. The progression-free interval of 17 months observed so far is encouraging in view of a median time to progression from 3–9 months reported for the first line treatment of metastatic breast cancer by capecitabine []. Randomized clinical trials appear to be indicated in view of the promising orienting results.

Note that ER positive/PR negative breast cancer constitutes a rather limited high risk subset within the broader patient collective suffering from luminal breast cancer. Lately, it has been hypothesized in the literature that the expression of progesterone receptor (genes) in breast cancer has a positive bearing on the disease malignity and outcome, correlating with a less aggressive phenotype, and that the expression of progesterone receptor genes may be hindered by AP-1 [,,]. AP-1 and NF-kappaB have been shown to bind to UPA promoter sequence and to cooperatively foster UPA expression. Consequently, it has been directly or indirectly suggested to therapeutically inhibit NF-kappaB in order to improve efficacy of antiestrogen treatment of patients associated to high risk hormone-dependent breast cancer [,].

Moreover, the reduced UPA expression mediated by Q10 described in the literature could also be a sign of a reduced activity of the transcription factor AP-1. At the same time, reduction of AP-1 activity could lead to a reversal of the blockage of the progesterone receptor expression caused by the inhibitory action of AP-1 and a consequent sensitization of ER-positive/PR-negative breast cancers to anti-estrogenic treatment by tamoxifen (compare to references [,]).

It is further hypothesized that the obtained orienting results hint (as already observed for DCA) at a revitalization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain at the expense of a pathologic increase of glycolysis. The reduction of glucose metabolism of the metastases was corroborated by reduced signal intensity in 18FDG-PET-CT scans during the treatment. Hence, the results are interpreted as a pointer towards the (at least partial) reversibility of the glycolytic switch and the associated changes in gene profile expression.



Logo of cancers

Link to Publisher's site
. 2011 Mar; 3(1): 1454–1466.
Published online 2011 Mar 17. doi: 10.3390/cancers3011454
PMCID: PMC3756422
PMID: 24212668

Clinical Response of Metastatic Breast Cancer to Multi-targeted Therapeutic Approach: A Single Case Report

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (


Thanks are due to E. Rummeny and J. Gaa, both Department of Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, for kindly providing the MRI images and the image analysis.


The author does not suggest that breast cancer can be healed by applying the described measures. Moreover, the author disclaims all responsibilities and liabilities as consequence of a potential application of the described treatment steps, either taken separately or in any combination by patients, third parties, institutions, or other persons, and for the correctness of the provided information. Questions concerning the disclosed treatment will be answered to physicians and clinical academia in general, only.


1. Morgan G., Ward R., Barton M. The contribution of cytotoxic chemotherapy to 5-year survival in adult malignancies. Clin. Oncol. 2004;16:549–560. [PubMed[]
2. Coley H. Mechanisms and strategies to overcome chemotherapy resistance in metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Treat. Rev. 2008;34:378–390. [PubMed[]
3. Ozben T. Mechanisms and strategies to overcome multiple drug resistance in cancer. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2903–2909. [PubMed[]
4. Morrison B., Schmidt C., Lakhani S., Reynolds B., Lopez J. Breast cancer stem cells: Implications for therapy of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2008:10–210. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
5. Clark A., West K., Streicher S., Dennis P. Constitutive and inducible Akt activity promotes resistance to chemotherapy, trastuzumab, or tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2002;1:707–717.[PubMed[]
6. Dillon R., White D., Muller W. The phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase signaling network: Implications for human breast cancer. Oncogene. 2007;26:1338–1345. [PubMed[]
7. Garg A., Aggarwal B. Nuclear transcription factor-κB as a target for cancer drug development. Leukemia. 2002;16:1053–1068. [PubMed[]
8. Li F., Sethi G. Targeting transcription factor NF-κB to overcome chemoresistance and radioresistance in cancer therapy. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2010;1805:167–180. [PubMed[]
9. Marignol L., Coffey M., Lawler M., Hollywood D. Hypoxia in prostate cancer: A powerful shield against tumour destruction? Cancer Treat. Rev. 2008;34:313–327. [PubMed[]
10. Walko C.M., Lindley C. Capecitabine: A review. Clin. Ther. 2005;27:23–44. [PubMed[]
11. Kallioniemi O., Oksa H., Aaran R., Hietanen T., Lehtinen M., Koivula T. Serum CA 15-3 assay in the diagnosis and follow-up of breast cancer. Br. J. Cancer. 1988;58:213–215. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
12. Lässig D. Dissertation. Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität; München, Germany: 2007. pp. 70–92. []
13. Moradali M., Mostafavi H., Ghods S., Hedjaroude G. Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromycetes fungi (macrofungi) Int. Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:701–724. [PubMed[]
14. Bohn J., BeMiller J. (1-3)Beta-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: A review of structure-functional activity relationships. Carbohyd. Polym. 1995;28:3–14. []
15. Grossarth-Maticek R., Kiene H., Baumgartner S., Ziegler R. Use of Iscador, an extract of European Mistletoe (Viscum album) in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Altern. Ther. Health M. 2001;7:57–78. [PubMed[]
16. Timoshenko A., Lan Y., Gabius H., Lala P. Immunotherapy of C3H/HeJ mammary adenocarcinoma with interleukin-2, mistletoe lectin or their combination. effects on tumour growth, capillary leakage and nitric oxide (NO) production. Eur. J. Cancer. 2001;37:1910–1920. [PubMed[]
17. Caribik I., Baser K., Özel H., Ergun B., Wagner W. Immunologically Active Polysaccharides from the Aqueous Extract of Nerium Oleander. Planta Med. 1990;56:668. []
18. Swanepoel Marc. Sutherlandia OPC Website. Available online: on 16 March 2011)
19. Harguindey S., Orive G., Luis Pedraz J., Paradiso A., Reshkin S.J. The role of pH dynamics and the Na+/H+ antiporter in the etiopathogenesis and treatment of cancer. Two faces of the same coin–one single nature. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2005;1756:1–24. [PubMed[]
20. Warburg O. The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer—Part 1 with two prefaces on prevention, Revised lecture at the meeting of the Nobel-Laureates; Lindau, Lake Constance, Germany. 30 June 1966. []
21. Warburg O. On the origin of cancer cells. Science. 1956;123:309–314. [PubMed[]
22. Isidoro A., Casado E., Redondo A., Acebo P., Espinosa E., Alonso A.M., Cejas P., Hardisson D., Fresno Vara J.A., Belda-Iniesta C., González-Barón M., Cuezva J.M. Breast Carcinomas Fulfill the WARBURG Hypothesis and Provide Metabolic Markers of Cancer Prognosis. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:2095–2104. [PubMed[]
23. Borzillo G.V. Akt and emerging models for tumor cell energetics. Drug Discov. Today Therap. Strateg. 2005;2:331–336. []
24. Pedersen P.L. The cancer cell’s “power plants” as promising therapeutic targets: An overview. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 2007;39:1–12. [PubMed[]
25. Robey I.F., Baggett B., Kirkpatrick N., Roe D., Dosescu J., Sloane B., Hashim A., Morse D., Raghunand N., Gatenby R., Gillies R. Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2260–2268. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
26. Sartori H.E. Cesium Therapy in Cancer Patients. Pharmacol. Biochem. Be. 1984;21(Suppl. 1):11–13.[PubMed[]
27. Peskin B.S., Carter M.J. Chronic cellular hypoxia as the prime cause of cancer: what is the de-oxygenating role of adulterated and improper ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids when incorporated into cell membranes? Med. Hypo. 2008;70:298–304. [PubMed[]
28. Schmitz G., Ecker J. The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Prog. Lipid Res. 2008;47:147–155. [PubMed[]
29. Ghosh-Choudhury T., Mandal C., Woodruff K, St Clair P, Fernandes G, Choudhury G., Ghosh-Choudhury N. Fish oil targets PTEN to regulate NFkappaB for downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in breast tumor growth. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2009;118:213–228. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
30. Musiek E., Brooks J., Joo M., Brunoldi E., Porta A., Zanoni G., Vidari G., Blackwell T., Montine T., Milne G., McLaughlin B., Morrow J. Electrophilic cyclopentenone neuroprostanes are anti-inflammatory mediators formed from the peroxidation of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:19927–19935. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
31. Berquin I.M., Edwards I., Chen Y. Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids. Cancer Lett. 2008;269:363–377. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
32. Manna S., Chakraborty T., Ghosh B., Chatterjee M., Panda A., Srivastava S., Rana A., Chatterjee M. Dietary fish oil associated with increased apoptosis and modulated expression of Bax and Bcl-2 during 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Prostag. Leukotr. Ess. 2008;79:5–14. [PubMed[]
33. Bougnoux P., Germain E., Chajès V., Hubert B., Lhuillery C., Le Floch O., Body G., Calais G. Cytotoxic drugs efficacy correlates with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid level in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Br. J. Cancer. 1999;79:1765–1769. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
34. Farooqui A.A., Ong W.Y., Horrocks L.A., Chen P., Farooqui T. Comparison of biochemical effects of statins and fish oil in brain: the battle of the titans. Brain Res. Rev. 2007;56:443–471. text section 8.4. [PubMed[]
35. Budwig J. Öl-Eiweiss-Kost. 8th ed. Sensei Verlag; Kernen, Germany: 2007. []
36. Anonymous. A Tape Transcription by Clifford Beckwith (Budwig diet & advanced prostate cancer) Available online: (accessed on 28 February 2011)
37. Bonnet S., Archer S.L., Allalunis-Turner J., Haromy A., Beaulieu C., Thompson R., Lee C.T., Lopaschuk G.D., Puttagunta L., Harry G., Hashimoto K., Porter C.J., Andrade M.A., Thebaud B., Michelakis E.D. A mitochondria-K+ channel axis is suppressed in cancer and its normalization promotes apoptosis and inhibits cancer growth. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:37–51. [PubMed[]
38. Sun R.C., Fadia M., Dahlstrom J.E., Parish C.R., Board P.G., Blackburn A.C. Reversal of the glycolytic phenotype by dichloroacetate inhibits metastatic breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010;120:253–260. [PubMed[]
39. Xu R., Pelicano H., Zhou Y., Carew J.S., Feng L., Bhalla K.N., Keating M.J., Huang P. Inhibition of glycolysis in cancer cells: a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance associated with mitochondrial respiratory defect and hypoxia. Cancer Res. 2005;65:613–621. [PubMed[]
40. Anonymous. Updating you on DCA and cancer. Available online: references cited therein (accessed on 28 February 2011)
41. Lockwood K., Moesgaard S., Folkers K. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994;199:1504–1508. [PubMed[]
42. Lockwood K., Moesgaard S., Yamamoto T., Folkers K. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995;212:172–177.[PubMed[]
43. Folkers K., Brown R., Judy W.V., Morita M. Survival of cancer patients on therapy with coenzyme Q10. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993;192:241–245. [PubMed[]
44. Perumal S.S., Shanti P., Sachdanandam P. Augmented efficacy of tamoxifen in rat breast tumorigenesis when gavaged along with riboflavin, niacin, and CoQ10: effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in mitochondria. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2005;152:49–58. [PubMed[]
45. Premkumar V.G., Vuvaraj S., Sathish S., Shanti P., Sachdanandam P. Anti-angiogenic potential of Coenzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Vascul. Pharmacol. 2008;48:191–201. [PubMed[]
46. Premkumar V.G., Yuvaraj S., Vijayasarathy K., Gangadaran S.G., Sachdanandam P. Effect of coenzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin on serum CEA and CA 15-3 levels in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007;30:367–370. [PubMed[]
47. Muehlenweg B., Sperl S., Magdolen V., Schmitt M., Harbeck N. Interference with the urokinase plasminogen activator system: a promising therapy concept for solid tumours. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 2001;1:683–691. [PubMed[]
48. Diehl I.J. Antitumour effects of bisphosphonates: First evidence and possible mechanisms. Drugs. 2000;59:391–399. [PubMed[]
49. Bauss F., Bergstrom B. Preclinical and clinical efficacy of the bisphosphonate ibandronate in cancer treatment. Curr. Clin. Pharmacol. 2008;3:1–10. [PubMed[]
50. Clézardin P., Ebetino F.H., Fournier P.G. Bisphosphonates and cancer-induced bone disease: Beyond their antiresorptive activity. Cancer Res. 2005;65:4971–4974. [PubMed[]
51. Kawasaki B.T., Hurt E.M., Mistree T., Farrar W.L. Targeting cancer stem cells with phytochemicals. Mol. Interv. 2008;8:174–184. [PubMed[]
52. Sethi G., Sung B., Aggarwal B.B. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation: From bench to bedside. Exp. Biol. Med. 2008;233:21–31. [PubMed[]
53. Aggarwal B.B., Vijayalekshmi R.V., Sung B. Targeting inflammatory pathways for prevention and therapy of cancer: short-term friend, long-term foe. Clin. Cancer Res. 2009;15:425–430. [PubMed[]
54. Zhou Y., Eppenberger-Castori S., Marx C., Yau C., Scott G.K., Eppenberger U., Benz C.C. Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) identifies a high-risk subset of hormone-dependent breast cancers. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2005;37:1130–1144. [PubMed[]
55. Takada Y., Ichikawa H., Badmaev V., Aggarwal B.B. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid potentiates apoptosis, inhibits invasion, and abolishes osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappa B and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression. J. Immunol. 2006;176:3127–3140. [PubMed[]
56. Safayhi H., Mack T., Sabieraj J., Anazodo M.I., Subramanian L.R., Ammon H.P. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 1992;261:1143–1146.[PubMed[]
57. Zhou J., Zhang H., Gu P., Bai J., Margolick J.B., Zhang Y. NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors preferentially inhibit breast cancer stem-like cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2008;111:419–427.[PMC free article] [PubMed[]
58. Gelmon K., Chan A., Harbeck N. The Role of Capecitabine in First-Line Treatment for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer. Oncologist. 2006;11:42–51. [PubMed[]
59. Arpino G., Weiss H., Lee A.V., Schiff R., De Placido S, Osborne C.K., Elledge R.M. Estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer: association with growth factor receptor expression and tamoxifen resistance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1254–1261. [PubMed[]
60. Loi S. Molecular analysis of hormone receptor positive (luminal) breast cancers: What have we learnt? Eur. J. Cancer. 2008;44:2813–2818. [PubMed[]
61. Wei B., Wang J., Bourne P., Yang Q., Hicks D, Bu H., Tang P. Bone metastasis is strongly associated with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinomas. Hum. Pathol. 2008;39:1809–1815. [PubMed[]
62. Nakshatri H., Bhat-Nakshatri P., Martin D.A., Goulet R.J., Jr., Sledge G.W., Jr. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB during progression of breast cancer to hormone-independent growth. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1997;17:3629–3639. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]

Articles from Cancers are provided here courtesy of Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)


Alkaline ionized water improves exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and enhances anaerobic exercise performance in combat sport athletes

note: this article may be useful to cancer patients as it is well known that most cancer cells use anaerobic glycolysis to produce ATP energy and excrete lactic acid  

Hydration is one of the most significant issues for combat sports as athletes often use water restriction for quick weight loss before competition. It appears that alkaline water can be an effective alternative to sodium bicarbonate in preventing the effects of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate, in a double blind, placebo controlled randomized study, the impact of mineral-based highly alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status, and anaerobic capacity. Sixteen well trained combat sport athletes (n = 16), were randomly divided into two groups; the experimental group (EG; n = 8), which ingested highly alkaline ionized water for three weeks, and the control group (CG; n = 8), which received regular table water. Anaerobic performance was evaluated by two double 30 s Wingate tests for lower and upper limbs, respectively, with a passive rest interval of 3 minutes between the bouts of exercise. Fingertip capillary blood samples for the assessment of lactate concentration were drawn at rest and during the 3rd min of recovery. In addition, acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte status were evaluated. Urine samples were evaluated for specific gravity and pH. The results indicate that drinking alkalized ionized water enhances hydration, improves acid-base balance and anaerobic exercise performance.


Despite numerous scientific data, there is still no conclusive answer regarding what and how much we should drink to optimize sports performance. Until the middle of the 20th century, the recommendation was to avoid drinking to optimize performance. The first drinking guidelines were introduced by the ACSM to avoid heat stress in 1975, while hydration and performance were first addressed only in 1996 []. At that time, athletes were encouraged to drink the maximum amount of fluids during exercise that could be tolerated without gastrointestinal discomfort and up to the rate lost through sweating. Depending on the type of exercise and the environment, volumes from 0.6 to 1.2 L per hour were recommended. These drinking guidelines have been questioned recently, and other issues such as over hydration and hyponatremia have been addressed [].

The inconsistency of the results regarding hydration and sports performance arise from differences in experimental protocols. In studies in which dehydration develops during exercise, fluid loss of up to 4% body mass does not compromise performance, while in studies that induced dehydration prior to exercise, performance impairments have been observed after dehydration as low as 1–2% body mass []. Several comprehensive reviews on the influence of dehydration on muscle endurance, strength, anaerobic capacity, jumping performance and skill performance in team sport games have revealed negative effects of dehydration ≥ 2% body mass []. Hydration is one of the most significant issues for combat sports, as athletes often use water restriction for quick weight loss before competition. During tournaments lasting several hours, combat sport athletes sweat immensely and increase their core temperature affecting muscle strength, reducing motor cortex activation, peripheral stimulus as well as the speed of reaction and power output [].

Considering the vast amounts of fluids used during exercise, water seems to be the most often form of hydration. Water comes in different forms, with specific properties depending on its mineral content. The pH of water, as well as the proportions between SO42- and HCO3 determines hydration status and other therapeutic properties []. Drinking hydrogen rich water in human nutrition is a rather new concept, and it is recently suggested for medical purposes and hydration during exercise []. Alkaline ionized water is being marketed as a nutritional aid for the general public for acidity-lowering, antioxidant, and antiaging properties. Some of the animal and human research has confirmed its effectiveness as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis []. However, metabolic acidosis that occurs during high intensity exercise is a distinct form of metabolic alteration, when cells are forced to rely on anaerobic ATP turnover that leads to proton release and a decrease in blood pH that can impair performance [].

Anaerobic exercise metabolism leads to the production of lactic acid in the working muscles. Part of the produced lactic acid is released to the blood, reducing blood pH, and disturbing acid—base balance. Several studies have provided evidence that hydrogen ions are released from the muscles in excess of lactate after intense exercise []. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. It seems that hydrogen ions are released both by a sodium-hydrogen ion exchanger and by a lactic acid transporter []. Since red blood cells have a higher buffering capacity than blood plasma, the lactate generated during exercise largely remains in the plasma while hydrogen ions are transferred to the red blood cells and buffered by hemoglobin []. One of the objectives of training and supplementation in high intensity anaerobic sports disciplines is to increase the buffering capacity of the blood and tissues []. The use of sodium bicarbonate has proven effective in speed endurance and strength endurance sports, yet its use has been limited due to the possibility of gastrointestinal distress, metabolic alkalosis, and even edema due to sodium overload []. It appears that alkaline water can be an effective alternative to sodium bicarbonate in preventing exercise-induced metabolic acidosis []. Contrary to bicarbonate, alkaline water can be used on an everyday basis and has no known side effects. However, there are only few cross-sectional or longitudinal studies on the impact of alkaline water ingestion in combat sport athletes. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to investigate in a double blind, placebo controlled randomized study, the impact of mineral-based highly alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status, and anaerobic capacity in experienced combat sport athletes subjected to a very intense exercise protocol.

Materials and methods


Sixteen very well-trained males, who trained and competed in combat sports for at least 7.6 years, participated in the study. The athletes constituted a homogenous group in regard to age (average age of 22.3 ± 0.5 years), somatic characteristics, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performance (Table 1). The subjects (n = 16) were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group (EG; n = 8), which received highly alkaline ionized water, and the control group (CG; n = 8), which was hydrated with table water. All subjects had valid medical examinations and showed no contraindications to participate in the study. The athletes were informed verbally and in writing of the experimental protocol, the possibility to withdraw at any stage of the experiment, and gave their written consent for participation. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland.

Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants.
Variables Experimental Group
(n = 8)
Control Group
(n = 8)
Age (yrs.) 22.7±3.2 22.4 ± 2.8
Height (cm) 181.2±2.1 178.3±4.9
Body mass (kg) 81.8±3.2 79.2 ±2.6
FM (%) 10.2±2.1 10.8±2.4
Wt—upper limbs (J/kg) 138±14 136±19
Wt—lower limbs (J/kg) 276±04 283±26
Pmax–lower limbs (W/kg)
Pmax–upper limbs (W/kg)
VO2max (ml/kg/min) 64.7±2.8 62.6±3.2

Diet and hydration protocol

Energy intake, as well as macro and micronutrient an intake of all subjects was determined by the 24 h nutrition recall 3 weeks before the study was initiated. The participants were placed on an isocaloric (3455 ± 436 kcal/d) mixed diet (55% carbohydrates, 20% protein, 25% fat) prior and during the investigation. The pre-trial meals were standardized for energy intake (600 kcal) and consisted of carbohydrate (70%), fat (20%) and protein (10%). During the experiment, and 3 weeks before the commencement of the study, the participants did not take any medications or supplements. Throughout the experiment water intake was individualized based on the recommendation of the National Athletic Trainers Association and averaged 2.6–3.2 L per day. In our study we used water which had a pH of 9.13 which is highly alkaline compared to other commercially available products. The water ingested during the experiment contained 840 mg/dm3 of permanent ingredients, and was classified as medium mineral content. The bicarbonate ion HCO3 (357.8 mg/dm3) and carbonate ion CO32- (163.5 mg/dm3) consisted the dominant anions. Sodium (Na+ 254.55 mg/dm3) dominated among cations. The water contained bicarbonate, carbonate-sodium (HCO3, CO3Na+). The chemical properties of both types of water used in the experiment (alkaline and table water) are presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Chemical properties of water used in the study.
Variable Measurement Unit Alkaline Water Table Water
pH pH 9.13 ± 0.04 5.00 ± 0.08
CO32- mg/dm3 163.5 ± 6.3 14.98 ± 0.66
HCO3 mg/dm3 357.8 ± 6.14 3.62 ± 0.12
Cl mg/dm3 26.4 ± 2.3 0.41 ± 0.03
SO42- mg/dm3 7.81± 1.2 1.60 ± 0.09
Na+ mg/dm3 254.55 ± 7.1 1.21 ± 0.05
K+ mg/dm3 0.91 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.03
Ca2+ mg/dm3 10.00 ± 1.6 1.21 ± 0.05
Mg2+ mg/dm3 0.37 ± 0.03 0.40 ± 0.04

Note: Data shows mean values ± SD of three analysis of each type of water

Study protocol

The experiment lasted 3 weeks, during which two series of laboratory analyses were performed. The tests were carried out at baseline and after three weeks of hydration with alkaline or table water. The study was conducted during the preparatory period of the annual training cycle, when a high volume of work dominated the daily training loads. The participants refrained from exercise for 2 days before testing to minimize the effect of fatigue.

The subjects underwent medical examinations and somatic measurements. Body composition was evaluated in the morning, between 8.00 and 8.30 am. The day before, the participants had the last meal at 20.00. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, refraining from exercise for 48h. The measurements of body mass were performed on a medical scale with a precision of 0.1 Kg. Body composition was evaluated using the electrical impedance technique (Inbody 720, Biospace Co., Japan). Anaerobic performance was evaluated by a two double 30-second Wingate test protocol for lower and upper limbs respectively, with a passive rest interval of 3 minutes between the bouts of exercise. The test was preceded by a 5 min warm-up with a resistance of 100 W and cadence within 70–80 rpm for lower limbs and 40 W and 50–60 rpm for the upper limbs. Following the warm-up, the test trial started, in which the objective was to reach the highest cadence in the shortest possible time, and to maintain it throughout the test. The lower limb Wingate protocol was performed on an Excalibur Sport ergocycle with a resistance of 0.8 Nm·Kg-1 (Lode BV, Groningen, Netherland). The upper body Wingate test was carried out on a rotator with a flying start with a load of 0.45 Nm·Kg-1 (Brachumera Sport, Lode, Netherland). Each subject completed 4 test trials with incomplete rest intervals. The variables of peak power–Pmax (W/Kg) and total work performed–Wt (J/Kg), were registered and calculated by the Lode Ergometer Manager (LEM, software package, Netherland).

Biochemical assays

To determine lactate concentration (LA), acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte status the following variables were evaluated: LA (mmol/L), blood pH, pCO2 (mmHg), pO2 (mmHg), HCO3- act (mmol/L), HCO3-std, (mmol/L), BE (mmol/L), O2SAT (mmol/L), ctCO2 (mmol/L), Na+ (mmol/L), and K+ (mmol/L). The measurements were performed on fingertip capillary blood samples at rest and after 3 minutes of recovery. Determination of LA was based on an enzymatic method (Biosen C-line Clinic, EKF-diagnostic GmbH, Barleben, Germany). The remaining variables were measured using a Blood Gas Analyzer GEM 3500 (GEM Premier 3500, Germany).

Urine samples were taken at rest, after an overnight fast, at baseline and at the conclusion of the investigation. They were placed in a plastic container and mixed with 5 ml/L of 5% solution of isopropyl alcohol and thymol for preservation. Urine samples were assayed for the presence of blood and proteins. Specific gravity was determined using the Atago Digital refractometer (Atago Digital, USA). Urine pH was determined based on the standardized Mettler Toledo potentiometer (Mettler Toledo, Germany).

Statistical analysis

The Shapiro-Wilk, Levene and Mauchly´s tests were used to verify the normality, homogeneity and sphericity of the sample’s data variances, respectively. Verifications of the differences between analyzed variables before and after water supplementation and between the EG and CG were performed using ANOVA with repeated measures. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were reported where appropriate. Parametric effect sizes were defined as large for d > 0.8, as moderate between 0.8 and 0.5, and as small for < 0.5 (Cohen 1988; Maszczyk et al., 2014, 2016). Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistica 9.1 and Microsoft Office, and were presented as means with standard deviations.


All participants completed the described testing protocol. All procedures were carried out in identical environmental conditions with an air temperature of 19.2°C and humidity of 58% (Carl Roth hydrometer, Germany).

The repeated measures ANOVA between the experimental and control group and between the baseline and post-intervention period (3 weeks of alkaline and table water ingestion) revealed statistically significant differences for thirteen variables (Table 3).

Table 3

Statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups at baseline and after 3 weeks of intervention (alkaline vs table water).
Variables d p F
Wingate Lower Limbs Average Power Exp. 0.884 0.001 21.161
Wingate Upper Limbs Average Power Exp. 0.587 0.011 8.528
Wingate UL Peak Power Exp. 0.501 0.026 6.228
Wingate LL Total Work Exp. 0.567 0.045 4.822
Wingate UL Total Work Exp. 0.522 0.011 8.459
LA rest 0.534 0.008 9.429
LA post exr 0.618 0.003 13.382
pH rest 0.834 0.001 120.159
HCO3 rest 0.844 0.001 109.250
HCO3 post exr 0.632 0.002 14.724
K+ post exr 0.501 0.040 5.154
Urine pH 0.589 0.017 7.298
SG 0.884 0.001 19.707

Note: d—effect size; p—statistical significance

F–value of analysis of variance function

Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in mean power when comparing the values (7.98 J/kg to 9.38 J/kg with p = 0.001) at baseline vs. at the conclusion of the study in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water. In contrast, the control group which received table water did not reveal any statistically significant results.

Similar changes were observed for Upper Limb Average Power (from 4.32 J/kg to 5.11 J/kg with p = 0.011) and Upper Limb Peak Power (from 7.90 J/kg to 8.91 J/kg with p = 0.025) in the experimental group. The post-hoc tests also showed statistically significant increases in values for Lower Limb Total Work (from 276.04 J/kg to 292.96 J/kg with p = 0.012) and Upper Limb Total Work (from 138.15 J/kg to 156.37 J/kg with p = 0.012) when baseline and post intervention values were compared. The changes in the control group were not statistically significant. These results are presented in Fig 1.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is pone.0205708.g001.jpg

Differences between the control and experimental groups in total work of the lower and upper limbs (30s Wingate test) at baseline and after 3 weeks of alkaline or table water ingestion.

Note: * statistically significant values.

Post-hoc tests also revealed statistically significant decreases in LA concentration at rest (from 1.99 mmol/L to 1.30 mmol/L with p = 0.008), and a significant increase in post exercise LA concentration (from 19.09 mmol/L to 21.20 mmol/L with p = 0.003) in the experimental group ingesting alkaline water.

Additionally, a significant increase in blood pH at rest (from 7.36 to 7.44 with p = 0.001), HCO3 at rest (from 23.87 to 26.76 with p = 0.001), and HCO3 post exercise (from 12.90 to 13.88 with p = 0.002) were observed in the experimental group. The other significant changes occurred in the post exercise concentration of K+ (from 4.15 to 4.41 with p = 0.039), in urine pH (from 5.75 to 6.62 with p = 0.017), and a decrease in the value of SG (from 1.02 to 1.00 with p = 0.001), all in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water.


Acid-base equilibrium within the human body is tightly maintained through the blood and tissue buffering systems, the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs via respiration, and the excretion of hydrogen ions from the blood to urine by the kidneys. These mechanisms also regulate acid-base balance following high intensity exercise. Metabolic acidosis is a consequence of exercise induced ionic changes in contracting muscles. Increased intramuscular acidity impairs muscle contractibility, significantly limiting high intensity exercise performance []. Importantly, acid-base equilibrium can be influenced by dietary supplementation.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of mineral-based alkaline water on acid-base balance, hydration status and anaerobic performance of competitive combat sport athletes. The study participants were experienced athletes (Table 1), capable of performing extreme anaerobic efforts. We have chosen such an approach for two reasons. First, it is well-documented that consumption of alkalizing water can have a significant effect on the hydration status, acid-base balance, urine and blood pH [], as well as Ca metabolism and bone resorption markers []. However, the majority of these research reports have been performed on sedentary individuals [] or on subjects with self-reported physical activity []. Second, alkalization by alkaline water has been mostly discussed in the context of dehydration and aerobic performance []. Therefore, our study is novel by including both well trained combat sport athletes and the use of an extremely intensive anaerobic exercise protocol.

Acid-base balance and hydration status

The exchange of ions, CO2, and water between the intracellular and extracellular compartments helps to restore acid-base balance following intensive exercise. There is sufficient data indicating that, supplements that modify the blood buffering system affect high-intensity exercise performance []. In humans, especially well trained athletes muscle pH may decrease from 7.0 at rest to values as low as 6.4–6.5 during exercise []. Ergogenic aids that help buffer protons attenuate changes in pH and enhance the muscle’s buffering capacity. This in turn allows for a greater amount of lactate to accumulate in the muscle during exercise.

The results of our study are in line with the available literature regarding the impact of alkaline water on blood and urine pH at rest []. However, novel results of the present research are related to the changes in HCO3- after exercise in athletes ingesting alkaline water. Bicarbonate-CO2 accounts for more than 90% of the plasma buffering capacity. Supplementation can increase bicarbonate concentration in the blood and its pH. Since bicarbonate concentration is much lower in the muscles (10 mmol/L) than in the blood (25 mmol/L), the low permeability of charged bicarbonate ions precludes any immediate effects on muscle acid-base status []. These results confirm the view that an appropriate hydration status is necessary for active bicarbonate ion transport.

Several lines of evidence support the negative impact of dehydration (>2% body mass) on muscle endurance, strength, and anaerobic performance []. On the other hand, literature data indicates that consumption of alkaline water following a dehydrating bout of cycling exercise was shown to rehydrate cyclists faster and more completely compared to table water. Following consumption of alkaline water, the cyclists demonstrated lower total urine output, their urine was more concentrated (i.e., with higher specific gravity), and the total blood protein concentration was lower, indicating improved hydration status [].

Our previous study revealed that the use of water with alkalizing properties exhibits a significant potential for hydration during anaerobic exercise []. The results of the present study confirm a decrease in urine specific gravity (from 1.02 to 1.00, with p = 0.001) and an increase in urine pH as the result of consumption of alkaline water. These results illustrate that the habitual consumption of highly alkaline water can markedly improve hydration status.

Anaerobic performance

The current investigation demonstrated a significant increase in anaerobic capacity (Wt−J/Kg) of athletes in the experimental group supplemented with alkaline water. The improvements in Wt following alkaline water consumption were influenced by positive changes in blood pH and bicarbonate. This phenomenon could be explained by the ergogenic effects of high alkalization and mineral ingredients.

High intensity exercise in which anaerobic glycolysis provides ATP for muscle contraction leads to an equal production of lactate and hydrogen ions. Most of the released hydrogen ions are buffered; however, a small portion (~0.001%) that remains in the cytosol causes a decrease in muscle pH and an impairment of exercise. Lactate efflux [] and its oxidation are accompanied by a similar removal of hydrogen ions. The results of the current study demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in lactate concentration at rest (from 1.99 mmol/L to 1.30 mmol/L, p = 0.008), and a significant increase post exercise (from 19.09 mmol/L to 21.20 mmol/L, p = 0.003) when compared to the baseline levels with the values recorded at the end of alkaline water supplementation. The extremely intense 4 x 30s upper/lower limb Wingate test protocol employed in our study, with only short rest intervals between each bout of exercise, was a likely reason that less of the total lactate produced in the muscles was transported to the blood [].

Muscle blood flow determines lactate efflux from the muscle [], and is dependent on the activity of lactate transport proteins [], the extracellular buffering capacity [], and the extracellular lactate concentration []. Thus, our results on lactate concentration are in agreement with the view that anaerobic performance (i.e., Wt−J/Kg, WAvr−J/Kg) depends on counter-regulatory variables. Indeed, we demonstrated that changes in resting blood pH and HCO3 significantly improved anaerobic performance.

Another variable that can affect anaerobic performance includes blood viscosity. Weidmann et al. (2016) showed that the intake of highly alkaline water decreased blood viscosity by 6.30%, compared to table water (3.36%) in 100 recreationally active female and male subjects. Therefore, it may be possible that the excess of metabolic end-products (namely, H+ and Pi), which disturb cellular homeostasis and muscle contraction, are more effectively transported. The available literature data does not specify clearly which components of buffering capacity are altered by the above changes. It must be indicated, that there are several methods available to determine muscle buffering capacity. Due to the methodological complexity, none of these methods are free from criticism. In most studies buffering capacity has been determined in vitro by titration, which does not include trans-membrane transport of acid-base substances or dynamic buffering by biochemical processes occurring in vivo [].

Most studies show a documented ergogenic effect of bicarbonate loading during exhaustive exercise lasting 1–7 min, when anaerobic glycolysis plays a major role in energy provision []. The rationale for the ergogenic effect of bicarbonate is that the increase in extracellular pH and bicarbonate will enhance the efflux of lactate and H+ from muscle. There is also evidence that the ergogenic effect of bicarbonate is more pronounced during repeated sprints than during sustained exercise [].

Different strategies used for improving buffering capacity of tissues and blood do not allow for a direct comparison. Despite this, there appears to exist an ergogenic effect in response to NaHCO3, what may explain the large effect size noted by Tobias et al. []. In our research we obtained large effect sizes with regards to 4 variables (Average power of the lower limbs, resting HCO3, resting blood pH and urine SG).


The results of the present study indicate that drinking alkalized water improves hydration status, acid-base balance, and high intensity anaerobic exercise performance. It appears that both greater muscle buffering capacity and enhanced removal of protons, resulting in increased glycolytic ATP production, may be responsible for these effects. Considering the energy demands and the intense sweat rate of combat sport athletes, the authors recommend the daily intake of 3–4 L of highly alkaline mineralized water to improve hydration and anaerobic performance during training and competition.

Supporting information

S1 Table

Data for Fig 1.


S2 Table

Stress test data.


S3 Table

Water data.



This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland under Grant NRSA3 03953 and NRSA4 040 54.

Funding Statement

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland under Grant NRSA3 03953 and NRSA4 040 54.

Data Availability

All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Logo of plosone

PLoS One View this Article Submit to PLoS Get E-mail Alerts Contact Us Public Library of Science (PLoS)
. 2018; 13(11): e0205708.
Published online 2018 Nov 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205708
PMCID: PMC6242303
PMID: 30452459
Alkaline ionized water improves exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and enhances anaerobic exercise performance in combat sport athletes
Jakub ChyckiConceptualizationInvestigationMethodologyWriting – original draft,1,* Anna KurylasData curationMethodologyProject administration,1 Adam MaszczykData curationValidationVisualization,2Artur GolasData curationFormal analysis,1 and Adam ZajacConceptualizationInvestigationMethodologyWriting – original draft1
Michal Toborek, Editor
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


1. Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC, Sherman WM. American college of sports medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacementMed Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28. [PubMed]
2. Noakes TD, Speedy DB. Case proven. Exercise associated hyponatraemia is due to overdrinking. So why did it take 20 years before the original evidence was accepted? Brit J Sports Med 2006; 40:567–572. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Mettler S, Mannhart CH. Hydration, drinking and exercise performanceSwiss Sports Ex Med 2017; 65(1), 16–21.
4. Davis JK, Laurent CM, Allen KE, Green IM, Stolworthy NI, Welch TR, Nevett ME. Influence of dehydration on intermittent sprint performanceJ. Strength Cond Res 2015; 29:2586–93. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000907 [PubMed]
5. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson IM, Armstrong LE, Casa DI, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS. Hydration and muscular performance: Does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity enduranceSports Med 2007; 37:907–921. 10.2165/00007256-200737100-00006 [PubMed]
6. Savoie FA, Kenefick RW, Ely BR, Cheuvront SN, Goulet ED. Effect of hypohydration on muscle endurance, strength, anaerobic power and capacity and vertical jumping ability. A meta-analysisSports Med 2015; 45:1207–27. 10.1007/s40279-015-0349-0 [PubMed]
7. Kurylas A, Zajac T, Zydek G, Zajac A. The Effectiveness of Alkaline Water in Hydrating AthletesJ Nutrition Health Food Sci 2017; 5(1): 1–4.
8. Ostojic SM, Stojanovic MD. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active menRes Sport Med 2014; 22:1,49–60. [PubMed]
9. Chycki J, Zajac T, Maszczyk A, Kurylas A. The effect of mineral-based alkaline water on hydration status & the metabolic response to short-Term anaerobic exerciseBiol Sport 2017; 34(3). [PMC free article] [PubMed]
10. Heil PD. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled waterJ Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7:29 10.1186/1550-2783-7-29[PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Fang Y, Fu XJ, Gu C, Xu P, Wang Y, Yu WR, Sun Q, Sun XJ, Yao M. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat modelJournal of Burn Care and Research 2011; 32, e82–91. 10.1097/BCR.0b013e318217f84f [PubMed]
12. Watanabe T, Pan I, Fukuda Y, Murasugi E, Kamata H, Uwatoko K. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in ratsJournal of Toxicological Sciences 1998; 23, 365–371. [PubMed]
13. Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosisAmerican Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2004; 287, R502–516. 10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004 [PubMed]
14. Bangsbo J, Johansen L, Graham T, Saltin B. Lactate and H+ effluxes from human skeletal muscles during intense dynamic exerciseJournal of Physiology 1993; 422, 539–559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
15. Juel C. Lactate-proton cotransport in skeletal musclePhysiol Rev 1997; 77:321–58. 10.1152/physrev.1997.77.2.321 [PubMed]
16. Medbo JI, Hanem S, Noddeland H, Jebens E. Arterio-venous differences of blood acid-base status and plasma sodium caused by intense bicyclingActa Physiol Scand 2000; 168, 311–326. 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2000.00650.x [PubMed]
17. Putman CT, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJF. Effects of short-term training on plasma acid-base balance during incremental exercise in manJ Physiol 2003; 550, 585–603. 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.039743[PMC free article] [PubMed]
18. McNaughton LR, Siegler J, Midgley A. Ergogenic effects of sodium bicarbonateCurr Sports Med Rep2008;7 (4):230:6. 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31817ef530 [PubMed]
19. Kurylas A, Zajac T, Chycki J, Maszczyk A. Zajac A. Anaerobic Performance and Acid-Base Balance in Basketball Players after the Consumption of Highly Alkaline WaterInt J Food and Nutr Sci2018;5(1):134–9.
20. Gledhill N. Bicarbonate ingestion and anaerobic performanceSports Med 1984; 1: 177–80. 10.2165/00007256-198401030-00001 [PubMed]
21. Wynn E, Raetz E, Burckhardt P. The composition of mineral waters sourced from Europe and North America in respect to bone health: composition of mineral water optimal boneBr J Nut 2009; 101:1195–1199. [PubMed]
22. Santaka S, Takeki H, Kiichiro T. Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced waterTrends Food Sc and Technol; 2012, 23,(2): 124–131.
23. Amelia J, Carr AJ, Will G, Hopkins C, Gore J. Effects of Acute Alkalosis and Acidosis on PerformanceSport Med 2011; 1; 41(10). [PubMed]
24. Sahlin K. Intracellular pH and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, with special reference to exerciseActa Physiol Scand Suppl 1978; 455:1–56. [PubMed]
25. Weidman J, Holsworth RE, Brossman B, Cho JD, Cyr J, Fridman G. Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adultsJ Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016; 13:45 10.1186/s12970-016-0153-8[PMC free article] [PubMed]
26. Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Klau JF, Johnson EC, Casa DJ, Maresh CM. Novel hydration assessment techniques employing thirst and a water intake challenge in healthy menAppl. Physiol Nutr Metab 2014; 39; 138–144. 10.1139/apnm-2012-0369 [PubMed]
27. Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K. Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in manClin Physiol 1986; 6:365–79. [PubMed]
28. Harris RC, Hultman E, Nordesjo LO. Glycogen, glycolytic intermediates and high-energy phosphates determined in biopsy samples of musculus quadriceps femoris of men at rest. Methods and variance of valuesScan J Clin Lab Invest 1974; 33:109–20. [PubMed]
29. Bonen A, McCullagh KJ, Putman CT. Short-term training increases human muscle MCT1 and femoral venous lactate in relation to muscle lactateAm J Physiol 1998; 274:E102–7. [PubMed]
30. Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, Gore CJ. Effect of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance: a meta-analysisSports Med. 2011, 41:801–14. 10.2165/11591440-000000000-00000 [PubMed]
31. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C. The effects of training intensity on muscle buffer capacity in femalesEur J Appl Physiol, 2006, 96:97 10.1007/s00421-005-0068-6 [PubMed]
32. Linderman JK, Gosselink KL. The effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exercise performanceSports Med 1994, 18:75–80. 10.2165/00007256-199418020-00001 [PubMed]
33. Tobias G, Benatti FB, de Salles Painelli V, Roschel H, Gualano B, Sale C, Harris RC, Lancha, AH, Artioli GG. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performanceAmino Acids 2013, 45:30917. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from PLoS ONE are provided here courtesy of Public Library of Science


 Plant-based antioxidants compared to molecular hydrogen antioxidant


Plant-based antioxidants compared to molecular hydrogen antioxidant


Due to the fact that molecular hydrogen and plant based antioxidants are different things yet they are both antioxidants we could start by saing molecular hydrogen and plant based antioxidants are complementary – dont ever think that consuming an amount of molecular hydrogen is equivalent to consuming a certain amount of antioxidants from natural foods like fruits and vegetables and nuts and other antioxidant rich foods.


Antioxidants in foods are essential nutrients,1 like vitamin C.2 This antioxidant does more than just neutralize free radicals3, but also plays an important role in areas like collagen synthesis4  , cell respiration/ oxygenation(aka respiratory vitamin), fighting viruses ad other important roles .

an example of oxidation neutralization : compare Vitamin’s C antioxidative power with the antioxidative power of molecular hydrogen ?

Drinking 1 liter of hydrogen-rich water at a concentration of 1.4 ppm(you will need a great  machine to do that like AlkaViva Vesta H2 water – ionizer or a Ionpia H2 molecular hydrogen water generator), would provide you about the same number of “antioxidant molecules” (hydrogen gas), as ingesting 100 mg of “antioxidant molecules” (vitamin C).

Based on stoichiometry, one molecule of vitamin C can theoretically neutralize two free radicals, which is the same for molecular hydrogen.5

However, some of the used vitamin C molecules can be rejuvenated by the body and can be used again6, which is not the case with molecular hydrogen wich is a gaz. On the other hand, molecular hydrogen can upregulate powerful antioxidant enzymes in the body,7 thus providing further protection,8 which vitamin C cannot do. Interestingly, vitamin C intake at high levels may actually prevent this upregulation from occurring.9

Similarities between plant based antioxidants  and molecular hydrogen?

  • plant based antioxidants  and molecular hydrogen are both natural to the body.10  (neither artificial nor synthetic)
  • plant based antioxidants  and molecular hydrogen are both potential keys to longevity.11   and promote health and wellness.

Differences between plant based antioxidants  and molecular hydrogen?

  • Molecular hydrogen only scavenges the bad free radicals.12
  • Molecular hydrogen leaves no waste product after neutralizing a free radical.
  • Molecular hydrogen also increases our body’s own antioxidant systems.7
  • Molecular hydrogen also acts as a signaling molecule, thus having many other benefits.13
  • Molecular hydrogen is the smallest molecule, and can easily enter the cells.14  (Note: H2 only weighs 2 g/mole vs. vitamin C at 176.2 g/mol).5
  • Molecular hydrogen has no known toxic effects, even at high intakes.15
  • Molecular hydrogen is easily consumed with no additional calories.


Molecular hydrogen doesn’t replace antioxidants contained in natural foods, but truly works in conjunction with them as well as offers additional benefits.




1. Matarese, L. E., & Gottschlich, M. M. (1998). Contemporary nutrition support practice: a clinical guide. WB Saunders.

2. Chen, Q., Espey, M. G., Sun, A. Y., Pooput, C., Kirk, K. L., Krishna, M. C., & Levine, M. (2008). Pharmacologic doses of ascorbate act as a prooxidant and decrease growth of aggressive tumor xenografts in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(32), 11105-11109.

3. Arrigoni, Oreste, and Mario C. De Tullio. “Ascorbic acid: much more than just an antioxidant.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1569, no. 1 (2002): 1-9.

4. Murad, S., D. Grove, K. A. Lindberg, G. Reynolds, A. Sivarajah, and S. R. Pinnell. “Regulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 78, no. 5 (1981): 2879-2882.

5. Harris, D. C. (2010). Quantitative chemical analysis. Macmillan.

6. Washko, P. W., Wang, Y. A. O. H. U. I., & Levine, M. (1993). Ascorbic acid recycling in human neutrophils. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268(21), 15531-15535.

7. KAWAMURA, T., WAKABAYASHI, N., SHIGEMURA, N., HUANG, C. S., MASUTANI, K., TANAKA, Y., NODA, K., PENG, X., TAKAHASHI, T., BILLIAR, T. R., OKUMURA, M., TOYODA, Y., KENSLER, T. W. & NAKAO, A. (2013). Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304, L646-56.

8. XIE, K., YU, Y., HOU, L., CHEN, H., HAN, H., XIONG, L. & WANG, G. (2012). Nrf2 is critical in the protective role of hydrogen gas against murine polymicrobial sepsis. British Journal of Anaesthesia 108, 538-539.

9. Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., Domenech, E., & Viña, J. (2008). Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: upregulation of antioxidant genes by training. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44(2), 126-131.

10. CHRISTL, S. U., MURGATROYD, P. R., GIBSON, G. R. & CUMMINGS, J. H. (1992). Production, metabolism, and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine. Gastroenterology 102, 1269-77.

11. ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. & WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.

12. OHSAWA, I., ISHIKAWA, M., TAKAHASHI, K., WATANABE, M., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., KATSURA, K., KATAYAMA, Y., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 13, 688-694.

13. DIXON, B. J., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Med Gas Res 3, 10.

14. OHTA, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17, 2241-52.

15. OHNO, K., ITO, M. & ICHIHARA, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2012, 353152.

Molecular Hydrogen Water FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions about Molecular Hydrogen Water

  1. What is molecular hydrogen water?

Molecular hydrogen water or hydrogen-rich water ( hydrogen-enriched water)  means water (H2O) with dissolved hydrogen gas (H2) in it.  

  1. Isn’t ( molecular ) hydrogen gas explosive?

Yes, it is VERY explosive. Molecular hydrogen is the most energy-dense molecule by mass.  

But, when the molecular hydrogen gas is dissolved in water it is not explosive anymore,

Even when molecular hydrogen is in the air, it is only flammable above a 4.6% concentration by volume, which is not a concern when talking about molecular hydrogen  water.


  1. Doesn’t water H2O already have hydrogen in it  ?

The water molecule has 2 hydrogen atoms, chemically bound to the oxygen atom. This is different from the molecular hydrogen gas (H2), which is just two hydrogen atoms bound only to each other.The H2 -hydrogen molecules are not tied up to water H2O

In order for the dissolved molecular hydrogen gas (H2) to beneficial for humans, it must be in an unbound form, and therefore available for therapeutic benefit.

Virtually everything has hydrogen atoms in it, but those hydrogen atoms are chemically tied up with other things.  In molecular hydrogen rich water, the hydrogen molecule that is shown to be therapeutic is the available water dissolved hydrogen molecule in its diatomic form, called (dissolved diatomic) molecular hydrogen.


  1. I thought that if water “rich in hydrogen ”, it must be acidic?

If the water is rich in positive hydrogen ions (H+). then YES, water is acidic(pH<7).

But  when talking about molecular hydrogen rich water of , we’re talking about neutral (ph=7) hydrogen gas (H2), which is two hydrogen atoms tied together –  hydrogen in its diatomic molecular form.

It can be confusing to hear “hydrogen water” because we usually think of hydrogen (meaning the hydrogen ion, H+) as acidic, and that is basically the definition of pH.  The p stands for potential or power, meaning a mathematical exponent (in this case a logarithmic function), and the H stands for the hydrogen ion, which is just a proton and no electron. So pH literally means the logarithmic concentration of the hydrogen ion.

But when we say “molecular hydrogen rich  water” we are referring to diatomic hydrogen or molecular hydrogen, which is a neutral(ph=7) gas of H2 molecules (one H2 is made of 2 atoms of hydrogen bond into a  molecule),  that is dissolved in the water.


  1. I read that if you add hydrogen to water, then it makes hydrogen peroxide?

Molecular hydrogen (H2) gas does NOT bond to NOR react with the water molecules, it just dissolves into the water. Thus it does not create some novel molecule like H4O, which would in fact be chemically impossible to form. Water has the chemical formula H2O,  and hydrogen peroxide has the chemical formula H2O2, which by comparison contains an extra oxygen, not hydrogen.

Molecular hydrogen water and hydrogen peroxide are completely different.


  1. Since molecular hydrogen gas doesn’t dissolve very well in water, how can there even be enough for it to be beneficial?

It is true that molecular hydrogen is not very water soluble as it is a neutral, non-polar molecule with a solubility of 1.6 mg/L, which is relatively low.

But when we consider that molecular hydrogen is the lightest molecule in the universe, we really need to compare the number of molecules as opposed to the number of grams.

For reference, vitamin C (176.2 g/mole) weighs 88 times more than hydrogen gas (2 g/mole).

Therefore, molecular hydrogen rich water at a concentration of 1.6 mg/L would have more “antioxidant” molecules than 100 mg of vitamin C, as there are more total molecules in 1.6 mg of hydrogen compared 100 mg of vitamin C. That is, 0.8 mmoles of H2 vs. about 0.6 mmoles of vitamin C.

But more importantly, hundreds of scientific studies clearly show that these concentrations of molecular hydrogen in water are effective.


  1. Won’t any dissolved molecular hydrogen gas immediately evaporate out of the water?

Yes, molecular hydrogen as any gas does immediately start coming /evaporate out of the water, but it doesn’t just vanish immediately. Depending on the surface area, agitation, etc., the molecular hydrogen gas can stay in the water for a few hours or longer before it drops below a therapeutic level. 


  1. How much molecular hydrogen water should I drink to get the benefits?

That is the same question scientists are asking and is still under investigation. However, the human studies generally provide about 1-3 mg of molecular hydrogen H2, and these doses show statistically significant benefits. So, if your molecular hydrogen water has a concentration of 1 mg/L (equivalent to 1 ppm, parts per million), then 2 liters of molecular hydrogen water will give you 2 mg of H2. Although the effective concentration for some people and some diseases may be lower and/or higher, these doses are simply what have been seen to expert benefits. (see this article also).


  1. Does more molecular hydrogen equal more benefits?

Maybe, maybe not…. there is obviously a minimum required amount of molecular hydrogen (water )needed to offer any health benefits, which may vary from person to person. Importantly, it appears that you cannot get too much molecular hydrogen, as it doesn’t build up in your body—you just exhale it out.  In many cases there is a clear dose-dependent effect, meaning the more molecular hydrogen (water) the better or greater the effect. There are also many anecdotal reports that suggest that consuming more molecular hydrogen (water) may offer even more benefits. But more research needs to be done in this area.


  1. Is molecular hydrogen (water) safe (for consumption)?

YES. Molecular Hydrogen  gas (in water)  has been shown to be very safe at concentrations hundreds of times higher than what is being used for therapy.  Here are a few examples:

Molecular Hydrogen’s safety was first shown in the late 1800s, where molecular hydrogen gas was used to locate gunshot wounds in the intestines. The reports showed that there were never any toxic effects or irritation to even the most sensitive tissues.

Another good example of its safety is that  molecular hydrogen gas has been used in deep sea diving since 1943 (at very high concentrations) to prevent decompression sickness. Studies have shown no toxic effects from  molecular hydrogen when at very high levels and pressures of 98.87% H2 and 1.26% O2 at 19.1 atm.

Furthermore, molecular hydrogen gas is natural to the body because after a fiber-rich meal, our gut bacteria can produce liters of molecular hydrogen on a daily basis (which is yet another benefit from eating fruits and vegetables).

In short, molecular hydrogen gas is very natural to our bodies, not like  a foreign or alien substance that can only be synthesized in a chemistry lab.

  1. When was molecular hydrogen’s therapeutic benefits first discovered?

The earliest account of molecular hydrogen gas having medicinal properties was in 1798, for things like inflammation. But, it didn’t become a popular topic among scientists until 2007, when an article about the benefits of molecular hydrogen was published in the prestigious journal of Nature Medicine by Dr. Ohta’s group.



Benefits of molecular hydrogen (H2 ) Water 3

Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen in Water – part 3

Molecular Hydrogen (water) is  a single natural way to reduce pain and inflammation, to improve your energy, cognitive function, exercise performance and recovery ,to neutralize harmful free radicals and support your body’s enzyme and antioxidant production & to also hydrate your cells plus generally support your overall health and wellness. Scientists have discovered that molecular hydrogen H2 water – molecular hydrogen or diatomic hydrogen water – has all of these properties and more. molecular hydrogen H2 (water)  has become a major area of scientific research.

The Healing Property In Healing Waters

hydrogen water

Around the world there are well-known natural molecular  hydrogen rich water sources or springs that offer healing or curative properties. Scientists have recently found H2 in samples analyzed from Nordenau (Germany), Tlacote (Mexico) and Hita Tenryosui, Japan1-3. The existence of molecular hydrogen H2 in these water springs (and others) could be a result of water reacting with alkali-earth metals, or from molecular hydrogen gas-producing bacteria and algae4. Regardless, the available science regarding molecular hydrogen H2 and its benefits seems to explain these H2 waters healing properties.

What is Molecular Hydrogen water?

Molecular Hydrogen water is water that has molecular hydrogen H2 gas in it.Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element appearing first on the Periodic Table of Elements. Molecular hydrogen is also the smallest molecule consisting of just one electron and one proton. Because of its tiny size, it is able to permeate even sub-cellular structures such as the mitochondria making it extremely bioavailable. It even crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is colorless, odorless, non-metallic, non-toxic and tasteless.

Molecular Hydrogen water Research


The body of science regarding health benefits of molecular hydrogen H2  (water)  has advanced rapidly in recent years thanks to the studies done by research scientists around the globe. Over 600 peer-reviewed articles have been published on the impact of molecular hydrogen  H2 on humans, animals, and individual cells. It shows that molecular hydrogen H2 (water)  regulates over 200 biomolecules and appears to provide benefit in 166 health conditions and disease models, affecting virtually every organ in the human body. Molecular hydrogen H2 operates on human metabolism in three primary areas:

• Molecular hydrogen H2  (water) rapidly and easily converts toxic free (hydroxyl OH-) radicals to water (H2 + 2 OH – > 2 H2O);
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  maintains antioxidant homeostasis. In other words, the body’s own antioxidants are leveraged and maintained; and
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  supports cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This impacts inflammation, obesity, and aging mechanisms.

Molecular Hydrogen water is Safe And Natural.


Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  is not foreign to the body like a pharmaceutical drug. Your body produces small amounts of Molecular hydrogen  H2 gas from the bacteria in your digestive tract as it digests vegetable fibers, which diffuse into the bloodstream. Research shows that delivering H2 in higher concentrations than your body can produce is much more effective. In fact, drinking hydrogen water was used in most of the studies and is the most effective way to deliver Molecular hydrogen ‘s powerful benefits.

Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  science is moving quickly beyond theory to practical applications.

Hydrogen water ionizers and generators allow medical professionals and consumers to leverage the health benefits of Molecular hydrogen Hwater.
“The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.” Medical Gas Research 2015; 5:12

Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen water


“It is not an overestimate to say that hydrogen water’s’ impact on therapeutic and preventative medicine could be enormous in the future.”
Free Radical Research 2010

Why Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  is a Superlative Antioxidant


Chronic oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major causes of aging and modern chronic diseases. Everyone knows that there are many antioxidants available. However, they have shown only limited success in therapeutic trials.

Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  has some distinct advantages, causing researchers to propose it as a NOVEL antioxidant with superior therapeutic and preventive applications.

• Molecular hydrogen  H2 is the smallest molecule. Other antioxidants such as Vitamin C or Vitamin E are very large by comparison. They must also be digested, absorbed, transported and finally taken up by the cells.

Molecular hydrogen  H2 penetrates the stomach lining quickly and acts inside the cells immediately. It’s able to get into every part of the cell more quickly protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against damaging oxidative stress.
• Each molecule of molecular hydrogen  H2 neutralizes two free radicals. It easily separates into two slightly charged atoms that neutralize the free radicals created from our daily oxidative stress. In the process, it creates water thus hydrating the cells.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 is selective and targets only “bad” free radicals. Oxygen radicals are extremely damaging. However, your body also produces “good” free radicals, which serve useful purposes. Other antioxidants only partially neutralize radicals, both the good and bad ones. Worse, these antioxidants can then become free radicals themselves once they’ve done their job. H2 selectively goes after only the bad radicals and unlike other antioxidants, neutralizes them completely.

Molecular hydrogen (water) – The Best Anti-Aging Supplement?


Our modern lifestyle has greatly increased the oxidative stress on our body, leading to alarmingly increased rates of chronic disease and poor health. As a culture, we are out of balance and aging and we lack something to naturally and universally address the decline that comes with aging. The science is clear: Molecular hydrogen  water is a powerful and effective foundation for better health, wellness, and slowing the aging process.

• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water)  reduces inflammation and pain. As we age, we ache more. Molecular hydrogen  H2 has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory. Molecular hydrogen  is also can potentially modify the switched on genes that create a constant state inflammation.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) supports optimal cognitive function. The brain is 2-4% of your body’s weight but consumes 20-40% of the oxygen you breathe. Since 2-5% of the oxygen you breathe turns into free radicals, your brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress damage. molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) neutralizes excess free radicals that occur in the brain.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) promotes cellular health. Research shows Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) activates production of your own antioxidant levels. Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) triggers activation of antioxidant enzymes in the body (e.g., glutathione peroxidase, super-oxide dismutase, catalase, etc.) and/or proteins that protect the cell. Each one of these enzymes takes care of different kinds of free radicals, and they work together to keep the cells healthy.

Exerciser or Athlete , molecular hydrogen  Water is Your Secret Weapon!!!


Athletes and people who exercise experience more oxidative stress than sedentary individuals. They are also more vulnerable to the effects of chronic dehydration.

• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) helps Improve Energy Levels. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the fuel that powers your cells during physical activity. Research shows molecular hydrogen H2 increases ATP production, helping you maintain high energy and better performance.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) Improves Performance and Recovery Time. When you exercise, your lactic acid increases, leading to fatigue, muscle damage, decreased endurance, reduced performance, and poor results. Peer-reviewed research on athletes shows that Molecular hydrogen  H2 water decreases lactic acid levels leading to better performance and faster recovery.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water ) Reduces Oxidative Stress. When we exercise we use more oxygen generating more damaging oxygen radicals leading to increased oxidative stress. Molecular hydrogen  H2 easily enters sub-cellular compartments helping to protect them from damaging cytotoxic oxygen radicals.
• Molecular hydrogen  H2 (water) Improves Your Hydration. When  hydrogen H2 molecules combine with and neutralize damaging oxygen radicals, they are transformed into water (H2O) – increasing your cellular hydration. Molecular hydrogen H2 infused alkaline ionized water is also better absorbed by the body than regular tap water.

To summarize, whether at work or play, old or young, healthy or unhealthy, molecular hydrogen  water offers everyone a wide range of powerful benefits. Most supplements have one mechanism of action; molecular hydrogen  water (and H2 tablets) offers many. It has a very solid and growing body of science to back up molecular hydrogen water’s therapeutic benefits. So if you’re interested in optimizing your health and well-being, enjoying more energy and better mental clarity and improving your athletic performance, then what are you waiting for? Give your body the ability to thrive naturally. Join the molecular hydrogen water revolution. Do what got results in the research and drink hydrogen water. H2 infused UltraWater from AlkaViva is the perfect, easy and convenient way to get the cleanest and healthiest molecular hydrogen water.



For a list of some of the peer reviewed studies about molecular hydrogen water visit here.

For a discussion on the different types of products that produce molecular hydrogen water, please Click Here 


1. ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. & WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.
2. SHIRAHATA, S. A. N. E. T. A. K. A. (2002). Reduced water for prevention of diseases. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 12, 25-30.
3. SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T. & TERUYA, K. (2012). Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends in Food Science & Technology 23, 124-131.
4. CONRAD, R., ARAGNO, M. & SEILER, W. (1983). Production and consumption of hydrogen in a eutrophic lake. Applied and Environmental Microbiology45,502-10

Benefits of molecular hydrogen (H2 ) Water 2

Benefits of molecular hydrogen (H2 ) Water- part 2

molecular hydrogen (H2 ) Water for Athletes and Active People

Molecular hydrogen water is a convenient and natural way for you to have more energy while also reducing fatigue, lactic acid buildup and oxidative stress.
 Molecular hydrogen water is a way to recover faster, elevate your performance and allow you to enjoy your activities more.

There is a growing body of highly credible science that shows molecular hydrogen ( H2 )  offers all of those benefits, and more. The best way to get moleular hydrogen H is by drinking  molecular hydrogen infused water. There have been over 600 peer reviewed papers published showing that molecular hydrogen water offers therapeutic health benefits of hydrogen rich water in 150 disease models and health conditions and virtually every organ of the body. A growing collection of these studies  using  molecular hydrogen water have shown molecular hydrogen  water H2 has significant benefits for athletic performance and during routine exercise.

What Makes Activities / Exercise Hard?


Any activity or training above a resting state immediately increases our body’s needs for energy and oxygen to power the activity. Any activity that is more intense than what your body is used to, stresses your system causing a cascade of effects.

The increased oxygen produces more cell damaging oxygen (free) radicals, which cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress silently attacks your cells behind the scenes leading to loss of cell viability and cell death, causing muscle damage, weakness, fatigue and inflammation.1-3 This is especially true with exercise induced oxidative stress.

If your activity is intense enough, you will use up available ATP for energy and your body will burn glycogen. When that happens you will feel the burn from lactic acid build up, which leads to fatigue and possible muscle soreness. All of this leads to decreased endurance, reduced performance, poor results and less enjoyment.

Molecular Hydrogen Rich Water Increases Your Energy


ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the energy currency for all the activities of your body. The food we eat and oxygen we breathe create ATP in the mitochondria, powering each of our cells and our activity. H2 water for atp

However, free radicals are also produced every minute from the oxygen we breathe. It’s simply a fact of aerobic metabolism. Free radicals – especially oxygen radicals – damage your mitochondria. When damaged mitochondria cannot produce the necessary levels of ATP, the body turns to metabolizing stored glycogen. Glycogen stores are found mostly in the liver where they are accessed and used for energy.

A growing body of research shows many health benefits of molecular hydrogen rich water, including improved mitochondrial function, increases ATP production and potentially induces mitochondrial biogenesis.4 Molecular hydrogen H2 is the smallest molecule in the universe and so rapidly diffuses through our cell membranes, and neutralizes the damaging free radicals. Molecular’s hydrogen protective properties allow the mitochondria to produce optimal levels of ATP, providing you with more energy. When you have to dig deep and go beyond your ATP production, as we all sometimes do during activity or training, research has shown that molecular hydrogen H2 can support an increase of glycogen stored in your liver.4

The research is in. Drinking molecular hydrogen water shows many increased health benefits including improved energy through improved ATP production while increased glycogen stores help decrease fatigue and muscle damage. Go longer. Go stronger.

Molecular Hydrogen Water Reduces Lactic Acid Buildup


Anytime your body starts burning stored glycogen you start to produce lactic acid. Increased lactic acid buildup in turn leads to greater fatigue, muscle soreness and slower recovery. Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis is common among some highly active individuals and many highly trained athletes. It’s another silent, behind the scenes effect; if you have acidosis you don’t know it, except by seeing and feeling that you are not performing at your best.

One recent study found another health benefit of molecular hydrogen rich water is that it can positively impact athletic performance in elite athletes. Both muscle fatigue and lactate (levels of lactic acid in the blood) were decreased in the control group of elite, highly trained athletes when they consumed molecular hydrogen H2 rich water before undergoing intensive exercise controlled by strict test protocols.5

A similar study found that molecular hydrogen water had a beneficial effect on the maximal rate of perceived exertion and lactic acid build-up at critical running speed during maximal exercise. While the exact mechanism was not identified, the study concluded “… that hydrogen-rich water decreases the physical stress during maximal exercise…”.6

A quote from one of the multiple research papers on this topic says it succinctly:
“Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function.”
Kosuke Aoki, et al Medical Gas Research, 2012

Please note that as molecular hydrogen water is also produced by a water ionizer when the water ionizer produces alkaline ionized water ; as lactic acid is (as the name states) an acid, you can drink alkaline ionized water (AKW) or ERW(Electrolisys Reduced Water) wich also contains molecular hydrogen to get rid of/neutralize that lactic acid buildu and recover more benefits of alkaline ionized water & more about molecular hydrogen water

Alkaviva ionized alkaline water HEALTH benefits & propertiesAlkaviva ionized alkaline water HEALTH benefits & properties

Molecular Hydrogen Water Protects Against Oxidative Stress

Being a powerful antioxidant this sounds right , Any increase in activity results in an increased level of oxidative stress. Unusual or intense physical activity over a short period of time  causes higher levels of oxidative stress and lactic acid buildup (exercise-induced metabolic acidosis). This causes the symptoms of overtraining such as increased fatigue, residual muscle soreness, micro-tears to the muscle fibers, and inflammation. Oxidative stress in any form, and no matter how you got there, is not good.

Scientists have known for a long time that one health benefit of molecular hydrogen H2 is that it readily neutralizes free radicals, specifically the hydroxyl radical (*OH–) and oxide radical ion (0+).7-9 Especially important is that molecular hydrogen  H2 appears to selectively target the hydroxyl radical which is the most toxic to the cells. Other free radicals (e.g. nitric oxide radical) are actually important to cell physiology and homeostasis.7,8 Unlike other “non-selective” antioxidants,molecular hydrogen  H2 leaves these good radicals unchanged, making it a superlative antioxidant.

Molecular Hydrogen H2  water Improves Recovery Time and Healing


Studies have found molecular hydrogen rich water to be beneficial in treating injuries and conditions related to oxidative stress and inflammation, and in treating soft tissue sports injuries.10

Molecular Hydrogen water has been shown to help maintain homeostasis of enzymes including glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and others.4

Molecular Hydrogen H2  ( water ) has also demonstrated cell signaling capability critical to the brain and neurological function.4,13

These properties make molecular hydrogen water far more beneficial to your health than a simple recovery drink focused only on repairing muscles.


Molecular Hydrogen Water Improves Your Hydration


As H2  Hydrogen molecules neutralize the hydroxyl radical and oxygen radicals, the only thing that is left inside of the cell from this reaction is water, leading researchers to deduce that H2 also improves cellular hydration. This also explains why no published study has found any negative effect of consuming hydrogen water.

The molecular hydrogen H2  water Solution


molecular hydrogen H2  water is safe.

molecular hydrogen H2  water is 100% natural. Research shows hydrogen water directly addresses so many of the issues we face in having more enjoyment, success and results in our activities, fitness and athletics. And it is effective for a broad range of conditions related to oxidative stress – far beyond those caused by our activities or fitness efforts. In fact, the majority of research on molecular hydrogen H2 has been focused on chronic disease conditions caused by oxidation.

Studies show hydrogen rich water has many health benefits for a number of conditions that are related to oxidation, like metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and even side effects of cancer treatment.11,12 It’s also readily accessible and affordable.

Where Can I Get Molecular Hydrogen Water?


Molecular Hydrogen rich water is produced by

1) on demand flow-through devices (water ionizers and hydrogen water generators),

2) various forms of magnesium placed in water to create molecular hydrogen H2 by chemical reaction. (Metallic magnesium or magnesium fumarate tablets, powders or sticks.), or by

3) magnesium media imbedded in specialty water filters.

All three of these methods for making hydrogen water are available from AlkaViva.

Please note that most studies and research with molecular hydrogen gas were performed using molecular hydrogen rich water



For a list of some of the peer reviewed studies about molecular hydrogen water visit here.


1. Djordjevic D, Cubrilo D, Macura M, Barudzic N, Djuric D, Jakovljevic V. The influence of training status on oxidative stress in young male handball players. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;351(1–2):251–259.
2. Tanskanen M, Atalay M, Uusitalo A. Altered oxidative stress in overtrained athletes. J Sports Sci.2010;28(3):309–317. doi: 10.1080/02640410903473844.
3. Jackson MJ. Muscle damage during exercise: possible role of free radicals and protective effect of vitamin E. Proc Nutr Soc. 1987;46(1):77–80. doi: 10.1079/PNS19870010.
4. T. Lebarron The Actions of Molecular Hydrogen in the Body, MHI, March 4, 2013
5. Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes. Med Gas Res. 2012 Jul 12;2:12. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-12.
6. Ostojic SM, Stojanovic MD. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men. Res Sports Med 2014; 22: 49–60
7. Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Katsura K, Katayama Y, Asoh S, Ohta S. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007;13(6):688–694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577.
8. Kosuke Aoki, Atsunori Nakao, Takako Adachi, Yasushi Matsui, and Shumpei Miyakawa Hong Y, Chen S, Zhang JM. Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: a review of clinical and experimental studies. J Int Med Res 2010; 38: 1893–1903
9. Hong Y, Chen S, Zhang JM. Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: a review of clinical and experimental studies. J Int Med Res 2010; 38: 1893–1903
10. Ostojic SM, Stojanovic MD, Hoffman JR. Effectiveness of molecular hydrogen in the management of musculotendinous injuries. Med Sci Sport Exerc 2014; 46: S156–S157
11. Huang CS, Kawamura T, Toyoda Y, Nakao A. Recent advances in hydrogen research as a therapeutic medical gas. Free Radical Res 2010;44(9):971–982
12. Ohta S, Nakao A, Ohno K. The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An inaugural symposium of the journal Medical Gas Research. Med Gas Res 2011;1(1):10.
13. Kenji Dohi, Brian C. Kraemer, Michelle A. Erickson, Pamela J. McMillan, Andrej Kovac, Zuzana Flach bartova, Kim M. Hansen, Gul N. Shah, Nader Sheibani, Therese Salameh, and William A. Banks. Molecular Hydrogen in Drinking Water Protects against Neurodegenerative Changes Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury, Injury PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e108034.

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies ,safety

Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies  ,safety

molecular hydrogen water might sound new but it is not .

What is molecular hydrogen rich water ?molecular hydrogen  water or molecular hydrogen -rich water is water enriched or infused with dissolved  molecular hydrogen gas (molecular hydrogen  H2 NOT the H2 linked to O), also known as molecular hydrogen. 2 This means that hydrogen molecules or nano bubbles of molecular hydrogen are dissolved in the water, but do not actually bond with any of the H20 water molecules . another example are carbonated drinks  are enriched with CO2 (carbon dioxide gas) which gives these drinks their fizzy characteristic. 

So we have a gas made of 2 molecules of hydrogen in the water. Please note that alkaline ionize water also has more or less molecular hydrogen  H2 gas in it so Alkaline Ionized Water or Electrolysis Reduced Water is also Molecular Hydrogen Water

What is hydrogen gas?

Hydrogen gas is made up of two hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded (2 atoms of hydrogen that share common electrons). This gas has a neutral charge and is the smallest and lightest gas in the universe. 6 These qualities make hydrogen gas extremely unique because it means molecular hydrogen  H2 can get anywhere it wants to in your body, including passing the blood-brain barrier, and into subcellular compartments such as the mitochondria of your cells. Molecular hydrogen is also known as a therapeutic medical gas with amazing medical potential in the scientific literature. 7

Is molecular hydrogen-rich water beneficial?

OF COURSE!!! Molecular hydrogen(water) has been demonstrated to be therapeutic in more than 600 scientific studies for more than 170 human disease models. 8 This means molecular hydrogen (water) has the therapeutic potential to help the vast majority of individuals today. Molecular hydrogen(water) has the potential to help the person dealing with seasonal allergies and to the person facing cancer. 9 Molecular hydrogen is one of the newest and simplest ways an individual can take preventative measures in their health.

Here are some examples of scientific studies refferring to molecular hydrogen) : In 1975, an impressive study demonstrated that hyperbaric molecular hydrogen therapy could be a possible treatment for cancer. In this study, the researchers showed that exposing mice with skin cancer (tumors) to 2.5 percent oxygen (O2) and 97.5 molecular hydrogen (H2) for two weeks produced a dramatic and significant regression of the mice tumors. Here is a quote from the study:

 “After a first 10-day period of exposure of the mice to the hydrogen-oxygen therapy it was found qualitatively (i) that the tumors had turned black, (ii) that some had dropped off, (iii) that some seemed to have shrunk at their base and to be in the process of being ‘pinched off,’ and (iv) that the mice appeared to suffer no deleterious consequences.” 5

In 2007 when a groundbreaking study demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a selective antioxidant that neutralizes only the cytotoxic free radicals. The study was published in the prestigious Journal of Nature Medicine. 6 The study showed that molecular hydrogen neutralizes the hydroxyl radical (OH*), the most cytotoxic free radical in existence, one that the human body has no natural defenses against, and converts it into water.

Since 2007, medical research on molecular hydrogen has exploded proving this gas has remarkable medical potential.

Research studies and reviews about molecular hydrogen water

The evolution of molecular hydrogen (water): a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

“Hydrogen has marked therapeutic potential to help with the top 8 fatality-causing diseases listed by the CDC.” 7

Molecular hydrogen: a therapeutic antioxidant and beyond

“Overall, the impact of molecular hydrogen in medicine is extraordinary. The non-toxic and rapid intracellular diffusion features of this biological gas ensure the feasibility and readiness for its clinical translation.” 8

Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: Overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications

“Recent publications revealed that, in addition to the direct neutralization of highly reactive oxidants, molecular hydrogen  H2 indirectly reduces oxidative stress by regulating the expression of various genes. Moreover, by regulating gene expression, molecular hydrogen H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antiapoptotic molecule, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under way. Since most drugs act on their specific targets,molecular hydrogen H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, molecular hydrogen  H2 has potential for clinical applications for many diseases.” 9

Understanding the basic effects

Molecular hydrogen is a selective antioxidant 10

Molecular hydrogen appears to be a selective antioxidant. Molecular hydrogen appears to also reduce a powerful oxidant, Peroxynitrite (ONOO-). This would mean that Molecular Hydrogen has the potential to protect our DNA/RNA and proteins from damage (oxidative stress). Importantly, it does this while not perturbing cellular homeostasis;molecular hydrogen H2 does not neutralize beneficial free radicals (NO, H2O2, etc) necessary for the body to function properly.

Molecular hydrogen is a Nrf2 activator 11

Molecular hydrogen appears to stimulate the production of endogenous antioxidants via the Nrf2 Pathway, meaning it up-regulates the body’s own antioxidant system. This results in the production of more protective enzymes (antioxidants) such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. These antioxidants are powerful and aid in the reduction of excessive ROS and oxidative-stress within the body, which have been linked to nearly all human diseases.11.5

Molecular hydrogen is a signaling molecule/gene regulator 12

Molecular hydrogen appears to be a novel signaling molecule that participates in gene expression, cell modulation, and protein regulation. This means molecular hydrogen  H2 can alter cellular signaling pathways resulting in benefits far beyond its antioxidant function. Research has demonstrated that molecular hydrogen can regulate inflammatory cytokines, hormones, proteins, and much more.  Because of these properties, molecular hydrogen has the potential to give anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-cell death effects.

This is a short list of the potential therapeutic benefits for the human body that have been associated with molecular hydrogen  H2 research:

  • Selective antioxidant 10
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects 11
  • Smallest, most bioavailable molecule 12
  • Aids in Gene Expression and regulation of proteins 13
  • Anti-Allergic Effects 14
  • Anti-Cellular Death (anti-apoptotic) 15
  • Increases Endogenous Antioxidants 16
  • Anti-Diabetic Effects 17
  • Anti-Cancer Effects 18
  • Improve Cognitive Function 19
  • Protects DNA & RNA 20
  • Anti-Tumor Effect 21

Based on scientific studies/evidence, molecular hydrogen gas ( water )therapy has the potential to benefit:

Alzheimer’s 37, arthritis 38, rheumatoid arthritis 39, Type 1 diabetes 40, Type 2 diabetes 41, Parkinson’s 42, COPD 43, asthma 44, heart disease 45, kidney disease 46, stroke 47, cancer 48, tumors 49, ALS 50, dementia 51, psoriasis 52, dermatitis 53, IBS 54, hemorrhagic shock 55, Crohn’s 56, fatty liver disease 57, liver cirrhosis 58, pancreatitis 59, cardiac arrest 60, neuropathy 61, Multiple Sclerosis 62, Hepatitis B 63, atherosclerosis 64, cataracts 65, hypertension 66, gum disease 67, traumatic brain injury 68, sepsis 69, subarachnoid hemorrhage (aneurysms) 70, infant lung disease 71, metabolic syndrome 72, lymphoma 73, retinitis 74, painful bladder syndrome 75, osteosclerosis 76, osteoarthritis 77, osteoporosis 78, glaucoma 79, pulmonary hypertension 80, pulmonary fibrosis 81, autism 82, depression 83, bipolar disorder 84, anxiety 85, schizophrenia 86, inflammation 87, muscle fatigue 88, increased ATP production 89, soft tissue injuries 90, pain 91, wounds 92, burns 93, seasonal allergies 94, autoimmune disorders 95, insulin resistance 96, hearing loss 97, ulcers 98, radiation damage 99, sleep apnea 100to name just a few as there are studies on over 170 human disease models

Who can drink molecular hydrogen water?

One of the best parts about molecular hydrogen water is that it has been shown to have a tremendous safety profile. This has been demonstrated in a few ways:

  • Out of 600-plus scientific studies, molecular hydrogen  H2 has shown no cytotoxic effects or cytotoxic by-products in the human body. 22
  • We have a basal level of molecular hydrogen  H2 in our blood stream at all times, around 1~5 micromolar or less. 23
  • Humans can produce up to 10 liters of molecular hydrogen  H2 a day with a good diet containing fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods. This is due to the production of molecular hydrogen  H2 by our gut flora (gut bacteria). 24
  • Another reason we know molecular hydrogen H2 is safe is because it has been used to ameliorate decompression sickness in deep sea diving since 1945. 25 The molecular hydrogen H2 concentration has been as high 98.87 percent molecular hydrogen  H2 and 1.26 percent of O2, at 19.1 atm with minimal to no adverse or cytotoxic effects. 26 The United States military also has been using molecular hydrogen H2 for deep sea diving since the 60s. 27 Molecular hydrogen has been demonstrated to be extremely safe for the human body. 28


This information tells us that molecular hydrogen-rich water is safe for consumption in all age groups, from children to adults, as a preventive beverage that has the potential to reduce oxidative stress and so much more. Everyone, including children, is exposed to oxidative stress, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of nearly all disease conditions, including cancer. 29 Consuming water infused with molecular hydrogen is exactly what our society needs to aid in the battle against degenerative diseases.

Please note that most studies and research with molecular hydrogen gas were performed using molecular hydrogen rich water


To learn more about molecular hydrogen or hydrogen water’s potential health benefits and to see supporting scientific research visit:

molecular hydrogen water – therapeutic effects and advantages against cancer

molecular hydrogen water – therapeutic effects and advantages against cancer

We’ll examine some research and bring to light the possible therapeutic effects and advantages biatomic molecular hydrogen water has demonstrated in scientific studies to have against cancer.

Promising anticancer effects

Molecular hydrogen (biatomic – H2)is a new medical gas that can be dissolved in water and administered orally, by inhalation, baths, intravenous drip (IV), etc. 5 Molecular hydrogen water through these administration methods has more than 600 studies, showing therapeutic benefits in more than 170 human disease models, and it is still in its infancy. 6 That being said, molecular hydrogen water is off to an extraordinary start! Based on scientific research, molecular hydrogen water appears to have promising anticancer effects.

Molecular hydrogen water may suppress cancer cell growth and invasion

… however, molecular hydrogen water  does not compromise growth of normal cells.

  •  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to suppress VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels), by the reduction of excessive ROS (oxidative stress) and through the down regulation of ERK (key growth factor needed for cellular division). 7
  •  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to reduce the excessive expressions of MMP genes (MMP proteins are in involved in multiple functions in cells, including cell proliferation, cartilage synthesis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, etc). It has been shown that cancerous cells have a higher expression of MMP genes leading to tumor invasion and tumor angiogenesis.  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to reduce tumor invasion and tumor growth and because of this effect,  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has been shown to have anti-tumor effects. 89
  • “First, molecular hydrogen water caused growth inhibition of human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 (cancerous) and human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080 (cancerous) but  biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) did not compromise growth of normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK [14].” 10

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to induce cancer cell apoptosis (cell death)

… and  biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) prevents cell apoptosis in normal cells.


Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to shorten telomeres in cancer cells. Telomeres are the “end caps” of DNA. Shortening telomeres can cause cell apoptosis (cell death).

  • “ERW [Electrolisys Reduced Water aka Alkaline Ionized Water that is also hydrogen water] causes telomere shortening in cancer cells and suppresses tumor angiogenesis by scavenging intracellular ROS and suppressing the gene expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, ERW/ Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) induces apoptosis together with glutathione in human leukemia HL60 cells (Tsai et al. 2009ab).” 11,12
  • Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) appears to stimulate cellular death pathways in cancerous cells.
  • “Treatment with both H2 waters (HHW and NHW) increased the expression of p-AMPK, AIF and Caspase 3 (cell apoptosis pathways) in colon 26 cells. Thus, H2 water resulted in cell apoptosis mediated by the AMPK pathway in colon 26 cells”. 13
 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) effects on healthy NORMAL CELLS

Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) in numerous studies has demonstrated an anti-apoptotic effect in health or injured cells.

  • “These findings indicate that hydrogen-rich saline protects heart and liver from injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis.” 14
  • “These findings demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline could decrease DOX-induced cell apoptosis.” 15
  • “HS (hydrogen-rich saline) significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis (cell death) and improved neurological function at 24 hours after SAH (subarachnoid hemorrhage). The levels of pAkt and pGSK3β (cell survival pathways), mainly expressed in neurons, were markedly up-regulated.” 16

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may help to prevent genetic mutations

Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )has great potential to reduce somatic mutation through the reduction of excessive ROS (oxidative stress). 17 Somatic mutation is a genetic alteration acquired by a cell that can be passed to another mutated cell in the course of cell division. Somatic mutations differ from germline mutations, which are inherited genetic alterations that occur in the germ cells (i.e., sperm and eggs). 18

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may protect healthy tissue/cells from anticancer drugs

It has shown through medical studies that molecular hydrogen water has a protective effect against chemotherapy drugs.

  • “Conclusion:  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) has potential for improving the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy by efficiently mitigating the side effects of cisplatin.” 19

 Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) may have the potential to retard the development of some cancers

It was demonstrated that molecular hydrogen water  may protect and retard the development of thymic lymphoma in mice.

  • “However, the radiation-induced thymic lymphoma rate in the  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )(+) group was significantly lower than in the control group and  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water )  treatment significantly increased the latency of lymphoma development after the split-dose irradiation. These data indicated that  Biatomic molecular hydrogen water (H2 rich water ) protects mice from radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice.” 20

This is only a glimpse at the promising effects seen from this “simple” molecule. Molecular hydrogen/hydrogen water has demonstrated these anticancer effects in scientific studies with no cytotoxic effects or cytotoxic by-products. This makes these findings even more fascinating and intriguing. Based on the current body of research, the future for this medical gas in the area of cancer and other degenerative diseases looks promising.

According to Tyler W. LeBaron, director of MHF, more research and human studies are required to determine molecular hydrogen’s effect on cancer. However, the preliminary data we discussed throughout these articles and the many testimonials out there is very persuasive.

To learn more about molecular hydrogen or hydrogen water’s potential health benefits and to see supporting scientific research visit:


Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies

Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research - Peer Reviewed Studies
Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies

Molecular Hydrogen (water) Research – Peer Reviewed Studies



Over 500 peer-reviewed articles (covering 150+ disease models) demonstrate molecular hydrogen (water) to have therapeutic potential or benefit in essentially every organ of the body. The articles about the benefits of molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen water below are just a sampling and are organized by organ topic, disease, or mechanism of action. Each article listed can be found online. If you are investigating the research on molecular hydrogen water for the first time, we recommend reviewing the link immediately below which will take you to an excellent peer-reviewed summary of all the research.

Comprehensive Review on Benefits of Diatomic Hydrogen used in Water – US National Library of Medicine >>> Here

Molecular Hidrogen Water and Bones, Molecular Hidrogen Water and Brain , Molecular Hidrogen Water and Cancer , Molecular Hidrogen Water and Eye & Ear Molecular Hidrogen Water – H2 as Antioxidant Molecular Hidrogen Water Reviews Molecular Hidrogen Water and  Heart   Selected Human Studies about Molecular Hidrogen Water , Molecular Hydrogen water and Ischemia/Reperfusion, Molecular Hydrogen Water and Kidneys, Molecular Hydrogen water and Liver, Molecular Hydrogen water for Lung and Other Organs, Molecular Hydrogen water and Metabolic Syndrome, Molecular Hydrogen water and Sepsis, Gastritis, Intestine, Molecular Hydrogen water and Skin and Radiation,Molecular Hydrogen water and Spine, Pancreatitis,Molecular Hydrogen water Safety

For products that generate molecular hydrogen rich water – click here 

Water Quality Impacts Ionizer Performance

How Water Quality Impacts water Ionizer Performance


Water quality will play a significant role in how your water ionizer – in fact any water ionizer – performs and its longevity. A water ionizer requires mineral content to create those valued ionizations/ alterations in pH, ORP and to also produce molecular hydrogen H2 in water. Minerals are not only required, they are good. Calcium, potassium and magnesium all naturally occur in water and are called the “essential alkalizing minerals” because they are essential to our health.

The minerals in water are conductive. Conductivity allows for the electrical charge that produces the alterations we are seeking in alkaline, ionized water. Minerals provide a certain “vitality” to water.

Water that lacks mineral content, such as water from reverse osmosis or distillation, as no conductivity and is considered by many to be “dead” or denatured water. It is important to note that all water found in nature has some level of dissolved mineral content, so these types of “pure” waters are literally a man-made phenomenon. Our bodies are designed to drink water with minerals, to use calcium for bones and magnesium for the heart etc. and mankind has been doing so since the dawn of time. It is only in the last few decades, that we have been exposed to pure and mineral free water – often in bottles.

The more mineral content your water has, the more easily your water ionizer will alter/ionize the water and the better water ionization performance(pH,OR, H2) it will achieve and conversely. Water with a high level of mineral content is called hard water, while water with a low mineral content is called soft water.

That stated, all AlkaViva water ionizers will produce an ideal range of healthy drinking water, in both hard and soft water areas, unless used in extreme water quality situations. Please contact AlkaViva Technical Support if your water is unusually hard or soft as you will probably need pretreatment (more details below).

Hard Water Explained


What is Hard Water?

If you live in a hard water area, perhaps you have noticed mineral deposits on your dishes and hot water kettle, or rings of insoluble soap scum in your bathtub. These are signs of hard water. Hard water is water that contains high levels of scaling calcium, iron or magnesium mineral ions. These minerals do not pose any health threat, unless in very high amounts, but they can engage in reactions that leave deposits or scale that may damage surfaces or appliances.

Hard water mineral deposits or “scaling”, is the precipitation of minerals which form lime scale. Scale can clog pipes and can decrease the life of virtually all appliances in the home, especially those that use hot water. Scale can do the same thing to your water ionizer, decreasing water flow, water ionization performance and longevity of the water ionizer .

Signs of Hard Water

* Difficult to form lather with soap
* White mineral deposits on your glassware
* Soap scum in your bath tub
* White mineral deposits on your shower head
* White mineral deposits in your tea pot, iron, or other electrical appliance that uses water


Water Hardness and Water Ionizer Performance

A water ionizer requires mineral content to operate because minerals conduct electrical charge that produces the alterations found in ionized water. Water that has little or no minerals has no pathway for the electrolysis or “ionization” to occur. water Ionizers are designed to perform optimally within a specific range of mineral content in the source water; too many minerals may damage any water ionizer, too few you may experience decreased water ionization performance. With the right range of conductive minerals your water ionizer will easily alter the water and produce expected water ionization performance measurements in H2, pH and ORP.

Hard Water Treatment Solutions

To protect your investment properly, you must first determine the level of hardness in your water. You can use the Hard Water Test Kit that is supplied with every AlkaViva water ionizer, have your water tested, or get test data from your supplier. The following are AlkaViva’s recommended treatment solutions:

Extreme Water Quality Tolerances

AlkaViva does not recommend using a water ionizer without pretreatment of water that has one or more of the following measurements :

  • Hardness (or Calcium Carbonate) over 150 ppm (8.5 grains).
  • Iron over .3ppm.
  • TDS below 40ppm or over 600ppm.
  • Calcium above 50ppm.

Note: some reports will show “ppm” some will show “mg/l” – they are the same. Knowingly operating your water ionizer above these levels may void your warranty and/or decrease your water ionizer’s performance.
In no event shall AlkaViva or its dealers be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental or special consequential damages to property whatsoever, arising from use of its products with improperly treated or untreated hard water.

AlkaViva’s AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program


Many water  ionizer companies will sell you an expensive water ionizer and never mention hard water. If you live in an area that has hard water, that is like throwing money down the drain! To properly protect the investment you’ve made in your ionizer, and ensure you get the right pre-treatment at a great price, we are proud to offer our AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program.

AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program offers you two important water quality “insurance” benefits:

  • Hard Water Test Kit. Each AlkaViva water ionizer / H2 Generator includes a highly effective Hard Water Test Kit. The kit includes a simple-to-use hard water test strip which in less than a minute will determine how hard your water is (if at all). The test results fall in ranges of hardness. We include our recommended pre-treatment solution for each range.
  • The Most Complete Range Of Hard Water Solutions. The AquaSafe Water Quality Assurance Program allows you to purchase the appropriate pre-treatment solution within 30 days of purchasing your water ionizer ]

Other Considerations


water Softeners

AlkaViva does not recommend using a water ionizer downstream (or after) a sodium or potassium based ion-exchange water softener. If you have a sodium or potassium ion-exchange water softener, you will need to do one of the following:

  • Bypass the system (if the source water meets the above Water Quality criteria).
  • Change the plumbing connectors and install the water softener on the hot water only.
  • Install a Reverse Osmosis water prefiltration unit and water ionizer Remineralization Cartridge. The Reverse Osmosis will take out the sodium or potassium while the remineralizing cartridge will add healthy minerals back into the water.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) and water Distillers

water ionizers will not work well downstream (or after) a ReverseOsmosys or water distiller. Many homes with an ion-exchange water softening system will have an RO system. These systems remove virtually all the mineral content and leave the water with no conductivity. If you have an RO or distiller, you will need to do one of the following:

  • Bypass the reverse osmosys prefiltration system (if the source water meets the below Water Quality Tolerances).
  • Install an AlkaViva Remineralization Cartridge after the ReverseOsmosys system (an easy solution).

Soft Water Treatment Solution

Soft water is very low in mineral and dissolved solid content which gives water its conductivity. Such water would have a TDS below 40 ppm.

In areas with extremely soft water (or if using a rainwater catchment system), it may not be possible to achieve optimal water ionization performance of your AlkaViva water ionizer. In this situation, an AlkaViva Remineralization Cartridge is recommended. AlkaViva has incorporated a proprietary blend of 70+ organic and inorganic minerals into its Remineralizing Cartridge.

Well Water

The quality of well water can vary greatly and pose some health risks if not tested and mitigated. Well water needs to be tested before using with a water ionizer. Most wells are perfectly suitable for water ionizer operation; you just don’t want to be on the wrong side of that equation unwittingly.

The use of well water poses a number of questions when considering use of a water ionizer. In addition to measurements of water quality for water ionization performance and durability /longevity, health safety related issues are also important considerations when using well water.

Recommendation: Many states require a well water test report in the closing documents of a home sale. Many local governmental Health Agencies offer free testing of well water. We recommend contacting them first. AlkaViva offers at a discounted price a Professional Water Test done in a certified laboratory. More details here.

Important Notes:

  • Please contact AlkaViva if your water falls into any one of the above categories. If your situation requires additional technical assistance, AlkaViva Technical Support will work with you to find a happy solution. If your water is within 10% of two or more of the Extreme Hardness categories, you could possibly experience performance issues with your water ionizer. You may require pretreatment. Please contact Technical Support for guidance.
  • If you are uncertain of the water quality in your area, please contact your local water supplier and request the specific Water Quality information above. The appropriate phone number will be on your water bill. If using well water, contact your county or state health department to inquire about water testing services.

more reasons to chose AlkaViva

AlkaViva world leaders water ionizers
AlkaViva world leaders water ionizers 5

We don’t just say we are the #1 water ionizer company. We prove it!


We have sold many top brands water ionizers(Kangen Enagic, Toyo, AlkaBlue, Nexus, KYK, Tyent, Life Ionizer EmcoTEch, BionTech) and think all the top water ionizer models(no matter the brand) make good alteration to water. The similarity ends there. The differences are in water filtration power, technology , sophistication & design(i.e.:SMART electrodes & DARC II electrode cleaning systems,AutoAdjust optimal performance with low power ), manufacturing quality and durability. Our unique focus is on the importance of clean water. AlkaViva’s UltraWater filter performance (and testing ) is unique .

We are the only company who represents two top manufacturers offering water ionizer models that fill different niches. We offer you the best of the best – in water filtration, water ionizer performance, electrodeselectrode cleaning system & durability and customer experience. That is choice. That is smart.

EMCOTECH -1st AlkaViva manufacturer

  • – established in  1970
  • – Total employees  501 – 1000
  • – annual income of over  100 million USD 

EmcoTech is sold in over 60 countries, the most popular and best-selling brand water ionizers in the world.


BionTech – 2nd  AlkaViva manufacturer

icon FOUNDED   1986
icon EMPLOYEES   101-500
icon ANNUAL INCOME   USD 10.000.000-50.000.000

EXPORTS in over 25 countries, shares 50% of Korean market

please search and compare AlkaViva’s manufacturers with other manufacturers, for example Tyent

  • – established in  1995
  • – Total employees  51-100
  • – Annual revenue  USD 5.000.000-10.000.000


Try searching data about KANGEN or others … I think the numbers speak for themselves


A water  ionizer is a serious investment, so who you buy from is important. AlkaViva is the oldest direct importer in the USA. Between our two founding partners you get over 30 years of USA-specific water ionizer industry expertise. Virtually all our USA competitors started with us as dealers including Life IonizersTM, Tyent, Echo and Chanson.We have helped develop and launch major new water ionization technology that have been emulated by many others, such as MESH electrodes/plates and MARC/DARC improved electrode cleaning systems. We have been instrumental in launching and supplying water ionization components for commercial applications. Most notably, we supply Tennant Company, water cells for their Ec-H2O floor cleaning product line. Ec-H2O was the first commercially successful application of water ionization technology and has won numerous international awards.

Together, our OEM partners offer 69 years of water ionizer manufacturing. They both hold ISO 9001 and 14001 certifications, own patents too numerous to list, and have won many awards for their business practices and products. Both are firmly rooted in ongoing research and development and in quality management practices.

You can trust that our history, experience, knowledge and partnerships allow us to source top performing products from the best manufacturers in the world. Manufacturers that carry the best certifications and the latest cutting edge technology in water ionizers- ensuring you will make the best purchase.

Here is a sampling of industry-first innovations AlkaViva has brought to market:

Electrode Technology Advancements:

  • AlkaViva was the first company to launch MESH electrodes.
  • Robotically sprayed platinum coating technique that results in precise and highly uniform electrode surface.
  • Introduced the new Smart Electrodes which deliver the highest efficiency and performance in producing ORP and H2 alteration.
  • The only company to offer proprietary membrane technology.
  • introduced next Gen SMPS & AutoAdjust to optimally power the electrodes according to (changes in ) your input water

Electrode Cleaning System Advancements:


Water Filtration Advancements:

Independent Testing:

Other reasons to choose AlkaViva:


water ionizer performance

Water Ionizer Performance

What you need to know about water ionizers performance…

water ionizer performance is NOT absolute. It depends on three important variables: water quality, the power applied at each setting and water flow rate. In addition to these three variables, performance year-in and year-out is important and depends on how well a water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system works to keep the electrodes and membranes clean. Beware of any company or sales person who tells you “our water ionizer will do “X”. It is simply not true. What is true is that when you understand the variables, and water ionizer cleaning systems, you can make an informed choice. Learn how our AutoAdjust technology helps overcome the three variables and why DARC II cleaning keeps water ionization performance optimal over time. Be smart.

Truth: over the years, the alkaline water ionizer industry has run rife with undocumented water ionization performance claims around pH and ORP and now molecular hydrogen (H2).

Truth: many people who sell alkaline water ionizers state performance absolutes, as in our water ionizer will do “X”.

Truth: you can cut through all this. Below are four things you need to know about water ionizer’s performance metrics in ANY electric water ionizer.

Your Source Water Matters.

This first point cannot be emphasized enough. water ionization performance levels are significantly impacted by source water – whether you are talking about H2, pH and/or ORP. Any water ionizer running on hard water, or water with elevated levels of minerals or high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), will always perform better. The harder or more mineralized the water, the better the top-end water ionization performance. Conversely, the exact same water ionizer on soft water with low mineral content will always perform lower than it can in hard water.

Comparisons are only legitimate if done using the exact same source water. Beware of importers in hard water areas who over-state performance. For example, Life Ionizers™ is located in Carlsbad, California. They have extreme TDS – over 600ppm1. To contrast, our TDS in Reno is 10% of that at between 60 – 70 ppm. Any credible water ionizer company will state a range of water ionization performance. Not absolutes.

Your water Ionizer’s Flow Rate Matters.

The second important point is that a water ionizer’s flow rate will affect water ionization performance. All things being equal, slower water flow rate will produce more water ionization performance as water will stay longer in contact with the electrodes. Some manufacturers intentionally produce water ionizers with slower flow rates to compensate for less efficient electrodes. Slowing the flow will also typically raise pH, and high pH water doesn’t taste good to most people. The vast majority of alkaline ionized water drinkers settle on lower pH ranges for regular drinking.

Electrode Power Matters.

water Ionizers offer selectable alkaline levels – typically four – that you choose with a push of a button. Each time you choose a higher level, more power is sent to the electrodes and incrementally more water ionization performance is achieved. water Ionizers that advertise high power (some go as high as 800 watts!) are ironically only advertising that they have inefficient electrodes and membrane systems. An incredibly important and often overlooked point is that water ionizers that utilize higher power will experience higher electrode heat. When electrodes get hot, the platinum plating deteriorates. Compromised plating delivers less water ionization performance over time. Many water ionizers tout higher power as the solution to water ionization performance. In the long run, it isn’t.

AutoAdjust in AlkaViva water ionizers detects the hardness of filtered water and dynamically adjusts/sets power applied on electrodes to what is required.

Electrode Cleaning is King.

The effectiveness of a water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system affects water ionization performance over time. This is also an overlooked point. You can have the perfectly mineralized water, the greatest electrodes, proper water flow rate and power, but if your water ionizer can’t eliminate scale, its water ionization performance will drop. Quickly, if you have very hard water. We have tested scaled up water ionizers that do not produce any alteration in the water. To achieve optimal water ionization performance the electrodes must be kept clean – over time. How effectively an water ionizer’s electrode cleaning system works is critical. Don’t be misled by gimmicky marketing names for electrode cleaning systems – it all boils down to the acid to alkaline cleaning ratio. When shopping, ask what the cleaning ratio is and how the system achieves that. If you do not get a lucid answer, run. Fast.

The Ultimate Solution.

While we can’t control source water, we do offer you the most advanced and effective solutions to all the other variables.

Convenience. You want a water flow rate that is fast enough, but not too fast. Super-fast flow rates will not only lower water ionization performance but they will significantly compromise water filtration. Water filters work on contact time. The faster water flow, the less contact time, especially in GAC and vitamin C water filters. The AlkaViva  H2 water ionizer Series runs at 3 lpm which is the ideal balance between great water ionization performance and great water  filtration.

Superior water Filtration. USA made UltraWater filters are the only water ionizer filters that have been independently tested against 172 contaminants and shown to reduce virtually all of them to 99.9%. Even the toughest. There is no better water filter available – because AlkaViva believes that healthy water should start by being clean.

molecular hydrogen H2 Infusion Technology. We employ the highly advanced Smart Electrode design and manufacturing. Next, we match the Smart Electrodes with our own proprietary membrane technology that is optimized to produce optimal molecular hydrogen H2 and ORP -water ionization performance.

Superior electrode cleaning means lasting water ionization & durable performance. AlkaViva H2 Series water ionizers employ our newly improved DARC II Cleaning System which previously (as DARC) was for 9 years the best cleaning system in the industry. DARC II offers the most effective 1:1 cleaning ratio using a constantly reversing polarity system controlled by a non-scaling ceramic valve.

Efficiency. AlkaViva H2 water ionizers employs the most sophisticated and advanced power delivery system. The correct current density ensures the longest electrode life and is only possible using more advanced (smaller sized) plates. You get power  efficiency and water ionization performance. While other less advanced water ionizers are required to use maxed out power of up to 800 watts to achieve water ionization performance, AlkaViva H2 water ionizers run 150 watts of peak power ensuring fantastic power density, unmatched water ionization performance and long durable  plate/electrode life. Our power supply also includes Auto Adjust which automatically adjust the background power using pulse width modification technology – optimizing water ionization performance. You get great water ionization/alteration – even at the better tasting and lower pH levels that most people drink.

Independent testing. AlkaViva is the only water ionizer company to have commissioned an EPA-certified, third party, independent laboratory to document the water performance results of different brands and prove our point about efficiency and performance. Bigger just isn’t better. When it comes to technology – including water ionizers – smaller is.

Note on molecular hydrogen H2 Performance: while we understand the basic science of how molecular H2 is produced during electrolysis, it is a new focus in our industry. No one fully understands all the unique nuances of this delicate electro-chemical process. We don’t fully know how certain properties, in addition to hardness and TDS, affect molecular  H2 performance. Apart from TDS and hardness, it is entirely possible that certain water chemistries lend to better performance, and others to less.

That is a lot of information. However, we feel these are all important points for properly informed customers to consider before simply reading – and believing – a company’s declaration that “our water ionizer does X”.

To get optimal benefits, we offer AlkaViva’s DARC II electrode cleaning and our Smart Electrodes that are perfectly powered for maximum efficiency and water ionization performance that lasts. Exactly what you want.


 water ionizer electrodes in the water cell

water ionizer electrodes in the water cell

We drink alkaline ionized water for the healthy properties. The electrodes create the water electrolysis /ionization which deliver those benefits. When it comes to water ionizers, understanding electrodes in the water cell is like understanding the importance of your cardiac system to your overall health.

The water cell is the heart of a water ionizer. It consists of a series of electrodes (plates), each separated by a membrane. This page will explain how water ionizers electrode technologies differ and what that means to water ionizer performance and ultimately your health.

There is so much hype and misinformation about water ionizer electrodes or plates. Some say bigger plates are better. Others make you think that more plates are better. Some advertise more power applied on electrodes– like 800 watts – as if we were powering 20-inch sub-woofers. We are ionizing water. The reality is that bigger or more plates or more power means inefficient engineering and lower quality materials and manufacturing. More or bigger DOES NOT mean better water ionization performance. An often overlooked yet incredibly important point is that more power also means more heat, which means the platinum plating breaks down faster on the surface of the water ionizer electrode. This equals poor water ionization performance over time.

There is hype too around water ionizers electrode/plate type. water ionization performance is not about the electrode/ plate type, but rather the sophistication of the engineering and the quality of the materials and manufacturing.
Educate yourself on some basics and you will easily see why our Smart Electrodes offer you the most advanced engineering, along with the best materials and manufacturing. This means more efficient water ionization performance and lasting durability for electrodes/water cell/water ionizer. That is powerful. That is smart.

All things that smart shoppers look for.

Smart Electrodes

Smart Electrodes start with the highest quality materials. We use certified 99.9% pure titanium from Japan and the highest quality platinum.

The electrodes are engineered employing an advanced flat design that offers more effective surface area than slotted or mesh plates of the same size.

Then the electrodes are robotically electro-plated using a proprietary technique. A computer controlled robotic arm is used to apply the platinum, under pressure, multiple times and from different angles that allows the most precise plating application. The resulting plate surface can direct a uniform electron flow and provide the most efficient power saturation.

AlkaViva’s proprietary electroplating process and the resulting Smart Electrodes feature technological advances and enhanced water ionization performance characteristics which allow superior water ionizer performance in the following ways:

  • Superior platinum adhesion
  • Superior conductivity which allows for lower power and higher water ionization efficiency
  • Increased surface area; up to 3x the number of vertices as smooth dipped plates
  • Optimized water flow dynamics over the plate surface due to vertices (increased water ionization performance proven in independent US EPA certified testing)

When you discover more about water ionizer Electrodes, you can easily understand what puts Smart Electrodes in a league of their own.
Get your PhD in electrodes by clicking on each topic below.

Material Composition

Titanium is the base material in every water ionizer electrode/plate, because it has proven safe and effective. It is corrosion resistant, has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal, is very durable, and demonstrates the ability to easily change polarity, which is critically important in the water ionization process. The best water ionizer plates are coated with platinum because it was determined in a 1992 study by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, that platinum is the only entirely safe material to use in water ionizer plating/coating.

Electrode Types

There are three basic types of plates:

  • Flat Plate/electrode: The most common, basic and simple plate design.
  • Mesh Plate/electrode: The most technically advanced configuration; also the most expensive to manufacture.
  • Slotted or “Hybrid” Plate/electrode: A less expensive and less effective version of mesh plate technology.


Regardless of what you read, the most critical part of an water ionizer electrode is not the type but rather how the electrodes are engineered, what materials are used and how they are applied or manufactured.

Mesh or Solid electrodes/Plates?


water ionizer electrodes

Trust Our Experience.

We have led the industry in the evolution of plate design. Our oldest models used solid plates. We introduced mesh into the market in 2006. And, in 2015 we introduced our Smart Electrodes. In our 15+ years we have tested, sold and serviced all plate designs. We strive to achieve excellent top-end performance and importantly, performance that lasts over time. Here is what we’ve learned.

Different Plates. Different results.

Electrolysis plates – or electrodes – deliver the electrical current to the water which creates the desired alteration. Every company touts their own plate design. Some tout plate size. Some the number. Some both. The reality is that ionizer performance does not depend on those alone. Technologically, the conductive quality of the plating surface (effective surface area), membranes, power delivery and flow rate are all critical factors.

Traditional Flat Plates (oldest design).

Traditional flat (or solid) plates are the oldest design and were in our earliest models. They are still used in KangenTM models and others. They offer the largest surface area and are less susceptible to form scale. However, they deliver inconsistent power saturation as there is nothing to organize the flow of the current, that takes the path of least resistance. Think of a flat plate as a “flat” garden and the current as the water. When you water a flat garden, it runs to the low spots and pools. So too the current in flat plates. Because of this pooling, they have less effective surface area and are less efficient, and so require more power. High power can create heat that degrades the plating and decreasing performance over time.

Slotted And Mesh Plates (older design).

water ionizer electrodes

We were responsible for launching the mesh plate revolution in 2006 and sold them for over a decade. We have tested but never sold slotted plates. Mesh and slotted plates use the same principle. They employ a grid pattern to create a more defined path for the current to flow, with consistent distribution. Think of watering a garden tilled into rows. Water channels into the rows ensuring more even distribution. Even power distribution means better results with less power. However, due to the voids in the grid, they can have less surface area. So, some companies overpower their plates trying to get more performance – which hurts long term. Also due to the many nooks and crannies inherent in the grid pattern, we have found that they were more susceptible to inconsistency in plating thickness. They are also more likely to form scale in hard water areas. Therefore, performance over time suffers.

The Next Generation: Smart Electrodes.

What if you could combine the best attributes of each design and have the best of all worlds? You can!
Smart Electrodes are manufactured using a proprietary new technique. Robotics are used to electro-plate the platinum multiple times under pressure, and from different angles creating a unique grid-like pattern. This allows for a uniform flow of current and provides super-efficient power saturation. Our new Smart Electrodes offer you:
• A new solid-plate coating technique that delivers the thickest, most uniform plating which creates very even and effective power distribution .
• The largest effective surface area.
• More current to the water means better performance.
• More efficient (lower) power levels reduce heat and degradation.
• None of the design drawbacks that come with “nooks and crannies” in mesh plates.
• Superior performance (especially over time).

In short you get the benefits of solid. And mesh. In one new revolutionary plate design.
That’s SMART.

Long term research and development findings derived from a 1992 study by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare indicate platinum to be the only entirely safe material for use in water ionizer plating/coating.

Two distinct methods – Plating (dipping) and Coating; are employed to apply the platinum surface to the titanium electrode/ plate:

Plating: Also known as Cladding or Dipping, plating is the process by which a titanium plate is submerged in a platinum solution. This is the most commonly used manufacturing process due to its cost efficiency.

Coating: Also known as Electroplating, coating is a technically advanced process designed to achieve a higher degree of consistency and uniformity.

The two biggest differences between plating and coating are:

  • The amount of titanium crystals produced
  • The surface coverage characteristics

The following examples visually illustrate two distinct platinum application techniques, Plating (dipping) and Coating (Electroplating).

Plating or Dipping


Both dust and voids are clearly visible

Plate surface from above:

Black spot represent voids

D company
Dipping method

X 6000 (Cross section):

X 6000 (Cross section)

D/H company
Dipping method

AlkaViva Coating (Electroplating)

Note the distinct vertices (peaks and valleys) and a 3-dimensional crystalline surface, as compared to the inconsistent surface of the dipped electrodes.

Plate surface from above:

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
water ionizer cell plating
AlkaViva plate
(coated platinum)

X 6000 (Cross section):

No voids, thin spots or inconsistencies
water ionizer plate
AlkaViva plate
(coated platinum)


Prevention of Titanium Leaching

AlkaViva is able to totally prevent titanium leaching on the electrodes by two methods:

  • Complete and uniform coverage. Our coating process surpasses all other processes in the water ionization industry to more completely and evenly cover the titanium plates with pure platinum, including all edges and all surfaces.
  • More efficient use of power. This means we can apply less power more efficiently which creates far less heat and stress on the water ionizer electrode/plate during the electrical load phases.

View a certified analytical test result from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Primacy Laboratory for the State of Nevada showing that there is no plate leaching.


Optimal water ionization Results Without Additives

AlkaViva employs proprietary technologies which are able to achieve optimal water ionization-alkalizing and acidifying results without the use of (potentially harmful) solutions such as salt enhancers.

It isn’t ALL about Electrodes: Membranes

All water ionizers employ ion-selective membranes to separate the electrodes and enable the water to “ionically separate” the water into an alkaline and acidic stream. The membrane is absolutely critical in how a waterionizer performs. You can have a well-designed electrode/plate, powered optimally but if you have poor membranes, then you have poor water ionization performance.

AlkaViva’s Infusion Membranes are made in-house and are ultrasonically pressed, rather than chemically bonded. This provides you with a distinctly superior electrode membrane, designed to work specifically with our Smart Electrodes, giving you unmatched water ionization performance-pH, -ORP, H2.

usage of more watts and amps , spreading the same input voltage over a larger surface area results in less efficiency. This does not deliver the power evenly or efficiently and must do so with greater resistance.

More power means more heat, which means the platinum plating breaks down faster on the surface of the water ionizer electrode. This equals poor water ionization  performance over time.

So now you can see that in truth, bigger electrode is not better. This is why the electronics industry (and others) has shown that when technology advances, it typically results in smaller, more powerful and devices. Why would water ionizers be any different? The truth is they are not.

Water Ionizer Cleaning Systems: Why DARC II auto cleanse is the best electrode cleanse

Water Ionizer Cleaning Systems: Why DARC II auto cleanse is the best electrode cleanse.

We drink alkaline ionized water to enjoy the profound benefits created from the transformation of water through created through electrolysis – or more loosely “water ionization”.

Here is the situation: Water has minerals/electrolits. Minerals build up on the electrodes and membranes and these are the two components in your water ionizer that transform the water. Scale essentially “coats” these components, compromising their ability to transform/ionize the water. This mean a decrease in pH, ORP and H2 -water ionization performance, which in turn, reduces any benefit you receive from the water – precisely what you bought your water ionizer for in the first place.

All water ionizers have cleaning systems for electrodes, but all plate cleaning systems are not created equal. Most water ionizers employ outdated plate cleaning systems that have been around for years without any advancement or technological improvement.


ultrawater water ionizer filtersSmart Shopper’s Shortcut 
What you need to know about water ionizer cleaning systems…Before you buy a water ionizer, it is crucial that you understand what type of electrode/plate cleaning cycle it employs. This is one of the most important considerations because it determines how well your water ionizer will perform over the long haul. If you are shopping around, ask about the type of electrode / plate cleaning system and how it works. If all the salesperson can do is quote a gimmicky cleaning system name, but can’t tell you the specific acidic to alkaline ratio in their system, or tell you specifically how it works…run. Fast! Then call us. We’ll tell you precisely how DARC II works and why it is the best  water ionizer cleaning system available.


The DARC Advantage.

AlkaViva set a new industry standard in 2006 when it launched the patented Dual Automatic Reverse Cleaning system (USA Patent No. 6,951,225). DARC was, and still is – thanks to the patent protection – revolutionary because it cleans the electrodes in the water cell with every use, eliminating damaging scale buildup. It accomplishes this by reversing polarity each time you use the water ionizer.

The revolutionary DARC cleaning system eliminates mineral scaling on the electrodes – protecting your investment and ensuring years of healthy water from your water ionizer. DARC is highly effective because it works in the background to clean your electrode, each time you use your water ionizer and while you are actually using it. The result is a vastly improved acidic to alkaline cleaning ratio, which is critical to keeping the electrodes cleaner than other systems that offer a 15:1 ratio or a 30:1 ratio. The Kangen Enagic™ SD501 which retails at almost $4000, only cleans using a 30:1 ratio1. The importance of this breakthrough cannot be understated.

Additionally, with the dual solenoid system that directs water flow (actually what is patented and what DARC refers to), you never have to wait while your water ionizer cleans to get your alkaline water – an industry first! AlkaViva’s Jupiter  Athena JS 205 Classic and UltraDelphi IO  400 U water ionizers  employ DARC cleaning for electrodes.

The Best just got Better: the New and Improved DARC II electrodes autoclean system .

AlkaViva once again sets a new industry standard by launching DARC II in its new H2 water ionizer series. Over the 11 years since we released DARC we have learned a few things and consequently saw how it could be substantially improved. DARC II offers you the same highly effective cleaning as the original DARC, and convenience of never waiting, but now gives you increased DURABILITY.

Because the original patented DARC solenoid system is outside the water cell, the solenoids DO NOT benefit from the acidic cleaning. The electronic solenoids in DARC contain a metal actuator that operates on a very tight tolerance. Once it gets even a hint of scale, it becomes susceptible to failure. Over 11 years since we launched DARC this was not an uncommon issue in hard water areas.

We improved DARC II by eliminating the electronic solenoid containing the metal actuators. We eliminated the potential failure of the electronic solenoid and also now employ a mechanical ceramic valve (replacing actuator) that is 100% resistant to any scaling. We did not stop there. Reversing the polarity each time you used the water ionizer did not in reality create the best possible acidic to alkaline ratio – which would be 1:1. Imagine you fill an 8 oz glass, then one liter, then a 16 oz glass, then a gallon and on and on. You don’t come close to a 1:1 ratio – even over the life of the water  ionizer. We now reverse the polarity every 5 liters – which creates a ratio much closer to 1:1, thus improving the effectiveness.

DARC II is the new standard in on-board water ionizer cleaning systems borne of experience and research and development. Another AlkaViva first.

Reverse Polarity Cleaning.

Each electrode in your water ionizer has either a positive or negative polarity. Reverse polarity cleaning is simply when your water ionizer reverses the polarity; positive electrodes become negative and conversely. When an electrode is “bathed” in alkaline water containing scaling minerals, it becomes susceptible to scaling. When the polarity is reversed, the same electrode is now exposed to acidic water which removes the scale.

All water ionizers clean using reverse polarity. However, the cleaning systems differ radically in how they trigger it, the interval at which they perform the electrode cleaning cycle, and most importantly, how effective they are.

Understanding other Cleaning Systems.

Since it is the acidic water which eats away the scale, for optimal efficacy the cleaning cycle must feature a good “acid to alkaline cleaning ratio”. The more acidic water that is run to bath the electrodes the cleaner they remain and the greater their water ionization performance and longevity.

The way a water ionizer is “programmed” to clean the electrodes is crucial in determining the electrode cleaning ratio. The most common systems have been in use many years without improvement:

  • Manual system: you must remember to reverse the polarity and initiate the electrode cleaning cycle yourself.
  • Timer system: cleans at a set-interval, such as every 15 minutes of use. After 15 minutes of run time, the next time you turn the water  ionizer on, the unit starts the cleaning cycle. Most often you must wait while it completes the electrode cleaning cycle.
  • Volume system: Similar to the timer system, but cleans based on a set volume of water (Say for example 10 gallons) passing through the water ionizer. You must also wait.
  • Post cleaning systems: while they clean after each use, the clean cycle is extremely short resulting in a poor acidic to alkaline ratio. They also use a finite amount of water to clean – only the water that is in the water cell (since the cleaning is triggered after the water ionizer is shut down). The better post-use systems drain the cell when the cycle is complete, so you do not have contaminated water in the cell that will expel into the drinking water when the water ionizer is turned on. These draining systems are prone to failure at both the PCB and drain valve level.. Not as robust, effective or durable as DARC.

Each has its draw backs: you can forget to trigger a manual cycle, the timer and volume systems have poor acidic to alkaline electride cleaning ratios. The worst drawback is that with each of the above systems you have to wait for the cycle to complete before you can receive alkaline ionized water.

In summary, we love that you have read this far! Because now you can see – emphatically – why cleaning is so important and why and how AlkaViva’s H2 water ionizer Series with its new and improved DARC II autocleanse system for electrodes is your best choice. Consider your searching over!

alkaviva h2 water ionizers
alkaviva h2 water ionizers

*1) The Kangen Enagic  SD501 water ionizer cleans for 20 seconds for each 10 gallons of use. It would take the Kangen Enagic water ionizer approximately 10 minutes of run time at 1 gpm water flow rate to produce 10 gallons. Therefore, 10 mins X 60 seconds = 600. The water ionizer plate cleaning ratio is then 600:20 or reduced is 30:1.

AlkaViva UltraWater filtration technology

AlkaViva UltraWater filtration technology 


Simply put, AlkaViva UltraWater filtration is the best alkaline water ionizer filter you can buy. In fact, it is the best water filter — of any type — that is currently available. Our unmatched Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab tests prove it. We often get asked how we can achieve such stunning water filtration/contaminant removal results.
ultrawater water ionizer filtersSmart Shopper’s Shortcut 
What you need to know about UltraWater filtration…AlkaViva UltraWater Filtration TechnologyWhat good is healthy water if it isn’t also clean water? Better than 0.01 micron UltraFiltration or a series of external water filters, UltraWater incorporates  Sediment shield, BioStone Booster, BioStone Carbon Block with Impregnation Plus(zeolite and silver), Bioceramic Tourmaline with Scale Guard, UltraWater Disc Technology to offer ultraclean alkaline ionized and molecular hydrogen water and most important has been tested and certified by a governmental laboratory for efficient removal of 172 water contaminants  – UltraWater filtration technology – the most thoroughly tested and safest water filtration option available.

Here’s How We Do It

Let’s start with an analogy: turbocharged gas engines. When they first came out, they combined new and existing technologies in a novel way. The result was a powerful new combination and unprecedented performance. Similarly, UltraWater filtration technology starts with the water industry’s proven top-performing media, adds in cutting edge medias in a new application, and then creates a new twist on existing manufacturing techniques. The result isn’t just a water filter. It’s a proprietary water filtration technology. This unique combination effectively “turbocharges” the media and water filtration processes, allowing better water filtration performance and better results.

What’s Inside:

sediment shield ultrawater filter

Sediment Shield

Standard GAC water filters do not offer this component. It is an electrostatic wrap comprised of polypropylene spun fiber. It is designed to provide a mechanical barrier to sediment – meaning it traps the sediments.

biostone booster ultrawater filter

Biostone Booster

Comprised of NSF certified CaSO3 slow-eluting bio-ceramic balls. They target chlorine, chloramine certain heavy metals. CaSO3 is more effective than granulated active carbon or KDF. One hundred grams (100g) of CaSO3 will outperform carbon and KDF by a factor of x2.

biostone carbon plus media

BioStone Carbon with Impregnation Plus

Our NSF certified carbon is catalyzed with an oxidizer and has the highest oxidation and adsorption pore concentration available. The carbon is impregnated with natural zeolite(vulcanic rock) and silver(antimicrobial).

The zeolite provides increased heavy metal reduction and a slight ion-exchange effect.

The silver prevents bacteria growth between uses.

We use both carbon block and loose bed applications.

Our carbon blocks are sintered and compressed under high temperature and heat (not extruded) resulting in a superior carbon block. Either way, our proprietary process greatly increases the surface area, contact time and the resulting capability.

ultrawater disc technology in filter

UltraWater Disc Technology

This leading-edge technology is the real turbocharger in UltraWater filter. It combines a high-tech NSF certified reticulated foam which is impregnated with three different medias. All are NSF certified. All offer unmatched heavy metal and organics reduction allowing us to target contaminants that other alkaline water ionizer filters can’t – such as arsenic.

bioceramic tourmaline

Bioceramic Tourmaline with Scale Guard

The tourmaline is in a very hard, slow-eluting biocermic ball from. It releases FAR infrared energy lowering surface tension. Scale Guard is a sequestering agent that is a highly effective anti-scale media. It is in a slow-eluting crystal bead form and is there to protect the water ionizer from hard water damage.

What it Does

UltraWater is the ONLY alkaline water ionizer filter tested for 172 contaminants. Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab testing shows UltraWater is the ONLY water filter that can reduce virtually all contaminants up to 99.9% — even the toughest including arsenic, chromium VI, lead, VOCs and pharmaceuticals

UltraWater filtration technology selectively reduces the bad contaminants while allowing the good, naturally occurring minerals to pass through. This alkaline water ionizer filter design is used in AlkaViva’s UltraWater electric water ionizer range to produce electric ionization.

UltraWater filtration  can also be formulated to create natural water ionization without electricity. Some of the world’s renowned sources of healing water are passively ionized by contact with certain earth alkali minerals, silicate and crystalline complexes. We have formulated an exclusive “passive water ionization” technology inside our non-electric Elita Series which contains the same type of mineral complexes. As water passes over the passive water ionization media we create increased pH, –ORP and molecular hydrogen (H2 water). While multiple beneficial minerals are dissolved, it chiefly infuses magnesium, which is shown to be absorbed best by the body when dissolved in water.

So regardless of which AlkaViva water product you choose, ultraclean and effective UltraWater is the best answer!

Available exclusively from:

ultrawater water ionizer filters

UltraWater Water Ionizer Filters – Tested for 172 Contaminants

Better water filtration Performance. Safer Water. Better Health.

Healthy water has to be clean water. Other ionizer filters simply cannot handle well known water contaminants such as lead, arsenic, chromium VI – and a host of others. Independent EPA / NELAP certified lab testing shows UltraWater reduces virtually all contaminants up to 99.9% — even the toughest including arsenic, chromium VI, lead, VOCs and pharmaceuticals.

AlkaViva testing is:


  • Certified & credible: All tests performed in Independent, EPA / NELAP Certified Labs
  • Thorough: we omit nothing and we show results for everything tested.
  • Real world: we tested contaminant levels in parts per million and that were as close the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level as we could get .
  • Nothing hidden or left out: we reported everything – even the toughest to remove contaminants such as arsenic, chromium VI etc.
  • Comprehensive: We tested 21 heavy metals, 65 pharmaceuticals, 3 OTC drugs, 7 Hormones, 15 pesticides and herbicides, preservatives and wastewater indicators, 45 VOCs, and 5 other anions & disinfectants – a total of 172 contaminants!
  • 16 Supercharged Medias
    Advanced Filtration Technologies.
    >See Test Results

AlkaViva UltraWater Filter Removes

lead in waterLead
arsenic in waterArsenic
drugs in waterPrescription Drugs
chemicals in waterIndustrial Chemicals
hormones in waterHormones
chlorine in waterChloramine
chemical waterTrihalomethane
preservatives in waterPreservatives
herbicides in waterHerbicides
volatile chemicals in waterVolatile Organic Compounds
Chromium VI in waterChromium VI
chlorinated waterChlorine
polluted waterOTC Drugs
pesticides in waterPesticides
heavy metals in waterHeavy Metals

You NEED AlkaViva UltraWater Filtration

AlkaViva free local water report

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet  Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body

Peer Reviewed Articles on Alkaline Diet
 Benefits from Increasing Alkalinity in the Body


“Alkaline water produced by a water ionizer has become the most important advancement in health care since Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin.”
— Dr. William Kelly, author, Cancer Cure.

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in alkaline diets and living an alkaline lifestyle. Part of this interest may involve drinking alkaline, ionized water from a water ionizer as a way to improve wellness, enhance performance, and prolong vitality. Alkaline, ionized water is water that has been selectively altered in a water ionizer to raise pH from neutral to pH 9 or more and also to display negative change (-ORP). Water above a pH 7 is alkaline and water below pH 7 is acidic. pH can be easily measured by using pH reagent or a meter, and ORP is measured using an ORP meter.

Life on earth depends on appropriate pH levels in and around living organisms and cells. Human life requires a tightly controlled pH level in the serum of about 7.4 (a slightly alkaline range of 7.35 to 7.45) to survive. The ability of the body to maintain this level of pH can be compromised by poor diet, lack of or excessive exercise, pollutants, dehydration, and stress. From available evidence, it would be prudent to consider the effects of alkaline water on the body and an alkaline diet to reduce morbidity and mortality from the chronic diseases that are plaguing our aging population. (

Along with this interest in all things alkaline, there have also been some unsubstantiated health claims made. Such claims give rise to pseudo-sciences that undermine the significant body of peer-reviewed, published research into how altering alkaline (pH) levels can bring about health changes. Part of the issue in studying the beneficial effects of an alkaline diet is the lack of funding available for such research coupled with the complexity in trying to isolate what factors are creating change. Indeed, a few studies failed to find health changes from altering diet, although other studies acknowledge distinct benefits. Everyone agrees that more research is needed to further investigate alkaline health benefits.

Not only do AlkaViva water ionizers produce clean, alkaline water, but they can also create a significant amount of diatomic hydrogen (H2) in the water. The peer-reviewed benefits from drinking H2 water are NOT covered in this article.

Below are excerpts from peer-reviewed, ALKALINE diet/water studies along with references as to where the full articles can be found if you wish to study further. We welcome feedback.

Alkaline water Hydration for Athleets


It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.

A significant difference in whole blood viscosity was detected in this study when assessing a high-pH, water versus an acceptable standard purified water during the recovery phase following strenuous exercise-induced dehydration.
Joseph Weidman, Ralph E. HolsworthJr., Bradley Brossman, Daniel J. Cho, John St.Cyr, Gregory Fridman, ffect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

After using an alkalizing supplement trained Nordic skiers experienced significant changes in cardiorespiratory, blood lactate, and upper body power output measures. Studies also indicate that drinking alkaline water can enhance the body’s buffering capacity and temper the acidity, thus improving performance.
Daniel P Heil, Erik A Jacobson, and Stephanie M Howe, Influence of an alkalizing supplement on markers of endurance performance using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 8. Published online 2012 Mar 20. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-8.

Supplementing with alkalizing minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium) decreases cardio-respiratory stress and blood lactate responses, while improving power output in endurance athletes. Alkaline water may work similarly.
Y. Kilkian, F. Engel. P. What, J. Master, Markers of Biological Stress,

Consumption of alkaline water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of alkaline water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults. Also, over time, the mineral content of alkalized water could help active people retain more fluid in the cardiovascular system. This might improve overall hydration status and fluid reserves.
D,. Heil, Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Montana State University.

The physiology of intense exercise that produces acidosis is far more complex than originally thought. In the transition to higher exercise intensity, proton release is even greater than lactate production which indicates acidosis is only partially related to production of “lactic acid.”
Robergs, R. Exercise-induced metabolic acidosis: where do the protons come from? Sport Science 5(2), 2001.

The Evolution of Diet

Estimates of the net systemic load of acid in ancestral pre-agricultural diets as compared to contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient compositions of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements. The result is that contemporary diets generate diet-induced metabolic acidosis in contemporary Homo Sapiens.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr., Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral pre-agricultural Homo sapiens,

Report compiled by the World Health Organization from studies in different regions of the world on the importance of minerals in drinking water.
Ong, Choon. Minerals from drinking-water: Bioavailability for various world populations and health implications. WHO | Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization, 17 Aug 2004.

Because of the increased incidence of obesity in our population, electrolyzed water at 2 liters/day for 2 months was given to four obese subjects. Statistical evaluation of the results of the present study suggests that electrolyzed water as used resulted in near significant weight loss and a significant loss of body fat in obese subjects.
Abraham, Guy, and Jorge Flebas. The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report. Highbeam Research. Original Internist, 01 Sep 2011. Web. 2 Jul 2013.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Muscles

As we age, there is a loss of muscle mass, which may predispose to falls and fractures. A three-year study looking at a diet rich in potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as a reduced acid load, resulted in preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Ceglia L. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;87(3):662–665.

Correction of acidosis may preserve muscle mass in conditions where muscle wasting is common such as diabetic ketosis, trauma, sepsis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and renal failure.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 727630.

Chronic metabolic acidosis increases net muscle protein degradation in rat muscle tissue. Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism.
Mitch WE, Medina R, Grieber S, May RC, England BK, Price SR, Bailey JL, Goldberg AL., University School of Medicine, Georgia,Metabolic acidosis stimulates muscle protein degradation,

Bone Loss prevention with alkaline water

The bone minerals that are wasted in the urine may not have complete compensation through intestinal absorption, which is thought to result in osteoporosis. An alkaline diet typically does improve the K/Na ratio and may benefit bone health, reduce muscle wasting, as well as mitigate other chronic diseases such as hypertension and strokes. It has been found increases in the alkali content of a diet, may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, University of Alberta, Oct 2011.

Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkaline diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake.
Wynn, E, MA Krieg, JM Aeschlimann, and P Burckhardt. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism. Bone. Elsevier, 27 Oct 2008. Web. 1 Jul 2013.

Excess dietary protein with high acid renal load may decrease bone density if not buffered by ingestion of supplements or foods (water) that are alkali rich.
G. K. Schwalfenberg, 2012

This work shows that bone depletion is absolutely dependent on extracellular acidification; these cells are inactive at pH levels above about 7.3 and show maximum stimulation at a pH of about 6.9. Bone resorption is most sensitive to changes in H+ concentration at a pH of about 7.1 (which may be close to the interstitial pH in bone). In vivo, severe systemic acidosis (pH change of about -0.05 to -0.20) often results from renal disease; milder chronic acidosis (pH change of about -0.02 to -0.05) can be caused by excessive protein intake, acid feeding, prolonged exercise, ageing, airway diseases or menopause. Acidosis can also occur locally as a result of inflammation, infection, wounds, tumors or diabetic ischemia. Cell function, including that of osteoblasts, is normally impaired by acid; the unusual stimulatory effect of acid on osteoclasts may represent a primitive ‘fail-safe’ that evolved with terrestrial vertebrates to correct systemic acidosis by ensuring release of alkaline bone mineral when the lungs and kidneys are unable to remove sufficient H+ equivalent. The present results suggest that even subtle chronic acidosis could be sufficient to cause appreciable bone loss over time.
Arnett T., Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London,

Humans generally consume a diet that generates metabolic acids leading to a reduction in the systemic bicarbonate and a fall of pH. Chronic metabolic acidosis alters bone cell function; there is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation. As we age, we are less able to excrete metabolic acids due to the normal decline in renal function.
Bushinski DA., Nephrology Unit, Strong Memorial Hospital, New York,

Chronic metabolic acidosis is a process whereby an excess acid load is placed on the body due to excess acid generation or diminished acid removal by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Excessive meat ingestion and aging are two clinical conditions often associated with chronic metabolic acidosis. The body’s homeostatic response to this pathology is very efficient. Therefore, the blood pH is frequently maintained within the “normal” range. However, these homeostatic responses engender pathologic consequences such as nephrolithiasis, bone demineralization, muscle protein breakdown and renal growth.
Alpern RJ1, Sakhaee K., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas,

Excessive dietary intake of protein with consequent increase in metabolic acid production result in compensatory mechanisms that lead to progression of kidney stones, bone disease, renal disease and a catabolic state.
Alpern, R. Trade-offs in the adaptation to acidosis, Kidney International 47: 1205-1215, 1995.

The acid load inherent in the Western diet results in mild chronic metabolic acidosis in association with a state of cortisol excess. An alkali balanced diet modulates bone resorption and the associated alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Maurer, M.; Riesen, W.; Muser, J.; Hulter, H. and Krapf, R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resportion independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans, American Journal of Physiology and Renal Physiology 284: F32-40, 2003.

Osteoclast activity is modulated by small pH changes and is a key determinant of bone resorption in mouse calvarial cultures.
Sajeda Meghji, Matthew S. Morrison, Brian Henderson, Timothy R. Arnett, pH Dependence of Bone Resorption American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol. 280 no. 1, E112-E119.




Alkaline Diet and Growth Hormones

It has long been known that severe forms of metabolic acidosis in children, such as renal tubular acidosis, are associated with low levels of growth hormone with resultant short stature. Correction of the acidosis increases growth hormone significantly and improved growth. Improving growth hormone levels may improve quality of life, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve body composition, and even improve memory and cognition.
Wass JAH, Reddy R. Growth hormone and memory. Journal of Endocrinology. 2010;207(2):125–126.

Alkaline Minerals (in water) and Back Pain

There is some evidence that chronic low back pain improves with the supplementation of alkaline minerals. With supplementation there was a slight but significant increase in blood pH and intracellular magnesium. Ensuring that there is enough intracellular magnesium allows for the proper function of enzyme systems that improves back pain and also allows for activation of vitamin D.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Chemotherapy

The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents is markedly influenced by pH. Numerous agents such as epirubicin and adriamycin require an alkaline media to be more effective. Cell death correlates with acidosis and intracellular pH shifts higher (more alkaline) after chemotherapy may reflect response to chemotherapy. It has been suggested that inducing metabolic alkalosis may be useful in enhancing some treatment regimes.
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg, The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health? J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 727630.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Cancer

Diet-induced acidosis is a potential upstream and indirect trigger in a multifactorial cascade of molecular events associated with carcinogenesis. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) comprehensive global report has compiled numerous studies demonstrating associations between dietary habits and cancer risk. The findings recommend increased or regular consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, while discouraging excess consumption of sugary and energy-dense foods and drinks, red and processed meats, and salty processed foods.
Ian Forrest Robey, University of Arizona, Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer,

Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. It is notable that cancer cells maintain a high level of glucose metabolism even in the presence of oxygen, which was first documented by Warburg more than 80 years ago. This is a consistent finding across a variety of cancers, and has been recognized as a “hallmark” of cancer.
Maria de Lourdes C Ribeiro, Ariosto S. Silva, Kate M. Bailey, Nagi B. Kumar, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Gatenby, Arig Ibrahim-Hashim, and Robert J. Gillies, Buffer Therapy for Cancer,

A significant consequence of increased glucose metabolism is the production of acids, such as lactic acid, which can be an independent negative prognostic factor for cancer outcome. Prior mathematical models and empirical studies have shown that solid tumors export acid into the surrounding parenchyma. This is consistent with measurements of tumor pH in mouse models, which have shown that the extracellular pH of solid tumors is acidic. Combined, these observations have led to the generation of the “Acid Mediated Tumor Invasion” hypothesis, which proposes that fast-growing tumors export acid to surrounding stroma, and that reduced pH contributes to the tissue remodeling required for tumor invasion.
Ian F. Robey, Brenda K. Baggett, Nathaniel D. Kirkpatrick, Denise J. Roe, Julie Dosescu, Bonnie F. Sloane, Arig Ibrahim Hashim, David L. Morse, Natarajan Raghunand, Robert A. Gatenby, and Robert J. Gillies, Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases, Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 69(6): 2260–2268.

Alkalinity/alkaline water and Effects on Aging

alkalinity and aging

Changes in renal physiology and function with aging put the elderly patient at risk for adverse effect of drug therapies due to the incidence of common problems like metabolic acidosis.
Lonergan, E. Aging and the kidney: adjusting treatment to physiologic change, Geriatrics 43: 27-30, 32-33, 1998.

Authors examined peer-reviewed literature to determine whether systemic acid-base equilibrium changes with aging in normal adults humans. Using linear regression analysis, they found that with increasing age, there is a significant increase in the steady-state blood H+ indicating a progressively worsening low-level metabolic acidosis in what may reflect, in part, the normal decline of renal function with increasing age.
Frassetto, L. and Sebastian, A. Age and systemic acid-base equilibrium: analysis of published data, Journal of Gerontology, Advanced Biological Science and Medical Science, 51: B91-99, 1996.

Dietary changes over the last two centuries have resulted in a mismatch between genetically-determined nutritional requirements in humans. Excess sodium chloride, a deficiency of potassium and excess dietary acids that are not mediated by dietary bicarbonates lead to chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis that amplifies the age-related pathophysiological consequences in humans (such as loss of bone substance, increase in urinary calcium, disturbance in nitrogen metabolism, and low levels of growth hormone).
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R.; Sellmeyer, D.; Todd, K. and Sebastian, A. Diet, evolution and aging: the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet, European Journal of Nutrition 40:5 200-213, 2001.

Otherwise healthy adults manifest a low-grade, diet-dependent metabolic acidosis, the severity of which increases with age at constant rate described by an index of endogenous acid production, apparently due in part, to the normal age-related decline of renal function.
Frassetto, L.; Morris, R. and Sebastian, A. Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline, American Journal of Physiology, 271: 1114-22, 1996.

Age-induced decline in renal functions explains, at least in part, clinically important age-related conditions including metabolic acidosis.
Krapt, R. and Jehle, A. Renal function and renal disease in the elderly, Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 130:11 398-408 2000.

Acid-base homeostasis exerts a major influence on protein function, thereby critically affecting tissue and organ performance. Deviations in body acidity can have adverse consequences and when severe, can be life-threatening.
Adrogue, H. and Madias, N. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders, New England Journal of Medicine 338: 26-34, 1998.

Decline in the ability to adjust acid-base balance is a feature of aging. Regulation of pH ultimately depends on the kidneys and lungs, however, the ability of these organs is decreased with physiological aging. Renal insufficiency and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various drugs, such as diuretics, often affect the acid-base balance in the elderly.
Nabata, T.; Morimoto, S. and Ogihara, T. Abnormalities in acid-base balance in the elderly, Nippon Rinsho 50: 2249-53, 1992.


AlkaViva UltraWater is alkaline and ionized making it rich in naturally occurring beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium that help you alkalize and maintain a HEALTHY PH BALANCE.

UltraWater filter & ionizer - life enhancement
UltraWater filter & ionizer – life enhancement


Alkaline ionized Water and Free Radicals

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be “active hydrogen”. “Active diatomic hydrogen” can be produced in reduced (alkaline) water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced (alkaline) water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2), and extremely negative redox potential (-ORP) values. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species suggesting that reduced water can scavenge different types of free radicals.
Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y., EmoryElectrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

ionized water Benefits backed by research.

Over 600 PEER-REVIEWED STUDIES show that molecular hydrogen – or H2 -water / alkaline ionized water has a therapeutic benefit in every organ of the human body and positively affects over 150 disease models and health conditions.

Get your antioxidants – in your water!

Free radical damage causes oxidative stress and is one of the primary causes of aging. Oxidation causes iron or apples to “rust”. Antioxidants prevent or slow that damage. Unfortunately, anti-oxidants are non-selective neutralizing both beneficial and harmful radicals. The molecular hydrogen Hin UltraWater selectively targets only the damaging radicals – making it the “ULTIMATE” ANTIOXIDANT.

Drink more. Improve your health.

When molecular hydrogen  H2 neutralizes damaging oxygen radicals, it creates water (H2O) – increasing your CELLULAR HYDRATION.Great tasting, silky-smooth, alkaline UltraWater is also easier to drink. When you drink more, you enjoy optimal hydration and better health.

Ease your aches and pains.

Oxidative stress damages your cells, causing pain and inflammation. As we age, inflammation increases. Studies show that H₂ neutralizes the damaging radicals. Drinking UltraWater can ease chronic and acute aches and pain.

Go longer. Go stronger.

ATP powers your cells. It is the source of your energy. Research shows molecular hydrogen(water) H₂ helps INCREASE ATP PRODUCTION giving you more energy while decreasing lactic acid levels. Athlete? Exerciser? Just want more pep? UltraWater helps improve performance and recovery.


Molecular hydrogen water overview-definiton, benefits, research , studies  ,safety

Molecular hydrogen (water) benefits/effects in disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants

more about molecular hydrogen water

AlkaViva water ionizers& purifiers-clean , ionized alkaline water rich in molecular hidrogen H2




diatomic molecular hydrogen H2- Water Products

 Diatomic molecular hydrogen H2- Water Products 

The benefits of diatomic molecular hydrogen-infused water are clear, and are covered in this article.

As the word gets out regarding  diatomic molecular, hydrogen-infused water or H2 water  more options are becoming available to create molecular hydrogen dizzolved in water . Some of these include:

  • Electric Water Ionizers
  • Molecular Hydrogen water Generators
  • Non-electric water ionizers / non-electric water filters
  • Magnesium/hydrogen Tablets and Powders for water
  • Magnesium Sticks  (including water bottles with magnesium sticks)  Mg + 2H 2O -> Mg (OH) 2 +H 2

Electric Water Ionizers

Electric water ionizers are the most proven and convenient way to create diatomic molecular hydrogen –  H2 dissolved in water and have a 30+ year track record of improvements/ patents in this regard.

An electric water ionizer, as a flow through device, produces molecular hydrogen H2 water on-demand; you turn it on and you can instantly enjoy molecular hydrogen H2 water at the ionized alkaline level you enjoy and select.

Electric water ionizers also offer other benefits such as alkaline ionized  water or acidic ionized  water, with selectable controls that enable you to use the water in various  “functional” ways.

One added benefit is that, in the water ionization /electrolysis process, the levels of fluoride ions and chemical compounds such as nitrates, phosphates and cyanide are reduced as they get attracted towards the acid water side.

AlkaViva has test results from the University of Nevada at Reno documenting this benefit.

Electric water ionizers are the only method for generating diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water that carry approval as a health devices (Japan and Korean governments).

All AlkaViva electric water ionizers employ a patented technology that reverses the polarity of electrodes with every use, ensuring the electrode plates are maintained in a pristine condition and preserving their ability to generate therapeutic levels of diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water.

AlkaViva also offers the only USA-made water filters which were shown to reduce virtually all contaminants to 99.9% in EPA-certified lab testing.

Electric water ionizers, however, are not affordable for everyone or practical in all situations and there exist more affordable options.

Neutral Water with molecular hydrogen H2 Generators(electric)

There is a newer technology for diatomic molecular hydrogen – or H2 water appearing on the market that is a significant departure from both the electric water ionizers and the magnesium-based, non-electric methods that produce dissolved molecular hydrogen H2  in water

These electric moleclar hydrogen H2 water generators are designed to create dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 in neutral pH water. Until they are tested extensively in the market over time, their durability remains unproven but a definite plus is that they can make good levels of diatomic molecular hydrogen water.

AlkaViva is now also importing their own molecular hydrogen H2 water generators and will be carefully observing performance and reliability over time, since unlike Korea or Japan, there is such a wide range in water quality and conditions in the USA which impact long-term performance in regards to H2 infusion /generating diatomic molecular hydrogen water.

We will be recommending UltraWater filter pre-treatment because the two standard water filters (carbon and .01m water filters) are produced in Asia and while they offer a good reduction of microorganisms, offer limited  water contaminant reduction.

The best diatomic molecular hydrogen water generators are flow through devices like electric water ionizers. Cheaper models are inconvenient, requiring you to pour a limited amount of water into a container and then wait while molecular  hydrogen is infused into the water. These models also do not usually filter the water.

Non-electric water Ionizers /water Filters

There are healing natural water springs around the world. Among them, are places like Nordenau (Germany), Tlacote (Mexico) and Hita Tenryosui, Japan. Research has documented that these waters contain dissolved molecular hydrogen1-3 along with alkaline minerals. These water springs get their healing characteristics through contact with natural alkaline earth metals and minerals. It is important to note that the molecular hydrogen level in water from the best natural healing spring is well below the molecular hydrogen H2 water level possible from an average electric water ionizer.

If quality water filters are used in non-electric water ionizers, then contaminants will be removed while helpful minerals are allowed to pass through. This makes a clean, mineralized healthy water that is designed to imitate nature’s healing springs. Unfortunately, today’s tap water is nothing like the water from natural springs. It often contains a host of chemicals, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, and other toxic substances, and it is an oxidizing agent.

Most countertop units that produce molecular hydrogen H2 water do not address the tap water contamination issue. Their water filters remove or reduce chlorine and some other contaminants (but not all).

One countertop filter stands out in regard to its water filtration capability. The Elita CT700 from AlkaViva not only makes diatomic molecular hydrogen water but also creates very clean, alkaline, ionized water. The Elita CT700 from AlkaViva incorporates proprietary USA-made UltraWater filtration technology. Independent, USA EPA, certified laboratory testing confirms that up to 99.9% of virtually all tap water contaminants (a total of 172 were tested) are removed with the UltraWater filtration technology.

No other non-electric ionizer has been tested for so many contaminants or tested using independent EPA testing methology.

What is significant about any non-electric countertop water ionizers is that they will give filtered, alkaline pH and ionized water on-demand. Equally significant is that they will NOT necessarily produce significant levels of  molecular hydrogen H2 on-demand. This is because the amount of molecular hydrogen  H2 water produced depends on how long the water stays in the water filter between uses. Reason is magnesium in these water filters requires a certain amount of contact time with water before it can transform into molecular hydrogen H2. Once you have poured a continuous stream of water or completed a few start and stops, from filling glasses or containers, the molecular hydrogen H2 water production falls off significantly. The level of molecular hydrogen H2 will ALWAYS be highest when the non electric water ionizer has been sitting for a period of time so that the water in it and magnesium can react – the longer the better – just like a stick.

Molecular Hydrogen producing  magnesium Tablets and Powders

Another way of producing molecular hydrogen H2 water is from metallic magnesium in the form of tablets or powders. There are a number of these products on the market today. Some are formulated to dissolve in water, producing the molecular hydrogen H2 reaction in a container before you consume the molecular hydrogen water . Others are formulated to be ingested – with the molecular hydrogen H2 being produced in the stomach. Since these products consist mainly of a special form of magnesium – a mineral that most of us are lacking in the diet – it’s normally both safe and beneficial to ingest.

The preferred method to make molecular hydrogen water is to use a tablet that dissolves in water. Why? Molecular hydrogen H2 saturation levels can easily be tested and documented. Using Molecular Hydrogen H2 reagent drops, you can measure the amount of molecular hydrogen H2 produced.4 Testing is impossible when tablets or powders are ingested. Also, the beneficial research results that have been achieved from ingesting molecular hydrogen H2 have mainly come from studies where subjects consumed dissolved molecular hydrogen H2 in water.

Tablets create molecular hydrogen H2 water in approximately 20 minutes. Drop the tablet into an airtight bottle of water, and you’ll see the molecular hydrogen  gas bubbles immediately form, infusing it with the powerful health properties of molecular hydrogen  H2. In fact, such tablets currently produce the most potent concentration of molecular hydrogen  H2  water. Everyone is different when it comes to taste, and some people report that various versions of the molecular hydrogen H2 generating tablets if magnesium have an unpleasant taste. You can add lemon juice or other flavoring without affecting the molecular hydrogen H2 concentration.

While it is true that molecular hydrogen  H2 producing tablets dissolved in water can make very high levels of molecular hydrogen H2 saturation, it is equally true that inconsistent performance is a real problem. Molecular hydrogen is the smallest element occupying the first position on the periodic table. Molecular hydrogen is similarly the smallest molecule – and it’s a gas. molecular hydrogen  wants to escape and will if not prepared in the right type of container. If the container is not completely airtight, filled all the way to the top, capped tightly and then allowed to sit for the correct amount of time, you will have wildly inconsistent results. If the preparation is botched it is entirely possible to have no molecular hydrogen  H2 in the water.

AlkaViva’s H2Viva is a molecular hydrogen H2 tablet product that you dissolve in water and that has been verified to produce a consistent saturation level up to twice the amount or more than that of a new hydrogen stick and will do so in half the time. These are stronger, faster, more consistent and convenient – working any place you have drinking water and a container.

Tablets are an effective way to get good molecular hydrogen  saturation – IF you have done everything correctly. There is no doubt they are an excellent way to get the benefits of molecular hydrogen H2 when you are traveling. Overall they are easy to use, very affordable, portable, and – if used properly – consistently produce a high saturation of molecular hydrogen  H2 water.

But what about water filtration? This is why at least a NON electric water ionizer with a great UltraWater filter could come in handy

Magnesium Sticks

The idea that you could generate molecular hydrogen  H2 in water from metallic magnesium reacting with water was first introduced in the late 1990’s. Magnesium sticks have been marketed since the early 2000s. You purchase the magnesium stick, drop it into a bottle filled with water and cap it. molecular hydrogen  H2 is produced when water comes into contact with a reactive form of magnesium metal in the stick. The chemical reaction is:

Mg + 2H2O —> Mg(OH)2 + H2

After waiting a while, and if you’ve done everything correctly, you will have molecular hydrogen  H2  dissolved in water. One issue with the sticks is they do not filter the water. Many manufacturers recommend they be used with bottled water only. At a minimum, you should be using properly filtered water.

Also, while they will produce varying levels of molecular hydrogen  H2 saturation when new, molecular hydrogen water generating sticks are not as convenient as an electric water ionizer. You have to wait for the chemical reaction to take place in a limited amount of water. Worse, there is no consistency in how long it takes to create the molecular hydrogen  H2. Plus there is no data on how long a magnesium stick is capable of producing significant amounts of molecular hydrogen  H2. The bottom line is that they work – with some important caveats.


The explosion in published research, covering every organ and over 150 disease models, continues to demonstrate positive impacts on health and wellbeing with no contraindications of diatomic molecular hydrogen( water). With all these choices of ways to take advantage of the benefits of consuming molecular hydrogen (water), there is no reason not to! It seems clear to us, at least for now, that electric water ionizers are the most proven, easiest and most consistent way to get your daily molecular hydrogen water 

Join the molecular hydrogen  H2  water revolution and optimize your health and well-being! Experience more energy and mental clarity plus improve your athletic performance by giving your body the ability to naturally thrive. You have the best products to choose from at AlkaViva – we’ll help you find the right one for your budget and lifestyle!



1.) ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. and WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.

2.) SHIRAHATA, S. A. N. E. T. A. K. A. (2002). Reduced water for prevention of diseases. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 12, 25-30.

3.) SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T. and TERUYA, K. (2012). Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends in Food Science and Technology 23, 124-131.

4.) TOMOKI SEO, RYOSUKE KUROKAWA AND BUNPEI SATO (2012) A convenient method for determining the concentration of hydrogen in water: use of methylene blue with colloidal platinum. Medical Gas Research 2012, 2:1

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers Certificates 

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers Certificates

AlkaViva H2 water ionizers purifiers certifications

Company Registration

Permission for medical device manufacturing item
The manufacturer of the medical device shall be examined according to the medical device technique (Article 6) for the approval of the product and the facility and quality system for the product to be manufactured.
Since receiving the manufacturing approval of No. 889 in 2000, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained 28 licenses of alkaline water ionizer items as of 2017.
US food pharmacy medical device manufacturing site and device registration
The US Department of Health and Human Services (FDA) is responsible for the distribution and management of medical devices in the United States under the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Manufacturers, distributors, and importers of medical devices must be approved and certified by the FDA. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was approved in 2005 and registered all items of water ionizer equipment.
Trademark registration
The KIPO is a government agency that manages industrial property rights such as patents, utility models, designs and trademarks. When the inventors filed industrial property rights, the Korean Intellectual Property Office obtained the rights by examining them.

Management System

Medical device manufacturing and quality control certification
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a system for manufacturing and selling quality medical devices that are guaranteed by the organization, from the design of the product, the purchase of raw materials, to the manufacture, It is a standard that defines the things to be managed and maintained. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified for the first time in 2005 and has maintained its effectiveness since its regular review.
Quality system
It is an international standard for quality management system enacted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to evaluate and certify the quality assurance system throughout the entire production process, from products and services.
Environmental system
ISO 14001 This system evaluates the environmentally friendly management of the environment by introducing an environmental management system throughout the company’s activities. We identify the environmental hazards that occur during the production process and apply them as a method to manage the management system. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was certified in 2008.
Certificate of Origin Certification
The customs authorities shall issue a certificate of origin to the exporter who certifies that the exporter has the capability to prove that he satisfies the criteria for determining the origin of the exported goods in accordance with the Enforcement Rule of the Act on the Exemption of Customs Act for the Implementation of the FTA As a system to simplify the submission of attached documents, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained certification for each item in 2013.

Electric Safety

European Community Integration Certification
It is a mandatory certification mark indicating that the product has been tested and is in conformity with the applicable EU standards for requirements relating to safety, health, environment and consumer protection in accordance with national certification schemes and technical regulations in the European Union. AlkaViva’s manufacturer was certified by product in 1998.
North American Electrical and Electronic Products Safety Certification
The NRTL program is part of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines to ensure that the product is safe for use in North America. Normally, when you want to export to North America, you have to obtain UL-marks for the US market, CSA-marks for the Canadian market, and NOM-marks for the Mexico region. One NRTL-marks after NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) I can solve it easily. Since its acquisition of UL certification in 1998, AlkaViva’s manufacturer has obtained the 1201sus NRTL factory certification.
International electric appliance certification
It is an international electrical certification system operated by IECEE. It is a system that tests the safety of electrical and electronic products in accordance with the IEC international standard and mutually recognizes the test results internationally among the member countries. Currently, many countries, mainly in Europe, adopt the IEC standard as their own standards. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified by product in 2010.
National Integrated Certification Mark KC
You can safely use it as a proven product that keeps safety standards. KC certification is made from materials that are harmless to human body, it is given after verifying that it is safe enough to maintain buoyancy and durability, so it is a product that you can trust and buy more.
Japan electric appliance type certification
It is the certification system according to the Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law applicable to electrical and electronic products in Japan. It is compulsory certification that the customs clearance and sale in Japan are prohibited before obtaining the certification. In 2006, AlkaViva’s manufacturer certified DIAMOND PSE Certified Electrical Appliances.
Germany certified
It is an international electrical certification system operated by IECEE. It is a system that tests the safety of electrical and electronic products in accordance with IEC international standards and mutually recognizes the test settlement internationally among the member countries. Currently, many countries, mainly in Europe, adopt the IEC standard as their own standards. AlkaViva’s manufacturer has been certified by product in 2010.

alkaline ionized water/hydrogen rich water and LONGEVITY


The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline ionized water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline ionized water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline ionized water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline ionized water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline ionized water of long-lived mouse models.

1. Introduction

Alkaline water, often referred to as alkaline ionized water (AKW), is commercially available and is mainly proposed for electrolyte supplementation during intensive perspiration. Early studies on animal models reported that alkaline ionized water supplementation may exert positive effects on body weight improvement and development in offspring []. Even biochemical markers were analyzed, suggesting that alkaline ionized water intake can cause elevation of metabolic activity. In particular, hyperkaliemia was observed in 15-week-old rats and pathological changes of necrosis in myocardial muscle were found [].

More recently, studies were carried out on alkaline ionized/electrolysis reduced water (ARW), referring to electrolyzed water produced from minerals, such as magnesium and calcium, which is characterized by supersaturated hydrogen, high pH, and a negative redox potential ORP. This hydrogen-rich functional water has been introduced as a therapeutic strategy for health promotion and disease prevention [].

Alkaline ionized/ electrolyzed reduced water have been shown to exert a suppressive effect on free radical levels in living organisms, thereby resulting in disease prevention []. Various biological effects, such as antidiabetic and antioxidant actions [], DNA protecting effects [], and growth-stimulation activities [], were documented.

Although a variety of bioactive functions have been reported, the effect of alkaline water on lifespan and longevity in vivo is still unknown. Animal alkalization has been shown to be well tolerated and to increase tumor response to metronomic chemotherapy as well the quality of life in pets with advanced cancer []. Therefore, we performed a study based on survival rate experiments, which play central role in aging research and are generally performed to evaluate whether specific interventions may alter the aging process and lifespan in animal models.

2. Materials and Methods

Biological effects of alkaline ionized water were evaluated on a selected population of 150 mice (CD1, by Charles River, Oxford, UK). Pathogen-free mice were purchased and placed in a specific breeding facility. No other animal was present in the room. Contact with animal caretakers was minimized to feeding and watering. The population was divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 50 individuals, as follows:

  1. Group A: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered with alkaline ionizefd water produced by the Water Ionizer (mod. NT010) by Asiagem (Italy). The Water Ionizer is a home treatment device for producing alkaline drinking water.
  2. Group B: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered with alkalized water obtained by dilution of a concentrated alkaline solution (AlkaWater by Asiagem, Italy). AlkaWater is a concentrated alkaline solution for preparing alkaline drinking water.
  3. Group C: 50 mice conventionally fed and watered as conventional (control group) with tap water. The local water supply was evaluated weekly for assuring the absence of toxins and pathogens. The pH values were in the 6.0–6.5 range.

All procedures involving animals were conducted in accordance with the Italian law on experimental animals and were approved by the Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments of the University of Padua and the Italian health Ministry (Aut. no. 39ter/2011). Efforts were made to minimize animal suffering.

2.1. Histological Examination

Treated aged mice were sampled postmortem and subjected to histological examination. Animals belonging to the populations treated with alkaline water, A and B, were sacrificed after 24 months and compared to mice treated with tap water. Samples from kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and 4 μm sections were analyzed by optical microscopy.

2.2. Statistical Analysis

In order to investigate the biological influence of alkaline water on mouse longevity, we employed the accelerated failure time model (AFT) [], which allows formally exploring the possible effect on survival curves of the applied three-level treatment, that is, examining the role of group membership as a covariate of lifespan. As a more robust alternative to the commonly used proportional hazards models, such as the Cox model, the use of AFT models is advised in the field of survival analysis when the goal is to investigate if a covariate may affect the lifespan in a way that the life cycle may pass more or less rapidly. In fact, whereas a proportional hazard model assumes that the effect of a covariate is constant over time, an AFT model assumes that the effect of a covariate is to accelerate or decelerate the life course.

The relevance of AFT model for biomedical studies has been already recognized in the literature []. With more specific reference to the issue of aging, Swindell [] observed that some genetic manipulations were found to have a multiplicative effect on survivorship which were well characterized by the AFT model “deceleration factor.” Moreover, Swindell [] argued also that the AFT model should be utilized more widely in aging research since it provides useful tools to maximize the insight obtained from experimental studies of mouse survivorship.

To perform all calculations, we applied a parametric survival analysis approach using a class of 3-parameter AFT distribution models implemented within the statistical software Minitab, version 17.2.1 []. More specifically, we employed three types of random distributions, namely, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized Weibull.

3. Results

The experiment consisted in an initial 15-day acclimatization period. After acclimatization, animals (50, group A) were watered with alkaline ionized  water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer ,  whereas group B animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution  for 15 days. Group C animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply. This period has been identified to gradually accustom the animals treated with alkaline water. At the end of the second period of acclimatization, group A and B animals were watered with alkaline ionized water at pH 9.5, while animals of group C were watered with local tap water.

After the first year, the most aggressive individuals were moved to other cages within the same group and an environmental enrichment protocol was employed in order to decrease the hyperactivity. This phenomenon was observed especially in animals of groups A and B.

Table 1 reported basic statistics on mice survival of treated and control animals.

Table 1

Basic statistics on mice survival by treatment level.

Treatment level Mortality rate
Lifespan mean (std. dev.)
Group A 88 679 (209)
Group B 92 671 (180)
Group C 96 667 (185)

Regarding group A, animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer (Asiagem, Italy). As for group B, animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution for 15 days. Regarding group C, animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

A first look on experimental data is provided in Figure 1, where nonparametric hazard and survival plots seem to suggest that even if no macroscopic difference emerges, starting from the second year of life mice watered with alkaline ionized  Water  and those treated with AlkaWater overwhelmed control mice.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.001.jpg

Nonparametric hazard and survival plots by treatment level. Group A: animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer  Group B: animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution  for 15 days. Group C: animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

In order to explore the possible effect of different treatments, that is, to examine the role of group membership on longevity, we applied a parametric survival analysis approach using a class of 3-parameter survival distributions that represent flexible accelerated failure time, AFT models. First of all, using the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistic, we compared three specific survival distributions, that is, log-logistic (AD = 6.397), log-normal (AD = 6.519), and generalized Weibull (AD = 6.447). Since the best fitting was shown by log-logistic model, we adopted this one as final survival distribution model. The straight lines in the log-logistic distribution QQ plots (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)) indicate that this distribution provides a suitable fit to our survival data.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.002.jpg

QQ plots using the 3-parameter log-logistic distribution model. (a) Treatment A survival time quantiles (vertical axis) versus treatment C survival time quantiles (horizontal axis); (b) treatment B survival time quantiles (vertical axis) versus treatment C survival time quantiles (horizontal axis).

Finally, by including our treatment as covariate, we performed a parametric distribution analysis whose results are graphically represented in Figure 3.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.003.jpg

Distribution plot results using the 3-parameter log-logistic model. Group A: animals (50) were watered with alkaline ionized water (pH 8.5), obtained by the Water Ionizer . Group B: animals (50) were watered with water alkalized at pH 8.5 by a concentrated alkaline solution for 15 days. Group C: animals (50), control group, were watered with the local water supply.

Starting with the second year of life, it is worth noting that both alkaline water treated groups denote a decreasing hazard curve over time, while the corresponding curve for control group is monotonically increasing. To more formally compare the treatment levels, the proposed analysis provided also suitable pvalues. Since the p values related on the null hypotheses of equality of location, scale and threshold parameters were, respectively, less than 0.001 (for both locations and scales) and 0.634 (for thresholds) at a 5% significance level; we can state that there is enough experimental evidence to conclude that the treatment significantly affects the mice longevity; in particular the alkaline ionized water provides a benefit to longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it decreases the hazard functions when compared with the control group. Note that the treatment effect cannot be directly related to no one of the three distribution parameters. Anyway, using the estimated parameters, it should be possible to provide an estimate for the effect of each treatment on survivorship: setting the reference survival time to 1000, 1200, and 1400 days, Table 2 summarizes the estimated point and 95% interval survival probabilities by each treatment level.

Table 2

Table of survival probabilities by treatment level. The probabilities, along with their related 95% confidence interval limits, were calculated using the normal approximation.

Treatment level Time (days) Estimated probability Lower 95% CI limit Upper 95% CI limit
A 1000 0.116 0.056 0.226
1200 0.046 0.014 0.140
1400 0.020 0.004 0.098

B 1000 0.055 0.021 0.137
1200 0.013 0.003 0.066
1400 0.004 0.000 0.039

C 1000 0.049 0.022 0.106
1200 0.008 0.002 0.027
1400 0.001 0.000 0.007

As final remark, it should be noted that even if our parametric AFT survival analysis was performed using the log-logistic distribution, our conclusions are consistent with results obtained using the generalized Weibull distribution, while via log-normal distribution no significant effect was found.

3.1. Histological Examination

No significant differences emerged from the histological examination among the three groups. In all examined samples, renal tissue was characterized by a mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic interstitial infiltrate and few occasional glomerular changes as glomerular size reduction and increasing of Bowman’s space (Figure 4).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.004.jpg

Kidney, a specific chronic nephropathy. Focal interstitial mainly lymphocytic infiltrate (upright) and a sclerotic glomerulus (middle right). Hematoxylin and Eosin.

Final diagnosis was mild chronic progressive nephropathy for the three analyzed mouse groups.

The microscopic examination of the liver revealed a multifocal nodular pattern of the parenchyma and diffuse mild-to-moderate hepatocellular cytoplasmic hydropic degeneration with multifocal binucleation in all explored animals (Figure 5).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.005.jpg

Liver, aging change. Hepatocellular abundant dishomogeneous cytoplasm, binucleation (center), variably sized nuclei, and a nuclear pseudoinclusion cyst (arrow). Hematoxylin and Eosin.

Mild-to-moderate anisokaryosis was the most relevant alteration, with few pleomorphic nuclei and frequent intranuclear pseudoinclusions and karyomegaly. A specific mild perivascular infiltrate was occasionally present. Final diagnosis was mild-to-moderate diffuse hepatopathy with multifocal hyperplastic hyperplasia.

The pulmonary parenchyma showed mild multifocal areas of interstitial thickening of the interalveolar septa due to moderate congestion and mild cellular mixed infiltrate (Figure 6). Mild areas of emphysema were detected at the periphery of the parenchyma. Final diagnosis was multifocal very mild atelectasis and mild vicarious emphysema.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.006.jpg

Lung, mild atelectasis. Very mild multifocal interstitial thickening of the alveolar septa associated with congestion and mild cellular increase. Hematoxylin and Eosin.

At the same time, no relevant histopathologic histological changes have been noticed in intestine (Figure 7), brain, and heart.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is ECAM2016-3084126.007.jpg

Intestine. Longitudinal section of duodenum showing uniformly thin and elongated villi. Hematoxylin and Eosin.

4. Discussion

The present work presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis of the survival data indicates the possibility of a positive effect of alkaline ionized water on mouse lifespan and AFT model allowed evaluating differences starting from the second year of the survival curves. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline ionized water on long-lived mouse models. It should be pointed out that, from the standpoint of aging research, this statistical approach presents appealing properties and provides valuable tools for the analysis of survival. The observation of tissues of deceased animals was performed for the assessment of the state of internal organs to be compared with similar analyses of untreated animals. The renal lesions observed at histology were specific and common for the three animal groups. Chronic progressive nephropathy has been well described as normal aging change in mice []. In our cases animals did not show any clinical sign of nephropathy or any other histological evidence of specific kidney disease and we ascribed the lesions to the aging process [].

The examined livers were also affected by typical lesions of mature subjects, such as hyperplastic nodules. Furthermore, well known aging changes were individuated in the hepatocytes, such as karyomegaly, nuclear pleomorphism, and pseudoinclusions cysts [].

5. Conclusions

A 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice was carried out in order to investigate the biological effect of alkaline water consumption. Firstly, nonparametric hazard and survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline ionized water overwhelmed control mice. Secondly, data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model inferring that a benefit on longevity, in terms of “deceleration aging factor,” was correlated with the consumption of alkaline ionized water. Finally, histological examination of mice kidneys, intestines, hearts, livers, and brains was performed in order to verify the risk of diseases correlated to alkaline watering. No significant damage, but aging changes, emerged; organs of alkaline watered animals resulted to be quite superimposable to controls, shedding a further light in the debate on alkaline water consumption in humans.


This paper is dedicated to the memory of Tommaso Nicoletti. The authors are grateful to Rocco Palmisano for original ideas and support. The authors would like to thank Asiagem (Italy) for partial support and Ludovico Scenna, Carlo Zatti, and Silvano Voltan for their scientific and professional contribution.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there are no competing financial interests.

Published online 2016 May 31. doi: 10.1155/2016/3084126
PMCID: PMC4906185
PMID: 27340414
Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study


1. Watanabe T., Shirai W. Influence of alkaline ionized water on reproductive functions in the rat. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility1990;35:748–751.
2. Watanabe T. Effect of alkaline ionized water on reproduction in gestational and lactational rats. Journal of Toxicological Sciences1995;20(2):135–142. doi: 10.2131/jts.20.135. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Watanabe T., Kishikawa Y., Shirai W. Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium. Journal of Toxicological Sciences1997;22(2):141–152. doi: 10.2131/jts.22.2_141. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Jin D., Ryu S. H., Kim H. W., et al. Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry2006;70(1):31–37. doi: 10.1271/bbb.70.31. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Hanaoka K., Sun D., Lawrence R., Kamitani Y., Fernandes G. The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry2004;107(1):71–82. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2003.08.007. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Shirahata S., Kabayama S., Nakano M., et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications1997;234(1):269–274. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1997.6622. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Spugnini E. P., Buglioni S., Carocci F., et al. High dose lansoprazole combined with metronomic chemotherapy: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors. Journal of Translational Medicine2014;12:p. 225. doi: 10.1186/s12967-014-0225-y. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Collett D. Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research. 3rd. Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2014. (Texts in Statistical Science).
9. Swindell W. R. Accelerated failure time models provide a useful statistical framework for aging research. Experimental Gerontology2009;44(3):190–200. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2008.10.005.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Minitab. Minitab®, (version 17.2.1, 2013),
11. McInnes E. F. Background Lesions in Laboratory Animals. A Color Atlas. Saunders Elsevier; 2012.
12. Percy D. H., Barthold S. W. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 2nd. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State Press; 2001. [CrossRef]

Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited